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JIMERSON, S., STIFEL, S., RUDERMAN, M., RENSHAW, T., & EARHART, J. University of California, Santa Barbara FEBRUARY 23, 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "JIMERSON, S., STIFEL, S., RUDERMAN, M., RENSHAW, T., & EARHART, J. University of California, Santa Barbara FEBRUARY 23, 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 JIMERSON, S., STIFEL, S., RUDERMAN, M., RENSHAW, T., & EARHART, J. University of California, Santa Barbara jimerson@education.ucsb.edu FEBRUARY 23, 2011 Presentation available on NASP website Effects of the Promoting Positive Peer Relationships (P3R) Classroom Resource

2 School Violence and Bullying School violence has been a global concern for several decades (Astor, Benbenishty, & Marachi, 2006) Ecological Characteristics Bullying has received increasing attention because it is common and recurring (Dupper & Meyer-Adams, 2002)

3 Bullying Intrigue 3 publications in 1960-69 6 in 1970-79 36 in 1980-89 395 in 1990-99 6,639 publications in 2000-2009 12,036 so far in 2010-2011 (personal PsycINFO search on December 28, 2010)

4 Bullying Prevention/Intervention From school ecology to social-ecological Focus on bully to more comprehensive approach Recent estimates project that there are over 300 published school-based violence prevention programs (Howard, Flora, & Griffin, 1999; Kerns & Prinz, 2002) However, less than a quarter of these are empirically validated and only a fraction of them specifically target bullying (Swearer & Espelage, 2004). Effectiveness?

5 Promoting Positive Peer Relationships (P3R) From problem-focused to strength-based P3R Middle-school bullying prevention program Social-ecological perspective Film-based resources with accompanying curriculum

6 Basic Overview of P3R Basic overview of P3R intervention: 50 minutes/session 5 lesson and 8 lesson versions Standardized, semi-structured Teachers Guide 3 core components for each lesson: Viewing of film segments Facilitated discussion and problem-solving Provision of school policy and support information

7 Present Study Investigate the effects of P3R on enhancing student attitudes toward bullying and school supports Investigate the social validity of P3R Investigate dosage-response effects of P3R on student attitudes and social validity

8 Research Methods Basic overview of research design: Pre-post quasiexperimental design Intervention group – 320 seventh-graders Control group – 316 eighth-graders Duration of intervention pre-assigned – 1-week, 5-week, and 8-week Data collection – Pre-post for intervention and control

9 Research Methods P3R Implementation Fidelity Checklists (e.g., Noell et al., 1997) – Varying items; 1 aligned with each lesson – Self-report by teacher after implementation – Independent observations on 25% of lessons Intervention Rating Profile for TeachersP3R Adaptation (e.g., Martens et al., 1985) – 15 items; 6 point Likert-type scale – Goals, procedures, and outcomes of intervention – Completed by teacher after implementation – Higher composite scores = more favorable perceptions P3R Social Validity Questionnaire (e.g., Wolf, 1978) – 8 items; open-ended qualitative response format – 3 foci: goals, procedures, and outcomes of intervention – Intervention overall and differences between duration iterations

10 Research Methods Bullying Attitudinal ScaleShort Form (Song et al., 2001) 5-point Likert-type scale Higher composite scores = more prosocial Test-retest reliability: r =.83 Cronbachs α =.88 Unidimensional factor loading: r =.58 to.83 Perceptions of School Bullying Supports Scale (Jimerson, 2009) 5-point Likert-type scale Higher composite scores = more positive Test-retest reliability: r =.70 Cronbachs α =.73 Unidimensional factor loading: r =.55 to.70

11 Findings - Overall The P3R-CR is a socially valid intervention for use within a general education classroom when implemented by a general educator. The P3R-CR was found to be effective in enhancing students general attitudes toward bullying (small effect size). The P3R-CR was not found to enhance students perceptions of their local school bullying supports.

12 Findings The implementation duration of P3R did not have a differential effect on enhancing students general attitudes toward bullying or on enhancing students perceptions of their local school bullying supports. The effect of the P3R-CR on students general attitudes toward bullying and students perceptions of their school bullying supports did not vary as a function of their baseline attitudes and perceptions.

13 Discussion & Future Directions Intervention: Dosage-response effects Environmental pervasiveness? Duration-threshold? Internal potency? Design: Sampling bias & research design effects Uncontrolled random fixed-factors? Assessment: Problematic measurement effects Ceiling effects? Social desirability/positive school climate? Lack of profiling possibilities? Wrong attitudes?

14 Currently Working On Perceived Realism Bullying Attitudinal Measure (BAM) Communication Self-Efficacy Bystander Self-Efficacy Positive School Perceptions Empathy Bullying Groups and Positive Constructs School Connectedness Hope Empathy Self-Efficacy

15 Questions? Please contact Shane Jimerson, PhD jimerson@education.ucsb.edu Thank you!


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