Presentation on theme: "Reading Rockets: Toolkit for School Psychologists"— Presentation transcript:
1 Reading Rockets: Toolkit for School Psychologists Acknowledgments:The PowerPoint slides were developed by Barbara Bole Williams, PhD, Rowan University unless otherwise noted on specific slides.Slides number 8-12, 21-22, 32, 39-41, 56-57, and are from the work of Joseph Torgesen, Director, Florida Center for Reading Research
2 New Jersey Association of School Psychologists (NJASP) Presenters:Barbara Bole Williams, PhD Rowan UniversityTerry Molony, EdS Cherry Hill Public SchoolsJohn Lestino, MA Edgewater Park Public SchoolsSponsored by NJASP’s Professional Development CommitteeAugust 16, 2005Marlberg School, Cherry Hill9:00 – 2:00
3 Agenda Introduction Five Big Ideas of Reading Lunch Meet the Experts Q & A
4 Why is this all so important? Effective early reading instruction can prevent reading difficulties later37 % of nation’s 4th graders are performing below “basic” leveli.e., they cannot read well enough to understand a simple storyMore than two-thirds of high school students receiving special ed instruction are three or more grade levels behind in reading20 % are behind by five or more grade levelsReading problems are much more difficult to remediate in later grades
5 At-risk first grade readers Poor readers at the end of first grade are at very significant risk for long term academic difficulty.“The probability of remaining a poor reader at the end of fourth grade, given a child was a poor reader at the end of first grade, was the probability of remaining an average reader in fourth grade, given an average reading ability in first grade, was .87.” (Juel, 1988)Poor readers at the end of first grade are likely to require intensive instructional support to reach third grade reading outcomes.
6 Reading Trajectories are Remarkably Stable Students on a poor reading trajectory are at risk for poor academic and behavioral outcomes in school and beyond.(Good, Simmons, & Smith, 1998)
7 Trajectories of Middle and Low Readers Good, R. H., Simmons, D. C., & Smith, S. B. (1998). Effective academic interventions in the United States: Evaluating and enhancing the acquisition of early reading skills. School Psychology Review, 27,
8 Percent of Students Performing Below Basic Level - 37% Right now, we are leaving too many children behind in reading. A large share of those children come from poor and minority homesPercent of Students Performing Below Basic Level - 37%27WhiteBlack63Hispanic58Poor60Non-poor26
9 “Current difficulties in reading largely originate from rising demands for literacy, not from declining absolute levels of literacy”Report of the National Research Council
10 Rising needs for high levels of literacy in our society demand that schools break the mold of past performance--we clearly must do better than has ever been done before.
11 Congress recently passed the No Child Left Behind Act Congress recently passed the No Child Left Behind Act. Part of that law authorized spending approximately 5 billion dollars over the next six years to improve reading instruction in grades k-3. This is called the Reading First Initiative.The goal: Every child in America reading at grade level by the end of grade three within 12 years.
12 Why do we have Reading First? 1. Far too many poor and minority children are being “left behind” when it comes to growth of proficient reading skills2. Prevention of reading problems is far more effective and humane than trying to remediate after children failThis is another reason for RF
13 Reading Research We know that: Phonological awareness and letter identification skills are the best predictors of a child’s success in learning to read (Adams, 1990).Phonological awareness needs to be taught (Lunberg, Frost & Peterson, 1988)
14 Reading Research We also know Children who receive explicit instruction in phonological awareness become better readers (Wagner et al., 1997)A small percentage of students do not appear to benefit from quality whole-class instruction in phonological awareness (Toregsen, 1998)
15 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Requires effective scientifically-based reading instructionReading Rockets is a toolkit of empirically-based reading instructionBased on essential elements of reading instruction identified by National Reading Panel
16 NRP’ Five Big Ideas in Reading Each idea is essential but not sufficient alone to achieve reading masteryPhonemic awarenessAlphabetic principleFluencyVocabularyComprehension
17 Reading Rockets Uses the 5 Big Ideas Roots of LiteracySounds and SymbolsFluent ReadingWriting and SpellingReading for Meaning
18 Foundations of Literacy The Roots of ReadingFoundations of LiteracyOral language competencyPrint awarenessPhonological awarenessPhonemic awarenessReading Rockets offers concrete suggestions for childcare providers, teachers of young children, and parents
19 Print Awareness The Roots of Reading Basic print concepts Print conveys meaningExposure to print, letters, and booksMany preschoolers acquire familiaritywith letters
20 Phonological Awareness The Roots of ReadingPhonological AwarenessAbility to hear, identify and manipulate larger parts of spoken language, e.g., words and syllablesParental involvement is criticalBeing read toDiscussing word meaningsPlaying rhyming and other word games
21 Some phonological humor…. Deficits in in phonemic awareness create problems for many children, but they can also be devastating for dogs
22 “Ha, ha, Biff. Guess What? After we go to the drugstore and the post office, I’m going to the vet’s to get tutored.”
