Presentation on theme: "Reading Rockets: Toolkit for School Psychologists Acknowledgments: The PowerPoint slides were developed by Barbara Bole Williams, PhD, Rowan University."— Presentation transcript:
Reading Rockets: Toolkit for School Psychologists Acknowledgments: The PowerPoint slides were developed by Barbara Bole Williams, PhD, Rowan University unless otherwise noted on specific slides. Slides number 8-12, 21-22, 32, 39-41, 56-57, and are from the work of Joseph Torgesen, Director, Florida Center for Reading Research
New Jersey Association of School Psychologists (NJASP) Presenters: Barbara Bole Williams, PhD Rowan University Terry Molony, EdS Cherry Hill Public Schools John Lestino, MA Edgewater Park Public Schools Sponsored by NJASPs Professional Development Committee August 16, 2005 Marlberg School, Cherry Hill 9:00 – 2:00
Agenda 1.Introduction 2.Five Big Ideas of Reading 3.Lunch 4.Meet the Experts 5.Q & A
Why is this all so important? Effective early reading instruction can prevent reading difficulties later 37 % of nations 4 th graders are performing below basic level i.e., they cannot read well enough to understand a simple story More than two-thirds of high school students receiving special ed instruction are three or more grade levels behind in reading 20 % are behind by five or more grade levels Reading problems are much more difficult to remediate in later grades
At-risk first grade readers Poor readers at the end of first grade are at very significant risk for long term academic difficulty. The probability of remaining a poor reader at the end of fourth grade, given a child was a poor reader at the end of first grade, was the probability of remaining an average reader in fourth grade, given an average reading ability in first grade, was.87. (Juel, 1988) Poor readers at the end of first grade are likely to require intensive instructional support to reach third grade reading outcomes.
Reading Trajectories are Remarkably Stable (Good, Simmons, & Smith, 1998) Students on a poor reading trajectory are at risk for poor academic and behavioral outcomes in school and beyond.
Trajectories of Middle and Low Readers Good, R. H., Simmons, D. C., & Smith, S. B. (1998). Effective academic interventions in the United States: Evaluating and enhancing the acquisition of early reading skills. School Psychology Review, 27,
White Percent of Students Performing Below Basic Level - 37% Black Hispanic Poor Non-poor Right now, we are leaving too many children behind in reading. A large share of those children come from poor and minority homes
Current difficulties in reading largely originate from rising demands for literacy, not from declining absolute levels of literacy Report of the National Research Council
Rising needs for high levels of literacy in our society demand that schools break the mold of past performance--we clearly must do better than has ever been done before.
Congress recently passed the No Child Left Behind Act. Part of that law authorized spending approximately 5 billion dollars over the next six years to improve reading instruction in grades k- 3. This is called the Reading First Initiative. The goal: Every child in America reading at grade level by the end of grade three within 12 years.
Why do we have Reading First? 2. Prevention of reading problems is far more effective and humane than trying to remediate after children fail 1. Far too many poor and minority children are being left behind when it comes to growth of proficient reading skills
Reading Research We know that: –Phonological awareness and letter identification skills are the best predictors of a childs success in learning to read (Adams, 1990). –Phonological awareness needs to be taught (Lunberg, Frost & Peterson, 1988)
Reading Research We also know –Children who receive explicit instruction in phonological awareness become better readers (Wagner et al., 1997) –A small percentage of students do not appear to benefit from quality whole-class instruction in phonological awareness (Toregsen, 1998)
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Requires effective scientifically-based reading instruction Reading Rockets is a toolkit of empirically-based reading instruction Based on essential elements of reading instruction identified by National Reading Panel
NRP Five Big Ideas in Reading Each idea is essential but not sufficient alone to achieve reading mastery 1.Phonemic awareness 2.Alphabetic principle 3.Fluency 4.Vocabulary 5.Comprehension
Reading Rockets Uses the 5 Big Ideas 1.Roots of Literacy 2.Sounds and Symbols 3.Fluent Reading 4.Writing and Spelling 5.Reading for Meaning
The Roots of Reading Foundations of Literacy Oral language competency Print awareness Phonological awareness Phonemic awareness Reading Rockets offers concrete suggestions for childcare providers, teachers of young children, and parents
The Roots of Reading Print Awareness Basic print concepts Print conveys meaning Exposure to print, letters, and books Many preschoolers acquire familiarity with letters
The Roots of Reading Phonological Awareness Ability to hear, identify and manipulate larger parts of spoken language, e.g., words and syllables Parental involvement is critical Being read to Discussing word meanings Playing rhyming and other word games
Some phonological humor…. Deficits in in phonemic awareness create problems for many children, but they can also be devastating for dogs
Ha, ha, Biff. Guess What? After we go to the drugstore and the post office, Im going to the vets to get tutored.
