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Connecting PBIS, Student Support Teams, and School Mental Health

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1 Connecting PBIS, Student Support Teams, and School Mental Health
Margaret Grady Kidder William Flook Joan Ledvina Parr Erika Wood Baltimore County Public Schools National Association of School Psychologists Chicago, Illinois March 2, 2010

2 Baltimore County Public Schools
Dr. Joe A. Hairston, Superintendent 26th largest school system in the nation Approximately 103,832 students 37.1% FARMS 52.2% Minority enrollment 03.2% English language learners 12.3% Students with disabilities 6-21 172 schools, centers, and programs 104 Elementary 27 Middle 24 High 4 Special education schools, 11 centers, 2 programs Over 17,000 employees including 8,850 classroom teachers October 2009

3 Department of Student Support Services
Dale R. Rauenzahn, Executive Director Patsy J. Holmes, Director Alternative Programs Athletics Health Services Psychological Services Pupil Personnel/School Social Work Services Safe & Drug-free Schools School Counseling

4 Department of Student Support Services
Mission Coordinates prevention and intervention programs and services: to support schools, students, and parents/guardians, by addressing the cognitive, behavioral, social, emotional, health, safety, and alternative educational needs of all students to maximize students’ potential achievement

5 Objectives Review the Response to Intervention (RtI) framework in progress Review ideas and issues related to culturally responsive schools Review the Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) program

6 Objectives Review PBIS implementation, discipline, and achievement data Review Student Support Teams (SST) Review web-based SST forms, Student Support Plans, and 504 Plans Review school mental health services through community partnerships and outcome data

7 Response to Intervention (RtI)
General education initiative that provides high quality teaching and learning experiences for all students, all grades, all classrooms Systematic, schoolwide, multi-tiered approach that provides prevention and early intervention activities to support student achievement and positive behavior Implements academic and behavioral instructional interventions and supports at increasing levels of intensity to address specific student needs Maryland State Department of Education, June, 2008

8 Response to Intervention (RtI)
Specially designed instruction and services More intensive, individualized behavior planning Intensive Intervention Response to Intervention Alternative instructional programs Individualized student interventions as specified in student support plans Early Intervention Supplemental instruction Targeted interventions for groups of students or settings Prevention Differentiated instruction based on frequent progress monitoring Effective classroom organization and behavior planning Consistent implementation of the core curriculum Schoolwide behavior planning

9 Maryland’s Response to Intervention (RtI) Framework
Academic Systems Behavioral Systems Intensive, Individually Designed Interventions Strategies to address needs of individual students with intensive needs Function-based assessments Intense, durable strategies Intensive, Individually Designed Interventions Address individual needs of student Assessment-based High Intensity 1-5% 1-5% Targeted, Group Interventions Small, needs-based groups for at risk students who do not respond to universal strategies High efficiency Rapid response 5-10% 5-10% Targeted, Group Interventions Small, needs-based groups for at-risk students who do not respond to universal strategies High efficiency/ Rapid response Function-based logic As you all know, we have adopted the public health framework for behavior and instructional supports in Maryland through PBIS and RtI. Additionally, MSDE has formally sanctioned this framework as our model for tiered instructional and behavioral interventions and supports. You all just helped us complete a School Mental Health resource survey, which will provide some initial data for us— Core Curriculum and Differentiated Instruction All students Preventive, proactive Schoolwide or classroom systems for ALL students 80-90% 80-90% Core Curriculum and Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive Schoolwide or classroom systems for ALL students and staff 9

10 Response to Intervention (RtI)
Essential Components Universal screening Problem-solving/decision-making practices Tiered levels of implementation of high quality instruction/intervention Progress monitoring Fidelity of implementation Family involvement Considerations for English Language Learners Maryland State Department of Education, June, 2008

11 Systematic Academic & Behavior Planning Intervention/Team Tiers
Tier 3 Intensive Interventions: SST/IEP Teams Small groups or individual students; alternative programs and special education instruction and/or services FEW ~5% SOME ~15% Tier 2 Targeted Interventions: Student Support Teams Groups of students or individual students at risk; screen and monitor; case management, student support plans, 504 plans Tier 1 Universal Interventions : PBIS Teams Grade Level Teacher Meetings All settings, all students; monitor and differentiate instruction; implement supplemental interventions ALL ~80% of Students