23 List of Typical Preschool Achievements The Roots of ReadingList of Typical Preschool AchievementsAge-appropriate oral language competenceAn interest in booksKnowledge of at least some letter namesRudimentary phonological awareness, e.g., being able to rhyme words in songs and poemsAwareness of printPretend reading, e.g., “reads” from memoryPretend writing, e.g., “writes” a message using scribbles or drawings on a page.
24 Suggestions for preschoolers The Roots of ReadingSuggestions for preschoolersSet aside time for readingEmphasize the enjoyment of readingRead expressively and with humorKnow when to put a book downRepeated readings help to promote children’s languageDraw attention to letters and printSing songs, read rhyming books and say silly tongue twistersPlay with puppetsExposure to new experiencesIf concerns exist, seek prompt, thorough evaluation
25 Dialogic ReadingDialogic reading is a shared-reading intervention designed to promote the development of oral language skills.Dialogic reading involves several changes in the way adults typically read books to children.Central to these changes is a shift in roles. During typical shared-reading, the adult reads and the child listens...
26 Dialogic reading techniques guide the parent or teacher to engage in “dialogue” about the pictures and stories in books.Dialogic reading is based on the idea that “How we read to children is as important as how frequently we read to them.”
27 Dialogic Reading - Level 1 Requires books with lots of colorful, interesting picturesAsk questions about objects pictured in the bookavoid “yes”-”no” questions, or pointing questionsFollow a child’s answer with another questionHelp when neededRepeat what the child saysPraise and encourage the childFollow the child’s interestHave Fun!
28 Dialogic Reading - Level 2 Ask open-ended questions“Tell me what’s going on here”Ask the child to say moreExpand what the child saysChild says: “Duck swimming” You say, “Right, the duck is swimming”Have Fun!
29 Sounds and SymbolsFocuses on two important skills early readers need to decode the printed word:Phonemic awarenessPhonicsWord decoding – the ability to figure out unfamiliar words using knowledge about letter-sound relationships and the alphabetic codePerhaps the most critical achievement of early readingCan you read this word: streak
30 Sounds and Symbols Phonemic awareness Knowledge of letter sounds 3 kinds of knowledge needed for developing word-decoding skills:Phonemic awarenessKnowledge of letter soundsAlphabetic principleType of phonological awarenessSensitivity to individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken wordscat /c/, /a/, /t/shape /sh/, /a/, /p/Because sounds in spoken words are co-articulated (overlap in unbroken stream of speech), phonemic awareness is not a natural or spontaneous achievement for beginning readers.NEEDS TO BE TAUGHT
31 Sounds and Symbols Knowledge of letter sounds Alphabetic principle Letters and letter patterns (sh, ch, and ph)Alphabetic principleKnowledge that written language is a codeLetters represent sounds in spoken wordsExplicit, systematic instruction is essential for developing phonemic awareness and word decoding skillsDirect, clear instruction with opportunities for practicePlanned logical sequence of instructionOngoing assessment to detect difficulties so can be addressed promptly
32 Fundamental discoveries about how children learn to read 1. Children who enter first grade weak in phonemic awareness have difficulties learning to “crack the code” of written language2. Children who do not acquire good phonemic decoding skills (phonics) in first grade tend to rely too much on guessing; they remain inaccurate in their reading and do not read independently.“From all these different perspectives, two inescapable conclusions emerge. The first is that mastering the alphabetic principle is essential to becoming proficient in the skill of reading….” (Rayner, et al., 2001)“The beginning reader must learn that the writing system encodes his or her spoken language in a systematic way”
33 Sounds and SymbolsSuggestions for fostering development of phonemic awareness and word decoding skillsParentsPlay word gamesHelp your child with reading homeworkHave your child read aloudWhen child makes a mistake reading a word, focus his/her attention on all the letters in the wordSelect appropriate booksChild should be able to read at least 90% of words correctly without assistance