The Roots of Reading List of Typical Preschool Achievements Age-appropriate oral language competence An interest in books Knowledge of at least some letter names Rudimentary phonological awareness, e.g., being able to rhyme words in songs and poems Awareness of print Pretend reading, e.g., reads from memory Pretend writing, e.g., writes a message using scribbles or drawings on a page.
The Roots of Reading Suggestions for preschoolers Set aside time for reading Emphasize the enjoyment of reading Read expressively and with humor Know when to put a book down Repeated readings help to promote childrens language Draw attention to letters and print Sing songs, read rhyming books and say silly tongue twisters Play with puppets Exposure to new experiences If concerns exist, seek prompt, thorough evaluation
Dialogic Reading àDialogic reading is a shared-reading intervention designed to promote the development of oral language skills. àDialogic reading involves several changes in the way adults typically read books to children. àCentral to these changes is a shift in roles. During typical shared-reading, the adult reads and the child listens...
Dialogic reading techniques guide the parent or teacher to engage in dialogue about the pictures and stories in books. Dialogic reading is based on the idea that How we read to children is as important as how frequently we read to them.
Dialogic Reading - Level 1 Requires books with lots of colorful, interesting pictures Ask questions about objects pictured in the book avoid yes-no questions, or pointing questions Follow a childs answer with another question Help when needed Repeat what the child says Praise and encourage the child Follow the childs interest Have Fun!
Dialogic Reading - Level 2 Ask open-ended questions Tell me whats going on here Ask the child to say more Expand what the child says Child says: Duck swimming You say, Right, the duck is swimming Have Fun!
Sounds and Symbols Focuses on two important skills early readers need to decode the printed word: Phonemic awareness Phonics Word decoding – the ability to figure out unfamiliar words using knowledge about letter- sound relationships and the alphabetic code Perhaps the most critical achievement of early reading Can you read this word: streak
Sounds and Symbols 3 kinds of knowledge needed for developing word-decoding skills: Phonemic awareness Knowledge of letter sounds Alphabetic principle Phonemic awareness Type of phonological awareness Sensitivity to individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words cat /c/, /a/, /t/ shape /sh/, /a/, /p/ Because sounds in spoken words are co-articulated (overlap in unbroken stream of speech), phonemic awareness is not a natural or spontaneous achievement for beginning readers. NEEDS TO BE TAUGHT
Sounds and Symbols Knowledge of letter sounds Letters and letter patterns (sh, ch, and ph) Alphabetic principle Knowledge that written language is a code Letters represent sounds in spoken words Explicit, systematic instruction is essential for developing phonemic awareness and word decoding skills Direct, clear instruction with opportunities for practice Planned logical sequence of instruction Ongoing assessment to detect difficulties so can be addressed promptly
Fundamental discoveries about how children learn to read 1. Children who enter first grade weak in phonemic awareness have difficulties learning to crack the code of written language 2. Children who do not acquire good phonemic decoding skills (phonics) in first grade tend to rely too much on guessing; they remain inaccurate in their reading and do not read independently. From all these different perspectives, two inescapable conclusions emerge. The first is that mastering the alphabetic principle is essential to becoming proficient in the skill of reading…. (Rayner, et al., 2001) The beginning reader must learn that the writing system encodes his or her spoken language in a systematic way
Sounds and Symbols Suggestions for fostering development of phonemic awareness and word decoding skills Parents Play word games Help your child with reading homework Have your child read aloud When child makes a mistake reading a word, focus his/her attention on all the letters in the word Select appropriate books Child should be able to read at least 90% of words correctly without assistance
Sounds and Symbols Suggestions for teachers: Teach phonemic awareness skills Begin instruction with continuous sound consonants m, s, and f, rather than stop consonants such as b, d, and t; the former are easier for children to blend. Encourage children to watch your lips and mouth Use hands on materials, e.g., Unifix letter cubes or blocks Use multisensory activities in teaching letter sounds Teach word decoding and spelling systematically and explicitly Try word-building activities Give children opportunities to apply their decoding skills Allow sufficient wait time for children to decode words Provide nonverbal cues (pointing) and verbal cues (questions). After child successfully decoded work, have him/her re-read sentence to establish comprehension and fluency
Fluent Reading Ability to read text accurately and quickly Depends upon the accurate, automatic decoding of individual words Ability to understand meaning rapidly during the actual process of reading Without reading fluency, children have to expend so much mental energy of mechanics of reading that they cant absorb the meaning of what they have read.