12 Changes in Our Approach to Problem Solving
The problem solving process is not about proving what’s wrong with the student. It’s about finding out how to teach the student so he or she can learn. It’s discovering who that child is …as a LEARNER. 40 12

13 The Need for Developing Culturally Responsive Systems
The “Whole” Student Peer Influences Curriculum Learner Home/ Community Classroom Environment

14 Culturally Responsive Schools
The three-tiered, response to intervention (RtI) model is a systems approach to educate all students while being responsive to current social, cultural, and educational challenges A culturally responsive disciplined school is one that acknowledges the presence of culturally linguistically diverse (CLD) students and demonstrates evidence of caring, fairness, behavioral management, affirmations, social skills instruction, and commitment Cartledge et al., 2009

15 Culturally Responsive Schools
A culturally responsive school enables a staff to demonstrate cultural competence Being culturally competent means possessing the ability to function effectively within cultural contexts that is different from your own Various cultural, language, heritage, and experiences are valued and used to facilitate learning and development To have practice that is culturally competent, requires knowledge, skills, experience, and the ability to engage in practices that result in improved outcomes and services for all students Ritter & Skiba, 2006

16 Culturally Responsive Schools
Questions to think about Do the students in my school come from diverse cultural backgrounds? What are my perceptions of students from different racial, ethnic, social-economic groups? What are my colleagues’ perceptions? How do I respond to my students based on these perceptions? Do I respond differently because of these perceptions? How well does my school incorporate the culturally linguistically diverse student’s family and community?

17 Culturally Responsive Schools
An example: An elementary school in year 3 of PBIS implementation experiencing issues of school climate despite buy in and great response to PBIS Discipline referrals decreased Students more engaged in learning—spending more time in the classroom vs. office Student perception survey (3rd , 4th and 5th graders) Despite students feeling that teachers care about them and like them, why don’t our students feel valued and wanted within their classrooms?

18 Tier 1: Universal Interventions Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports PBIS
SOME FEW ALL

19 Maryland PBIS Partnership & Collaboration

20 PBIS in Baltimore County
BCPS Blueprint for Progress Performance Goal 4: All students will be educated in school environments that are safe and conducive to learning All 172 schools, centers, and programs are expected to have a Code of Conduct and address behavioral issues through the school improvement planning process

21 PBIS in Baltimore County
Coordinated by Department of Student Support Services Selected schools are invited to participate in PBIS training Schools selected by suspension rates/behavior issues Schools self-select based on their school improvement planning 72 schools and centers implement PBIS 45 elementary, 16 middle, 8 high, 2 special, 1 center/program 60 PBIS coaches: school psychologists, pupil personnel workers, school social workers

22 Basic Concepts of PBIS New School Teams are trained at the
PBIS Summer Institute sponsored by Maryland State Department of Education, Sheppard Pratt Health System, and the Johns Hopkins University The following training materials are adapted from the PBIS model as developed by Dr. George Sugai, University of Connecticut, and Dr. Rob Horner, University of Oregon See US Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports at See

23 Key Elements of PBIS Schoolwide behavior planning is based on a balance of four key elements: Clearly specified OUTCOMES that are related to behavior and student achievement SYSTEMS that support staff buy-in and sustained use of effective practices DATA gathered by the school to make decisions about improving behavior and learning Evidence-based PRACTICES and interventions that are effective for staff and students

24 Process for Supporting Social Competence and
Academic Achievement OUTCOMES Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Decision Making School-wide Classroom Non-classroom Individual SYSTEMS DATA Office Discipline Referrals Staff Input Academic Progress Attendance PRACTICES Define behavior expectations Specify routines Teach Acknowledge Correct Follow up and feedback Reinforcement Generalization Supporting Student Behavior

25 PBIS Schoolwide Interventions
Establish commitment and maintain team Establish schoolwide expectations Establish an on-going system of rewards Establish a system for responding to behavioral violations Establish a data system to monitor progress and aid in decision making Arrange for consistent implementation and utilize district level support