34 Sounds and Symbols Suggestions for teachers: Teach phonemic awareness skillsBegin instruction with “continuous sound” consonants“m,” “s,” and “f”, rather than “stop” consonants such as “b,” “d,“ and “t”; the former are easier for children to blend.Encourage children to watch your lips and mouthUse hands on materials, e.g., Unifix letter cubes or blocksUse multisensory activities in teaching letter soundsTeach word decoding and spelling systematically and explicitlyTry word-building activitiesGive children opportunities to apply their decoding skillsAllow sufficient “wait time” for children to decode wordsProvide nonverbal cues (pointing) and verbal cues (questions).After child successfully decoded work, have him/her re-read sentence to establish comprehension and fluency
35 Fluent Reading Ability to read text accurately and quickly Depends upon the accurate, automatic decoding of individual wordsAbility to understand meaning rapidly during the actual process of readingWithout reading fluency, children have to expend so much mental energy of mechanics of reading that they can’t absorb the meaning of what they have read.
36 Fluent ReadingChildren with poor reading fluency may demonstrate poor reading comprehension for material they could understand if it were read to themThese children find reading laborious, so may lose motivation for reading
37 Fluent ReadingPredictor of reading fluency is child’s naming speed for “over learned” stimuli, e.g., letters and single-digit numbersChildren with slow naming speeds tend to have poor reading fluencyChildren with a double deficit in both phonemic awareness and naming speed tend to serious reading problems
38 Fluent Reading Practice is very important Ample experience in reading is essential for building reading fluencyNeed to motivate and encourage independent readingCritical to developing fluency
39 These are iNTirEStinG and cHallinGinG times for anyone whose pRoFEshuNle responsibilities are rEelaTed in any way to liTiRucY outcomes among school children. For, in spite of all our new NaWLEGe about reading and reading iNstRukshun, there is a wide-spread concern that public EdgUkAshuN is not as eFfEktIve as it shood be in tEecHiNg all children to read.
40 The challenge of continuing growth in fluency becomes even greater after third grade 4th, 5th, and 6th graders encounter about 10,000 words they have never seen before in print during a year’s worth of readingFurthermore, each of these “new” words occurs only about 10 times in a year’s worth of readingSadly, its very difficult to correctly guess the identity of these “new words” just from the context of the passage
41 The challenge of continuing growth in fluency becomes even greater after third grade 4th, 5th, and 6th graders encounter about 10,000 words they have never seen before in print during a year’s worth of readingFurthermore, each of these “new” words occurs only about 10 times in a year’s worth of reading
42 Suggestions for parents Fluent ReadingSuggestions for parentsEncourage independent readingEncourage re-reading of favorite booksSubscribe to children’s magazinesHelp children find books that interest themLimit tv viewing, video games, and computer gamesRead during “waiting” timesEstablish a bedtime reading ritualHelp children pick reading materials at appropriate level of difficulty
43 Fluent Reading Suggestions for teachers Make sure that children are placed at appropriate level of difficulty for reading instruction90% word accuracyUse a variety of strategiesAllow choice in independent readingModel expressive readingDiscuss ways that punctuation represents certain features of oral language (especially K-1)Assign repeated readings of familiar texts
44 Fluent Reading Suggestions for teachers Have children “partner read” or be “book buddies” to younger childrenRead passage simultaneously with fluent readerTeach student to “self-chart” progressDevelop automaticity in word decoding and sight word recognitionSpeed drills on high frequency wordsUse speed drills only if child has attained accuracy in reading those wordsGive children practice in reading selected words and phrases before read text aloudIntegrate instruction in vocabulary and multiple meanings of words