Fluent Reading Children with poor reading fluency may demonstrate poor reading comprehension for material they could understand if it were read to them These children find reading laborious, so may lose motivation for reading
Fluent Reading Predictor of reading fluency is childs naming speed for over learned stimuli, e.g., letters and single-digit numbers Children with slow naming speeds tend to have poor reading fluency Children with a double deficit in both phonemic awareness and naming speed tend to serious reading problems
Fluent Reading Practice is very important Ample experience in reading is essential for building reading fluency Need to motivate and encourage independent reading Critical to developing fluency
These are iNTirEStinG and cHallinGinG times for anyone whose pRoFEshuNle responsibilities are rEelaTed in any way to liTiRucY outcomes among school children. For, in spite of all our new NaWLEGe about reading and reading iNstRukshun, there is a wide-spread concern that public EdgUkAshuN is not as eFfEktIve as it shood be in tEecHiNg all children to read.
The challenge of continuing growth in fluency becomes even greater after third grade 4 th, 5 th, and 6 th graders encounter about 10,000 words they have never seen before in print during a years worth of reading Furthermore, each of these new words occurs only about 10 times in a years worth of reading Sadly, its very difficult to correctly guess the identity of these new words just from the context of the passage
The challenge of continuing growth in fluency becomes even greater after third grade 4 th, 5 th, and 6 th graders encounter about 10,000 words they have never seen before in print during a years worth of reading Furthermore, each of these new words occurs only about 10 times in a years worth of reading
Fluent Reading Suggestions for parents Encourage independent reading Encourage re-reading of favorite books Subscribe to childrens magazines Help children find books that interest them Limit tv viewing, video games, and computer games Read during waiting times Establish a bedtime reading ritual Help children pick reading materials at appropriate level of difficulty
Fluent Reading Suggestions for teachers Make sure that children are placed at appropriate level of difficulty for reading instruction 90% word accuracy Use a variety of strategies Allow choice in independent reading Model expressive reading Discuss ways that punctuation represents certain features of oral language (especially K-1) Assign repeated readings of familiar texts
Fluent Reading Suggestions for teachers Have children partner read or be book buddies to younger children Read passage simultaneously with fluent reader Teach student to self-chart progress Develop automaticity in word decoding and sight word recognition Speed drills on high frequency words Use speed drills only if child has attained accuracy in reading those words Give children practice in reading selected words and phrases before read text aloud Integrate instruction in vocabulary and multiple meanings of words
Writing and Spelling Learning to spell words draws upon many of the same abilities as learning to read Phonemic awareness Knowledge of letter-sound relationships Understanding the alphabetic principle Knowledge of morphemic relationships Children who decode words well are usually good spellers, whereas children with decoding difficulties typically are poor spellers
Writing and Spelling In early stages of learning to spell, children tend to use invented (or phonetic) spellings Analysis of childrens invented spelling and spelling mistakes can provide a valuable tool for teachers Children must soon learn conventional spellings Requires close attention to common letter patterns (orthographic knowledge) and knowledge of spelling rules
Writing and Spelling Learning to write also requires knowing how to use the mechanical conventions of writing (punctuation, capitalization, and grammar) Knowing how to organize and sequence ideas, how to elaborate on ideas, and how to use vocabulary Good readers become exposed to many models of good writing
Writing and Spelling Writing also requires: Planning and repeated revision of content Brainstorming and writing a web or outline Ability to write for an audience Express ideas clearly and meaningfully Different audiences require different styles of writing Motor skills By hand or typing on a keyboard
Spelling and Writing Suggestions for parents Supply preschoolers with drawing and writing materials Have a child dictate a story to you Involve children in oral storytelling games Find opportunities for children to write Foster writing skills when reading When helping children practice for spelling tests, look at the sequence of letters in a word Encourage interest in word spelling and word meaning Model use of a dictionary Help children see relationships among words
Spelling and Writing Suggestions for teachers Use word building activities Teach common letter patterns Teach common spelling rules Emphasize looking at words Illustrate morphemic relationships Help children realize that writing is a process involving planning, composing, revising and editing Have a published author speak to the class Use checklists to help children edit their own work Provide specific rubrics Provide opportunities for choice in writing Link reading and writing Use short, focused pieces of writing Encourage use of a computer
Reading for Meaning Good reading comprehension depends upon: Accuracy and ease of reading individual words Oral language comprehension Children with poor reading comprehension typically have difficulties in one or both of these areas Vocabulary (knowledge of word meanings) is an especially critical aspect of comprehension
Reading for Meaning Vocabulary As children grow older, their own reading becomes increasingly important source of building vocabulary not typically encountered in everyday conversation Explicit teaching of vocabulary is essential
Reading for Meaning Comprehension strategies Summarization Prediction Inferring word meanings from context Comprehension strategies should be taught explicitly through activities such as: Modeling and think-alouds – teacher models his/her own summarization of text by thinking out loud for children Discussion Cooperative learning activities Use of examples – children look at a summary or a longer text and discuss why the summary is, or isnt, a good one
Reading for Meaning Good readers are highly skilled at using context to aid comprehension, e.g., Maggie put white powder on her face so that she would look pale. Use sentence context or a picture to figure out pale means whitish. Skilled reading is characterized by rapid development of accurate, fluent word decoding. Readers should not need to rely heavily on context to decode words, because they should be able to accurately read the word pale correctly and automatically. By contrast, poor readers often continue to rely on context to compensate for weak or dysfluent word reading. This strategy impairs reading comprehension, especially more difficult text.