26 1. Establish commitment and maintain team
Establish PBIS Leadership Team Strong, administrative support Schoolwide representation on PBIS Team Secure schoolwide agreements and supports Strive for “full” (>80%) faculty participation Prioritize resources (time, materials, cost) Plan on a 3 – 5 year commitment Establish a data-based action plan (see packet) Review and connect with the School Improvement Plan Use the PBIS Staff Survey results Use behavior data, office referrals, suspensions

27 2. Establish schoolwide expectations
Develop rules of behavior 3 to 5 positively stated rules Easy to remember Apply to all students, settings, and staff Develop a matrix of expected behavior in target contexts Contexts include: classrooms, hallways, gym, cafeteria, common areas, bus loading zone, etc. Teach the expected behaviors using an instructional approach Directly teach (tell/explain, model/show, practice, give reminders and pre-corrections) Actively supervise Positively reinforce

28 Develop Rules of Behavior
The 5 Be’s Be kind Be safe Be cooperative Be respectful Be peaceful Code of Conduct I am respectful I am responsible I am safe I am prepared Respect + Responsibility = Pride Show respect Show responsibility High 5’s Be respectful Be responsible Be there, be ready Follow directions Hands/feet to self The Respect School Respect others Respect property Respect yourself Formula 4 Success Respect Responsibility Ready-to-learn Re-thinking

29 Develop Rules of Behavior
RAMS Rules R esponsibility and Respect A cademic Achievement M otivation S uccess Tenets of Kenwood Pride B e there and prepared L ive responsibly U phold integrity E arn and give respect Viking Code of Conduct Be respectful Be responsible Be ready Eagle PRIDE P reparation R esponsibility I ntegrity D iligence E arn Respect

30 Matrix of Expected Behavior

31 3. Establish an on-going system of rewards
Acknowledge expected behavior Use tangible rewards and acknowledgements High Five’s, coupons, “gotchas” Use social recognition Assemblies, bulletin boards, names over the intercom Use guidelines Fade tangibles Schedule strategically Maintain 5:1 positive to correction ratio

32 Discipline Works When ….
Prevention creates more positive than negative consequences Reinforcement (success) Correction 5 : 1

33

34

35

36 4. Establish a system for responding to behavioral violations
Develop an agreement about which behaviors are handled in the classroom and which are managed in the office Use verbal redirection, teacher consequence, and/or office referral Use pre-correction and restatement of expected behaviors

37

38 Decision Flowchart

39 5. Establish a data system to monitor progress and aid in decision making
Utilize a data management system, e.g., STARS discipline module Develop procedures for ongoing monitoring and evaluation Meet regularly to review data and implement interventions

40 6. Arrange for consistent implementation and utilize district level support
Develop/implement targeted interventions for groups of students or particular problem areas, e.g., hallways Connect PBIS Team with School Improvement Team and Student Support Team (SST) Utilize Student Support Team (SST) to develop and implement targeted group interventions, academic and behavioral interventions through Student Support Plans, and function-based support through FBA/BIPs Utilize district level support and other resources

41 How BCPS Supports PBIS Schools
Levels of PBIS support include: School-based team Strong, administrative leadership is encouraged Schoolwide representation on PBIS team PBIS coach assigned to school team Provides expertise on the PBIS process, behavior analysis, and data interpretation MSDE/BCPS PBIS leadership Provides consultation, training, and support

42 PBIS Training by MSDE & BCPS
MSDE leadership forum for administrators MSDE summer institute for new PBIS schools MSDE leadership and coaches meetings during school year BCPS summer training for returning PBIS schools BCPS PBIS team leaders/coaches meetings during school year BCPS consultation by PBIS facilitator, coordinator, and coaches throughout year

43 Baltimore County Schools Trained in PBIS
(1) (1) (4) (11) (9) (6) (16) (15) (9) (3) (4) Data Aug 2008 – June 2009

44 Mean SET Scores for PBIS Schools by Level of Recognition MSDE Awards as of July 2009
Data Aug 2008 – June 2009

45 Percentage of PBIS Schools per Implementation Phase
Data Aug 2008 – June 2009

46 Implementation Phases Inventory Percentage of Critical Features in Place by Elementary, Middle, & High Data Aug 2008 – June 2009

47 Mean Number of Suspensions and Expulsions by Elementary, Middle, & High SY0607 vs. SY0708 vs. SY0809
Data Aug 2008 – June 2009