45 Writing and SpellingLearning to spell words draws upon many of the same abilities as learning to readPhonemic awarenessKnowledge of letter-sound relationshipsUnderstanding the alphabetic principleKnowledge of morphemic relationshipsChildren who decode words well are usually good spellers, whereas children with decoding difficulties typically are poor spellers
46 Writing and SpellingIn early stages of learning to spell, children tend to use invented (or phonetic) spellingsAnalysis of children’s invented spelling and spelling mistakes can provide a valuable tool for teachersChildren must soon learn conventional spellingsRequires close attention to common letter patterns(orthographic knowledge) and knowledge of spelling rules
47 Writing and SpellingLearning to write also requires knowing how to use the mechanical conventions of writing (punctuation, capitalization, and grammar)Knowing how to organize and sequence ideas, how to elaborate on ideas, and how to use vocabularyGood readers become exposed to many models of good writing
48 Writing and Spelling Writing also requires: Planning and repeated revision of contentBrainstorming and writing a web or outlineAbility to write for an audienceExpress ideas clearly and meaningfullyDifferent audiences require different styles of writingMotor skillsBy hand or typing on a keyboard
49 Suggestions for parents Spelling and WritingSuggestions for parentsSupply preschoolers with drawing and writing materialsHave a child dictate a story to youInvolve children in oral storytelling gamesFind opportunities for children to writeFoster writing skills when readingWhen helping children practice for spelling tests, look at the sequence of letters in a wordEncourage interest in word spelling and word meaningModel use of a dictionaryHelp children see relationships among words
50 Suggestions for teachers Spelling and WritingSuggestions for teachersUse word building activitiesTeach common letter patternsTeach common spelling rulesEmphasize looking at wordsIllustrate morphemic relationshipsHelp children realize that writing is a process involving planning, composing, revising and editingHave a published author speak to the classUse checklists to help children edit their own workProvide specific rubricsProvide opportunities for choice in writingLink reading and writingUse short, focused pieces of writingEncourage use of a computer
51 Reading for Meaning Good reading comprehension depends upon: Accuracy and ease of reading individual wordsOral language comprehensionChildren with poor reading comprehension typically have difficulties in one or both of these areasVocabulary (knowledge of word meanings) is an especially critical aspect of comprehension
52 Reading for Meaning Vocabulary As children grow older, their own reading becomes increasingly important source of building vocabulary not typically encountered in everyday conversationExplicit teaching of vocabulary is essential
53 Reading for Meaning Comprehension strategies Summarization Prediction Inferring word meanings from contextComprehension strategies should be taught explicitly through activities such as:Modeling and think-alouds – teacher models his/her own summarization of text by thinking out loud for childrenDiscussionCooperative learning activitiesUse of examples – children look at a summary or a longer text and discuss why the summary is, or isn’t, a good one
54 Reading for MeaningGood readers are highly skilled at using context to aid comprehension, e.g.,Maggie put white powder on her face so that she would look pale.Use sentence context or a picture to figure out “pale” means “whitish.”Skilled reading is characterized by rapid development of accurate, fluent word decoding. Readers should not need to rely heavily on context to decode words, because they should be able to accurately read the word “pale” correctly and automatically.By contrast, poor readers often continue to rely on context to compensate for weak or dysfluent word reading. This strategy impairs reading comprehension, especially more difficult text.
55 Reading for Meaning Construction of meaning Effective comprehension instruction fosters active construction of meaning. This includes monitoring your own comprehension as you read, actively trying to make sense of text, and using your background knowledge to make inferences and “read between the lines.”To promote active construction of meaning, ask questions about the text and encourage students to elaborate on what they have read and to draw inferences.