Reading for Meaning Construction of meaning Effective comprehension instruction fosters active construction of meaning. This includes monitoring your own comprehension as you read, actively trying to make sense of text, and using your background knowledge to make inferences and read between the lines. To promote active construction of meaning, ask questions about the text and encourage students to elaborate on what they have read and to draw inferences.
Relationship between Vocabulary Score (PPVT) measures in Kindergarten and later reading comprehension End of Grade One End of Grade Four End of Grade Seven The relationship of vocabulary to reading comprehension gets stronger as reading material becomes more complex and the vocabulary becomes becomes more extensive (Snow, 2002)
We must be sure we provide very powerful instruction in vocabulary to help poor and minority children close the gap by third grade There are 26 letters to learn There are 44 phonemes to worry about There are 75,000 words to know Powerful instruction in vocabulary is more helpful to children on a reading comprehension test in 4 th grade than it is for the reading comprehension test they might take at the end of 1 st grade.
Reading for Meaning Suggestions for parents Play games with preschoolers that involve naming or pointing to objects Discuss stories and word meanings Encourage a variety of reading choices Help children link experiences with what they are hearing or reading Tell stories : oral storytelling about familys experiences
Reading for Meaning Suggestions for teachers Read to children to foster listening comprehension Make vocabulary instruction a major curriculum component Encourage independent learning of new vocabulary from context Teach meanings of prefixes, suffixes and common roots Teach comprehension strategies, e.g., summarization, prediction, answering questions about text, and inferring word meaning Use graphic organizers to help children grasp key concepts Encourage active construction of meaning Require children to form inferences, e.g., Why do you think Clifford did that? Determine the roots of comprehension difficulties Are weaknesses related to word decoding or oral language comprehension
Reading for Meaning Suggestions for teachers Determine the roots of comprehension difficulties Are weaknesses related to word decoding or oral language comprehension? Use nonsense words to assess students skill in decoding Compare a childs oral language comprehension to reading comprehension Students who have poor reading comprehension of material that they would understand if it were read to them typically have problems with poor word decoding or word fluency Children with oral language weaknesses will demonstrate those weaknesses in listening as well as reading.