48 PBIS Elementary Schools Mean Number of Suspensions and Expulsions by Level of Recognition School Year Data Aug 2008 – June 2009

49 PBIS Middle Schools Mean Number of Suspensions and Expulsions by Level of Recognition School Year Data Aug 2008 – June 2009

50 PBIS High Schools Mean Number of Suspensions and Expulsions by Level of Recognition School Year Data Aug 2008 – June 2009

51 Additional Suspension Data
MSDE Disproportionality Grant to reduce the number of African American students with disabilities being suspended for non-violent behaviors The number of African American students with disabilities being suspended for non-violent behaviors was compared in 69 schools implementing PBIS as of SY 21% of African American students with disabilities were suspended for non-violent behaviors in both SY and SY

52 Percentage of African-American Students with Disabilities Suspended for Non-violent Behaviors

53 Additional Suspension Data
From SY0708 to SY0809: 28 of the 69 PBIS schools had a 2% or greater decrease (41%) 18 of the 69 PBIS schools had a 1% decrease or no change (26%) 23 of the 69 PBIS schools had a 1% or greater increase (33%)

54 Change in Percentage of African-American Students with Disabilities Suspended for Non-violent Behaviors *Note: Of those schools showing an increase, 9 of the schools (39%) had only 1 additional AA student suspended in SY0809 and 3 of the schools (13%) had the same number of AA students suspended but their minority enrollment had changed.

55 Additional Suspension Data
The number of African American students being suspended for all behaviors was compared in 58 schools implementing PBIS as of SY 17 out of 35 elementary schools, 9 out of 16 middle schools, and 2 out of 6 high schools showed decreases in the number of African American students who were suspended from SY to SY

56 Decrease in African-American Students who Were Suspended SY0607 vs
Decrease in African-American Students who Were Suspended SY0607 vs. SY0809 (49%) (56%) (33%)

57 PBIS Supports Academic Achievement: PBIS Schools & Results of the Maryland School Assessments (MSA)
Elementary School Middle School High School

58 57.8 % Increase in Third Grade Reading Scores
Mean % of Third Grade Students Scoring Proficient or Advanced on Reading MSAs 57.8 % Increase in Third Grade Reading Scores Data Aug 2008 – June 2009

59 53.0% Increase in Third Grade Math Scores
Mean % of Third Grade Students Scoring Proficient or Advanced on Math MSAs 53.0% Increase in Third Grade Math Scores Data Aug 2008 – June 2009

60 42.4 % Increase in Fifth Grade Reading Scores
Mean % of Fifth Grade Students Scoring Proficient or Advanced on Reading MSAs 42.4 % Increase in Fifth Grade Reading Scores Data Aug 2008 – June 2009

61 61.5 % Increase in Fifth Grade Math Scores
Mean % of Fifth Grade Students Scoring Proficient or Advanced on Math MSAs 61.5 % Increase in Fifth Grade Math Scores Data Aug 2008 – June 2009

62 63.3 % Increase in 8th Grade Reading Scores
Mean % of Eighth Grade Students Scoring Proficient or Advanced on Reading MSAs 63.3 % Increase in 8th Grade Reading Scores Data Aug 2008 – June 2009

63 116.6 % Increase in 8th Grade Math Scores
Mean % of Eighth Grade Students Scoring Proficient or Advanced on Math MSAs 116.6 % Increase in 8th Grade Math Scores Data Aug 2008 – June 2009

64 Summary of MSA Results from 2003-2009 for PBIS Elementary and Middle Schools
Reading Math 3rd Grade 58 % Increase (38% for all BCPS Schools) (36% for non-PBIS Schools) 53 % Increase (30% for all BCPS Schools) (27% for non-PBIS Schools) 5th Grade 42 % Increase (28% for non-PBIS Schools) 61 % Increase (54% for all BCPS Schools) (54% for non-PBIS Schools) 8th Grade 63 % Increase (40% for all BCPS Schools) (37% for non-PBIS Schools) 117 % Increase (70% for all BCPS Schools) (69% for all non-PBIS Schools) Data Aug 2008 – June 2009

65 Percent Change in MSA Scores from 2003-2009 for PBIS Schools vs
Percent Change in MSA Scores from for PBIS Schools vs. all BCPS Schools vs. non-PBIS Schools Data Aug 2008 – June 2009