56 Relationship between Vocabulary Score (PPVT) measures in Kindergarten and later reading comprehensionEnd of Grade OneEnd of Grade FourEnd of Grade SevenThe relationship of vocabulary to reading comprehension gets stronger as reading material becomes more complex and the vocabulary becomes becomes more extensive (Snow, 2002)
57 We must be sure we provide very powerful instruction in vocabulary to help poor and minority children “close the gap” by third gradeThere are 26 letters to learnThere are 44 phonemes to worry aboutThere are 75,000 words to knowPowerful instruction in vocabulary is more helpful to children on a reading comprehension test in 4th grade than it is for the reading comprehension test they might take at the end of 1st grade.
58 Suggestions for parents Reading for MeaningSuggestions for parentsPlay games with preschoolers that involve naming or pointing to objectsDiscuss stories and word meaningsEncourage a variety of reading choicesHelp children link experiences with what they are hearing or readingTell stories: oral storytelling about family’s experiences
59 Suggestions for teachers Reading for MeaningSuggestions for teachersRead to children to foster listening comprehensionMake vocabulary instruction a major curriculum componentEncourage independent learning of new vocabulary from contextTeach meanings of prefixes, suffixes and common rootsTeach comprehension strategies, e.g., summarization, prediction, answering questions about text, and inferring word meaningUse graphic organizers to help children grasp key conceptsEncourage active construction of meaningRequire children to form inferences, e.g., Why do you think Clifford did that?Determine the roots of comprehension difficultiesAre weaknesses related to word decoding or oral language comprehension
60 Suggestions for teachers Reading for MeaningSuggestions for teachersDetermine the roots of comprehension difficultiesAre weaknesses related to word decoding or oral language comprehension?Use nonsense words to assess students’ skill in decodingCompare a child’s oral language comprehension to reading comprehensionStudents who have poor reading comprehension of material that they would understand if it were read to them typically have problems with poor word decoding or word fluencyChildren with oral language weaknesses will demonstrate those weaknesses in listening as well as reading.
61 Vocabulary knowledge is strongly related to reading proficiency Bringing Words to Life: Robust Reading Instruction (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002)Vocabulary knowledge is strongly related to reading proficiencyFirst graders from higher SES groups knew about twice as many words as lower SES childrenHigh school seniors hear the top of their class knew about four times as many words as their lower-performing classmatesHigh-knowledge third graders had vocabularies about equal to lowest-performing 12th graders
62 Bringing Words to Life: Robust Reading Instruction (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002) Teaching vocabulary needs to become a high priorityNeeds to involve directly explaining the meaning of words along with thought-provoking, playful and interactive follow-up.Relying on reading for vocabulary growth adds to the inequities in individual differences in vocabulary developmentStruggling readers do not read well enough to make wide reading an optionRelying on learning word meanings from independent reading is not enoughSchool-age children learn approximately seven new words per dayBut some children learn only 1 or 2 words per day, or none at all
63 The top five myths about interventions for struggling readers 1. If a child is a “visual” learner, they should be taught to read using a visual, not an auditory strategy2. If a child has not learned “phonics” by the end of first grade, they need to be taught to read in some other way3. Children who struggle with phonemic awareness, vocabulary, or phonics in kindergarten and first grade will frequently “catch up” if given time.4. We should take guidance from theories of “multiple intelligences” or “learning styles” to help us adapt our reading instruction for different children5. A little quality time with an enthusiastic volunteer tutor can solve most children’s reading problems
64 The consensus view of most important instructional features for interventions Interventions are more effective when they:Provide systematic and explicit instruction on whatever component skills are deficient: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, reading comprehension strategiesProvide a significant increase in intensity of instructionProvide ample opportunities for guided practice of new skillsHere is a brief overview of the consensus about the most important features of effective interventions for children who are lagging behind.Provide systematic cueing of appropriate strategies in contextProvide appropriate levels of scaffolding as children learn to apply new skills
65 Interventions should be organized in tiers Layers of intervention responding to student needsTIER IEach tier provides more intensive and supportive interventionTIER IITIERIIIAimed at preventing reading disabilitiesHere is a brief overview of the consensus about the most important features of effective interventions for children who are lagging behind.