Bringing Words to Life: Robust Reading Instruction (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002) Vocabulary knowledge is strongly related to reading proficiency First graders from higher SES groups knew about twice as many words as lower SES children High school seniors hear the top of their class knew about four times as many words as their lower-performing classmates High-knowledge third graders had vocabularies about equal to lowest-performing 12 th graders
Bringing Words to Life: Robust Reading Instruction (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002) Teaching vocabulary needs to become a high priority Needs to involve directly explaining the meaning of words along with thought-provoking, playful and interactive follow-up. Relying on reading for vocabulary growth adds to the inequities in individual differences in vocabulary development –Struggling readers do not read well enough to make wide reading an option –Relying on learning word meanings from independent reading is not enough School-age children learn approximately seven new words per day –But some children learn only 1 or 2 words per day, or none at all
The top five myths about interventions for struggling readers 1. If a child is a visual learner, they should be taught to read using a visual, not an auditory strategy 2. If a child has not learned phonics by the end of first grade, they need to be taught to read in some other way 3. Children who struggle with phonemic awareness, vocabulary, or phonics in kindergarten and first grade will frequently catch up if given time. 4. We should take guidance from theories of multiple intelligences or learning styles to help us adapt our reading instruction for different children 5. A little quality time with an enthusiastic volunteer tutor can solve most childrens reading problems
The consensus view of most important instructional features for interventions Provide ample opportunities for guided practice of new skills Provide a significant increase in intensity of instruction Provide systematic cueing of appropriate strategies in context Provide systematic and explicit instruction on whatever component skills are deficient: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, reading comprehension strategies Interventions are more effective when they: Provide appropriate levels of scaffolding as children learn to apply new skills
Interventions should be organized in tiers Layers of intervention responding to student needs Each tier provides more intensive and supportive intervention Aimed at preventing reading disabilities TIER I TIER II TIER III
TIER I: Core class instruction TIER I is comprised of three elements Core reading program Benchmark testing of students to determine instructional needs at least three times a year TIER I TIER II TIER III Ongoing professional development
TIER I: CORE CLASS INSTRUCTION (contd) Focus Program Interventionist Setting Grouping Time Assessment For all students in K through 3 Scientific-based reading instruction and curriculum emphasizing the five critical elements of beginning reading General education teacher General education classroom Multiple grouping formats to meet student needs 90 minutes per day or more Benchmark assessment at beginning, middle, and end of the academic year
TIER II: Supplemental instruction Tier II is small-group supplemental instruction in addition to the time allotted for core reading instruction. TIER I TIER III. Tier II includes programs, strategies, and procedures designed and employed to supplement, enhance, and support Tier I. TIER II
TIER II: SUPPLEMENTAL INSTRUCTION (contd) Focus Program Setting Grouping Time Assessment For students identified with marked reading difficulties, and who have not responded to Tier I efforts Personnel determined by the school (e.g., a classroom teacher, a specialized reading teacher, an external interventionist) Appropriate setting designated by the school; may be within or outside of the classroom Homogeneous small group instruction (1:3, 1:4, or 1:5) Minimum of 30 minutes per day in small group in addition to 90 minutes of core reading instruction Progress monitoring twice a month on target skill to ensure adequate progress and learning Specialized, scientifically based reading program(s) emphasizing the five critical elements of beginning reading Interventionist
TIER III: Intensive intervention Tier III is intensive, strategic, supplemental instruction specifically designed and customized small-group or 1:1 reading instruction that is extended beyond the time allocated for Tier I and Tier II. TIER III TIER III
Program Focus Interventionist Setting Grouping Time Assessment For students with marked difficulties in reading or reading disabilities and who have not responded adequately to Tier I and Tier II efforts Appropriate setting designated by the school Homogeneous small group instruction (1:1- 1:3) Minimum of two 30-minute sessions per day in small group or 1:1 in addition to 90 minutes of core reading instruction. Progress monitoring twice a month on target skills to ensure adequate progress and learning Sustained, intensive, scientifically based reading program(s) emphasizing the critical elements of reading for students with reading difficulties/disabilities Personnel determined by the school (e.g., a classroom teacher, a specialized reading teacher, an external interventionist) TIER III: INTENSIVE INTERVENTION (contd)
A range of methods can be used to provide immediate, intensive interventions Small group work with the classroom teacher Small group work with a reading resource (Title 1) teacher Small group work with a special education teacher Small group work with an aide or paraprofessional 1:1 work with volunteers 1:1 work with classroom or cross age peers Individual work with computer assisted instruction
Some useful references: 1. McEwan, E.K. (2002). Teach them all to read. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. 2. Hall, S.L. & Moats, L.C. (1999) Straight Talk about Reading. Chicago, Ill. Contemporary Books. 3. Torgesen, J.K. (2001). The prevention of reading difficulties. Journal of School Psychology, 40, Torgesen, J.K. & Mathes, P. (2000). A Basic Guide to Understanding, Teaching, and Assessing Phonological Awareness. Austin, TX, PRO-ED Publishing, Inc. 5. Wharton-McDonald, Pressley, M., & Hampston, J. (1999). Literacy instruction in nine first grade classrooms: Teacher characteristics and Student Achievement. The Elementary School Journal, 99, Moats, L. (1998). Teaching decoding. American Educator, Summer. 7. Raynor, K., Foorman, B.R., Perfetti, C.A., Pesetsky, D., & Seidenberg, M.S How psychological science informs the teaching of reading. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 2: Beck, I. Et al. (1998). Getting at the meaning. American Educator, Summer.