66 11 % Increase in High School Algebra Scores
Mean % of High School Students Scoring Proficient or Advanced on Algebra MSAs 11 % Increase in High School Algebra Scores Data Aug 2008 – June 2009

67 11.6 % Increase in High School Biology Scores
Mean % of High School Students Scoring Proficient or Advanced on Biology MSAs 11.6 % Increase in High School Biology Scores Data Aug 2008 – June 2009

68 14.3 % Increase in High School English 2 Scores
Mean % of High School Students Scoring Proficient or Advanced on English 2 MSAs 14.3 % Increase in High School English 2 Scores Data Aug 2008 – June 2009

69 Summary of MSA Results from 2008-2009 for PBIS High Schools
Algebra Biology English 2 11% Increase (3.03% for all BCPS Schools) (.011% for non-PBIS Schools) 11.6 % Increase (3.48% for all BCPS Schools) (.46% for non-PBIS Schools) 14.3 % Increase (4.75% for all BCPS Schools) (1.22% for non-PBIS Schools) Data Aug 2008 – June 2009

70 Percent Change in MSA Scores from 2008-2009 for PBIS Schools vs
Percent Change in MSA Scores from for PBIS Schools vs. all BCPS Schools vs. non-PBIS Schools Data Aug 2008 – June 2009

71 Tier 1: In Addition to Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Supports, Tier 1 also includes Grade Level Teacher Meetings SOME FEW ALL

72 Student Support Team Model
Tier 3: Intensive Interventions small groups/individual students; alternative programs & special education instruction/services SOME (5-15%) FEW (1-5%) ALL (80-90%) IEP & SST Initial and progress review meetings SST Tier 2: Targeted Interventions groups of students/individual students at risk; screen and monitor; case management, student support plans, 504 plans SST Screening Tier 1: Universal Interventions all settings, all students; monitor and differentiate; core supplemental, replacement Grade Level / Teacher Meetings

73 Tier 1: Teacher/Grade Level Interdisciplinary/Departmental
Monitor and track all student progress Analyze academic and behavioral group data: classroom assessments, short cycle assessments, benchmarks, office referrals, discipline data Determine whether core curriculum and differentiation strategies are being implemented as recommended Collaborate with parent/guardians to obtain family perspective

74 Tier 1: Teacher/Grade Level Interdisciplinary/Departmental
Identify supports for teachers to differentiate instruction and implement group/supplemental interventions Implement and monitor interventions (30 days – 6 months) Connect with other schoolwide teams to help implement and monitor group and individual students Document student responses to interventions Revise interventions on the basis of student performance Recommend students with COMPLEX academic and behavioral needs to Student Support Team (SST)

75 Tier 1: Teacher/Grade Level Interdisciplinary/Departmental
Tips! Teachers should come prepared to discuss student concerns at grade level meetings Involve a member(s) of the support staff if possible Clarify problems with the grade level team by asking questions Determine what you want the student to be able to do Match the intervention to student’s instructional level, interest, and function Be sure to ask: Is it skill deficit (can’t do) or performance deficit (won’t do)? What are the student’s strengths and interests? Is the student trying to obtain or avoid something? Determine manageable ways for documenting a student’s response to interventions (This is needed for a referral to SST!)

76 Tier 2: Targeted Interventions Student Support Team (SST)
SOME FEW ALL

77 Tier 2: Student Support Team (SST)
Coordinated interdisciplinary effort provides structure and organization beyond grade level/teacher meetings and prior to IEP Team provides a continuum of academic and behavioral supports for students in conjunction with other school initiatives helps create school environments that are positive, proactive, predictable, & effective

78 Tier 2: Student Support Team (SST)
Addresses complex academic and behavioral problems of individual students, groups of students, and schoolwide concerns Implements prevention and early intervention activities to: increase student achievement improve schoolwide climate reduce disruptive behavior reduce inappropriate referrals to the IEP Team increase parent/guardian involvement

79 Tier 2: Student Support Team (SST)
Functions of SST Screening/processing referrals Case management Physical/health issues Substance abuse issues Social-emotional/mental health issues Academic & behavioral interventions through Student Support Plans 504 Plans FBA/BIPs Targeted group or setting interventions (ADHD, cafeteria) Referral to IEP Team