66 TIER I: Core class instruction TIER I is comprised of three elementsTIER ICore reading programBenchmark testing of students to determine instructional needs at least three times a yearTIER IITIERIIIHere is a brief overview of the consensus about the most important features of effective interventions for children who are lagging behind.Ongoing professional development
67 TIER I: CORE CLASS INSTRUCTION (cont’d) FocusFor all students in K through 3ProgramScientific-based reading instruction and curriculum emphasizing the five critical elements of beginning readingGroupingMultiple grouping formats to meet student needsTime90 minutes per day or moreBenchmark assessment at beginning, middle,and end of the academic yearAssessmentInterventionistGeneral education teacherSettingGeneral education classroom
68 TIER II: Supplemental instruction Tier II is small-group supplemental instruction in addition to the time allotted for core reading instruction.TIER IITIER IITIER ITier II includes programs, strategies, and procedures designed and employed to supplement, enhance, and support Tier I.TIERIIIHere is a brief overview of the consensus about the most important features of effective interventions for children who are lagging behind.
69 TIER II: SUPPLEMENTAL INSTRUCTION (cont’d) For students identified with marked reading difficulties,and who have not responded to Tier I effortsFocusProgramSpecialized, scientifically based reading program(s)emphasizing the five critical elements of beginning readingGroupingHomogeneous small group instruction (1:3, 1:4, or 1:5)TimeMinimum of 30 minutes per day in small group in addition to90 minutes of core reading instructionProgress monitoring twice a month on target skillto ensure adequate progress and learningAssessmentPersonnel determined by the school (e.g., a classroom teacher,a specialized reading teacher, an external interventionist)InterventionistSettingAppropriate setting designated by the school;may be within or outside of the classroom
70 TIER III: Intensive intervention Tier III is intensive, strategic, supplemental instruction specifically designed and customized small-group or 1:1 reading instruction that is extended beyond the time allocated for Tier I and Tier II.TIER IIITIERIIIHere is a brief overview of the consensus about the most important features of effective interventions for children who are lagging behind.
71 TIER III: INTENSIVE INTERVENTION (cont’d) For students with marked difficulties in reading orreading disabilities and who have not respondedadequately to Tier I and Tier II effortsFocusProgramSustained, intensive, scientifically based readingprogram(s) emphasizing the critical elements of readingfor students with reading difficulties/disabilitiesGroupingHomogeneous small group instruction (1:1- 1:3)Minimum of two 30-minute sessions per day in small group or 1:1 in addition to 90 minutes of core reading instruction.Progress monitoring twice a month on target skills to ensure adequate progress and learningTimeAssessmentPersonnel determined by the school (e.g., a classroom teacher, a specialized reading teacher, an external interventionist)InterventionistSettingAppropriate setting designated by the school
72 Small group work with the classroom teacher A range of methods can be used to provide immediate, intensive interventionsSmall group work with the classroom teacherSmall group work with a reading resource (Title 1) teacherSmall group work with a special education teacherSmall group work with an aide or paraprofessionalHere are some strategies being used in different classrooms to provide more intensive instruction to students lagging behindIndividual work with computer assisted instruction1:1 work with volunteers1:1 work with classroom or cross age peers
73 Some useful references: 1. McEwan, E.K. (2002). Teach them all to read. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.2. Hall, S.L. & Moats, L.C. (1999) Straight Talk about Reading. Chicago, Ill. Contemporary Books.3. Torgesen, J.K. (2001). The prevention of reading difficulties. Journal of School Psychology, 40, 7-26.4. Torgesen, J.K. & Mathes, P. (2000). A Basic Guide to Understanding, Teaching, and Assessing Phonological Awareness. Austin, TX, PRO-ED Publishing, Inc.5. Wharton-McDonald, Pressley, M., & Hampston, J. (1999). Literacy instruction in nine first grade classrooms: Teacher characteristics and Student Achievement. The Elementary School Journal, 99,6. Moats, L. (1998). Teaching decoding. American Educator, Summer.7. Raynor, K., Foorman, B.R., Perfetti, C.A., Pesetsky, D., & Seidenberg, M.S How psychological science informs the teaching of reading. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 2:8. Beck, I. Et al. (1998). Getting at the meaning. American Educator, Summer.