80 BALTIMORE COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS
Student Support Team Model School Improvement Plan 1. Referrals from Teacher Meetings/Teams 2. Schoolwide Academic and Behavioral Concerns Special Education Direct Request 3. Student Support Team (SST) SERVICES SERVICES 8. Individualized Education Program Team (IEP Team) 4. Individual Case Management 7. Large Group/Schoolwide Initiatives 5. Academic Behavioral Interventions Student Support Plans 6. Substance Abuse Interventions/ Resources

81 Tier 2: Student Support Team (SST)
SST Members (as Required/Needed) SST Chairperson: Administrator/designee School Counselor School Nurse School Psychologist School Social Worker Pupil Personnel Worker (PPW) Classroom Teacher

82 Tier 2: Student Support Team (SST)
Additional SST Members Resource Teacher, Reading Specialist, Reading Coach, Instructional Coach, Mentor Special Education Teacher, SLP, OT, PT, Transition Counselor Supervisor Parents/Guardians (FBA/BIP, 504)

83 Tier 2: Student Support Team (SST)
Referrals to SST Individual students can be referred by parents/guardians, administrators, school staff members Students have complex issues that have not been resolved by teacher level teams or individual staff members Referrals can include physical/health and social/emotional issues Students are referred to SST for substance abuse issues to access community resources

84 Tier 2: Student Support Team (SST)
Referrals to SST Issues affecting groups of students (ADHD) or large numbers of students in settings (bullying in hallways) can be reviewed by SST as schoolwide issues Group or schoolwide issues can be determined by review of SST referrals, School Improvement Plan, or other school planning efforts (PBIS)

85 Before a referral to SST is made, the referring teacher should…
Review the student’s cumulative file Discuss student concerns at grade level meetings Consult with a member of the student support staff Contact the parent/guardian to share concern Implement interventions developed at grade level meetings consistently for at least 30 days Document student progress with the interventions

86 Tier 2: Student Support Team (SST)
Student Support Team Agenda Processing/Screening Referrals (5-10 minutes) Initial Problem Solving Meetings (30-45 minutes per student) Progress Review Meetings (15-30 minutes per student) Schoolwide Issues (as needed for large group or setting issues)

87 Initial SST Meeting Prior to an initial SST meeting:
Parent/guardian notification is sent Teacher Input forms are completed and submitted to the SST Chair Data collection continues (i.e. formative and summative assessments, student work samples, informal assessments/screenings, anecdotal records, monitoring sheets, behavior charts, etc.)

88 Initial SST Meeting During the initial meeting:
Review concerns and prioritize Set up to two goals Identify and document interventions Determine how the interventions will be implemented and monitored Set a progress review date

89 Progress Review Meeting
Examine collected data Determine and document student progress towards goal(s) Determine outcome of SST meeting Continue student support plan Develop 504 plan Request SST assessments (see Parent/Guardian Permission for SST Assessment Form) Refer to IEP Team Other follow-up

90 Student Support Team (SST)
Tips! Conduct a careful screening of SST referrals and determine the most effective way to meet the needs of students and staff Make connections with other schoolwide teams for assistance in implementing and monitoring interventions Decide on interventions and data collection methods that can be easily embedded within the teacher’s routine Determine who will “check in” with the teacher during the implementation period

91 Types of Student Plans: Student Support Plans, 504 Plans, FBA/BIPs
IEPs and/or Behavior Intervention Plans 504 Plans SOME FEW ALL Student Support Plans Individual/Group Classroom Interventions Schoolwide Behavior Planning

92 Student Support Plan (SSP)
A student support plan is a systematic, data-based student intervention plan that addresses complex academic and/or behavioral needs The plan includes: Specific, measurable goals Interventions to meet goals Data points that will be used to measure progress Data collection methods to monitor the student’s response to the intervention(s) over time

93 Student Support Plan (SSP)
When should a Student Support Plan be considered? A student has not responded to classroom interventions created by the teacher, in consultation with other staff, or at grade level meetings We want to measure the student’s progress and rate of learning over time, as well as the effectiveness of the intervention

94 Student Support Plan Development
Correct problem identification is key in developing effective Student Support Plans Goals should be realistic and based on documented needs that describe the specific change expected as the result of the proposed intervention Interventions should be targeted instruction that is based on student needs Interventions supplement what is already being done in the general education classroom Interventions are a systematic compilation of well researched or evidence-based specific instructional strategies and techniques

95 Student Support Plan Development
Effective interventions are: capable of being easily taught/trained implemented using general classroom resources capable of being evaluated by reliable, valid, and practical methods

96 Student Support Plan Development
Intervention Key Components: Explicit Step-by-step format Able to be replicated from one classroom or from one school to the next consistently Includes progress monitoring of the student’s response to intervention Includes measurement of fidelity of the intervention

97 Self-Monitoring INTERVENTION: Example
For targeted students who struggle with task orientation or inability to complete work on time; to increase on-task behaviors Focus Self-Monitoring (Ongoing on-task checklist and intermittent prompts with feedback) Intervention Individual, small group, or whole class Grouping During independent work (short periods of time mins.) Time Progress monitoring- tallying of “yes” vs. “no” for on-task behaviors; compare daily percentages to baseline; create graph Assessment Teachers with Coaching/follow-up support by IST (it could also be other Student Support Staff...) Provider Independent seatwork (should not be used during introduction of new learning or task; most effective during independent practice) Setting Direct observation by IST or other student support staff using checklist every two weeks Fidelity

98 Student Support Plan Development
Effectiveness of the intervention is based in part on the training provided to: Teachers – Provide training for both implementation and methods of monitoring progress Students – Provide training and feedback for participating in the intervention and self-monitoring (if applicable) Parents/guardians – Provide examples of the intervention materials, troubleshoot any questions, follow-up during the implementation period, etc. Teach - Model - Practice - Reinforce

99 Student Support Plan Development
Remember that the classroom teacher is a critical resource in assisting students in closing gaps in achievement and behavior If the teacher is not fully committed to the plan, or does not perceive that he/she has the time, skills, and so on, the plan will not work…therefore, it is recommended to assign a team member to “check in” during the implementation period to: Assist with developing any materials Encourage the teacher to continue the plan even when things go array Troubleshoot any problems Provide ongoing feedback about the intervention and student progress

100 504 Plan A 504 Plan is developed for a student who has a documented physical and/or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities Guarantees access to the general education program Provides classroom and testing accommodations, modified instructional materials, physical facility accommodations, and necessary related services

101 504 Plan When should a 504 Plan be considered?
A student’s documented disability is substantially limiting their classroom performance A student requires specific accommodations on a consistent basis in order to be successful A student does not qualify for specially designed instruction under IDEA but is eligible for and needs accommodations

102 504 Plan Development Following 504 eligibility determination, the SSTdevelops a 504 Plan 504 Plan is reviewed at least once a year during a grade level meeting or SST meeting The teacher or staff member working most closely with the student is assigned as the case manager Teachers/staff document or keep record of the implementation of and student response to the 504 Plan (i.e., notations in STARS, lesson planner, grade book, seating chart, log, work samples, checklists, etc.) Note: Method of monitoring implementation of 504 Plan must be determined during the development of the plan (see 504 Plan)

103 504 Accommodations Accommodations are intended to reduce or even eliminate the effects of a student’s disability; not reduce learning expectations Instructional Lesson Behavioral Organizational Environmental Testing Instructional Materials to Be Provided Physical Facilities Related Services as Necessary

104 When Determining Appropriate Accommodations Consider….
Does the student require more time for homework and in-school assignments? Are modified assignments necessary? Subject matter, types of assignments, testing, etc.? Are there instructional and social behaviors that need to be addressed? Does the student have substantial difficultly organizing, planning, and completing assignments? Is the student chronically absent? For what reason? Is there a steady increase in disciplinary incidents? Does the student require specialized heath-related interventions? If so, what intervention and at what frequency?

105 Materials to Be Provided
Match student’s current level of performance with instructional materials, for example: Provide vocabulary study guide Allow the student to have a second copy of text books at home Provide access to a computer or other device for extended written language assignments Reinforce the use of compensatory strategies, i.e. pencil grip, “spell check”, calculators Model and reinforce the use of graphic organizers

106 Tier 3: SST or IEP SST may continue to monitor a student with academic and/or behavioral needs at Tier 3; however the interventions may be intensified and monitored more frequently A student is referred to IEP when the student has not responded adequately to Tier 1 or Tier 2 interventions, is suspected of a disability as defined by IDEA, including adverse educational impact, and is in need of specially designed instruction/services Students are referred to IEP Team when parent/guardian orally or in writing suspects a disability as defined by IDEA , including adverse educational impact, and need for specially designed instruction/services

107 General School Population
IDEA

108 Tier 3: Intensive Interventions SST/IEP & Community Partnerships
SOME FEW ALL

109 Community Partnerships in BCPS
Total of 66 schools (out of 172) 42 ES 17 MS 6 HS 1 Alternative High levels of need and risk Free/reduced price meal eligibility Mobility Family vulnerability and stressors Lack of access to community-based supports

110 Community Partnerships in BCPS
Formal agreement between school principal and agency that provides mental health services in the community Centralized application process Provider information, credentials reviewed by Department of Student Support Services 9 provider agencies plus DSS Funding through Medicaid billing primarily

111 Community Partnerships in BCPS
Services individual/group counseling family counseling medication management psychiatric and other community agency referral related mental health services crisis intervention Therapist in school a few days per week Not to supplant IEP-based related services “Fee for service” model can be a barrier to therapist linking to SST

112 Partnership Project DSS serves four elementary schools
DSS social workers are in schools from one to five days per week based on need; more available to attend or coordinate with SST Linked to Wellness Centers in each school

113 Traditional Community Mental Health Model

114 Expanded School Mental Health Partnership Model

115 Things We Always Knew But Did Not Act On…..
Students with intensive needs usually have intensive needs in the community too Forging connections with families decreases isolation and provides hope for change Intensive needs are best addressed by connected and integrated services

116 Unique Elements of SMH Model
New Model for Mental Health – School at the Center Role of DSS Interagency School Mental Health Committee School System County Agencies: DSS, BBH, LMB Community Provider Agencies MSDE Parents Child & Adolescent Mental Health Fair Flow Chart

117 Community Provider: The Villa Maria Continuum
Mission focused Catholic Charities agency Big focus on Family/Provider Partnership Continuum of Community Based Services - Behavioral Health Clinics - School Based Therapy - In Home Intervention, Respite, PRP - Early Childhood Intervention

118 Outcomes Community Provider Data DSS Data Numbers served
Client satisfaction Teacher ratings Discipline Data

119 Community Provider Data: Bay Life
(average per school per year) 43 students served 519 individual counseling sessions 64 group counseling sessions 33 family counseling sessions Client satisfaction reported as “very positive”

120 Community Provider Data: Villa Maria
(average per school per year) 42 students served 514 individual counseling sessions 76 medication management sessions 120 family counseling sessions

121 Community Provider Data: Villa Maria
CLIENT SATISFACTION Parents responded to 15-item satisfaction survey regarding helpfulness and sensitivity of provider, clarity of communications, and value of services Highly positive ratings – mean scores 4.7 on a 5-point scale School Year

122 DSS Data (average per school per year)
130 referrals 195 students served (includes siblings) 88 adults served 251 individual counseling sessions 53 group counseling sessions 231 family counseling sessions

123 DSS Data CLIENT SATISFACTION
Positive ratings from students, parents, and teachers; good survey return rate from parents and teachers Highly positive ratings from administrators and student support staff; very high survey return rate School Year

124 Outcome Data 2002-03 School Year
Partnership project is designed to reduce disruptive behavior and enhance learning climate and school safety, to improve student achievement Reduced office referrals and suspensions – mixed results; need better connection with student data systems Improved classroom performance – generally positive; examine pre-post teacher ratings

125 Teacher end-of-year Ratings
Outcome Data Teacher end-of-year Ratings School Year

126 Next Steps Upgrade procedures for establishing community partnership relationships Improve accountability for all schools with community partnerships Solidify the role of the SST Examine additional outcome data: Behavior/Discipline (access data systems) Attendance Academic performance

127 For additional information please contact: Office of Psychological Services Baltimore County Public Schools Margaret Grady Kidder William Flook Joan Ledvina Parr Erika Wood


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