Presentation on theme: "Montgomery County ( MD) Public School’s (MCPS) Collaborative Action Process (CAP): Multi-tiered prevention, early intervention and identification Educational."— Presentation transcript:
1 Montgomery County ( MD) Public School’s (MCPS) Collaborative Action Process (CAP): Multi-tiered prevention, early intervention and identificationEducational Reform…Getting from here to there…Matthew J. Kamins, Supervisor of Psychological ServicesBrent Myers, School Psychologist & CAP Team Leader
2 MCPS Facts & FiguresMontgomery County Size: 497 square miles Population: 942,000 Approximately one of every seven residents is a public school student. Schools total: 192 Elementary (preK-5): 125 Middle (6-8): 36 High (9-12): 24 Special or Alternative: 6 Career/Technology Center: 1 Transportation 1,202 buses transported 97,000 students Employees Total: 19,951 Teachers: 10, percent of teachers have a Masters degree or equivalent.Enrollment Largest in Maryland 17th largest in U.S. Projected, 2004: 140,492 Projected, 2008: 145,622total: 139,203 PreK: 2,287 Kindergarten: 8,889 Grades 1-5: 52,861 Grades 6-8: 32,314 Grades 9-12: 42,834 Special Schools: 656 Alternative Programs: 236Demographics African American: 22.1% American Indian: 0.3% Asian American: 14.3% Hispanic: 18.7% White: 44.6%Additional DemographicsStudents receiving free & reduced meals (FARMS): 22.3% English for speakers of other languages (ESOL): 11,961International students: from more than 163 countriesOver 120 languages spokenStudents receiving special education services: 17,013
3 Brief History: MCPS Educational Reform Critical EventsOffice of Civil Rights (OCR) Partnership Agreement – Goal: Reduce Disproportional Representation of African-American males in ED/MR categoriesAction: MCPS Advocacy Review CommitteeOutcomes:ED/MR proceduresReforming the EMT processMontgomery County’s Children’s AgendaSchool Psychologists Labor Management CommitteeSafe Schools/Healthy Students Grant InitiativeMCPS Strategic Plan - Our Call to Action – Goal: Improve student achievement for all students, and close the gap in student performance by race and ethnicityBaldrige Guided School Improvement Process
4 Problem solving practices and response to intervention models work: By creating the time, structures, and opportunities for teachers to engage in inquiry, and collegial dialogue, and to learn and practice effective problem solvingBy passionately focusing on collecting and analyzing evidence of student learning and celebrating student successBy creating opportunities for universal prevention and early intervention activitiesBy having high, but achievable, developmentally appropriate expectations for all students
5 One key question determines when, where, & how to intervene. Is it the Fish or the Water?Adapted from: Beth Doll, University of Colorado
6 The Prevention/Intervention Triangle 80%ableacademic &emotionallearnersIntensive Intervention: Evidence-based interventions that are comprehensive, coordinated, interagency supported, culturally competent, family focused, of high quality, and sustain help5%Evaluate Effects15%Early Intervention: Provide proven structured and targeted remedial academic & mental/emotional support to students placed at-riskPrimary Prevention(School-wide): Promote academic & mental/emotional wellness for all students through: family involvement, positive school climate, social skills, teacher training, individualized instruction, team consultation, collaborative problem solvingAdapted from: Dwyer, K. & Osher, D. (2000) Safeguarding Our Children: An Action Guide. Washington DC: U.S. Departments of Educationand Justice, American Institutes for Research. (page 3)
7 CAP assumptions and beliefs All students can learn and when they are not learning we must find out why.Learning is a unique interaction between the student and the instructional environment.We must focus on understanding & resolving the causes of problems – “why” learning is not occurring.Passionately seeking authentic information about each child's unique skills and needs will result in academic/behavioral improvement.Assessment activities must be multidimensional & linked directly to intervention.All students must be served early and often.Time during the school day is needed for teachers to meet, engage in inquiry, and positively reflect on and facilitate student learning.Family involvement is critical, desired, and encouraged.
8 CAP ExpectationsStrategic analyses will help identify the assets and needs specific to each unique learning communitySchools will restructure so that teams of teachers can meet regularly to problem solve and share instructional strategiesTeachers’ problem solving skills will be enhancedStaff will learn what to “look for” when students are having difficulty and be able to collect authentic information to guide focused interventionsInappropriate special education referrals will occur less frequently, thus limiting the possibility of disproportionalityCAP results will support improvements in student achievement and reductions in behavioral transgressions.
9 Who is involved in the CAP? All school staff, parents, and community supports are involved as needed.
10 At what point in the educational system is CAP most commonly used (pre-K, elementary, etc.)? CAP is used as soon as a “problem” is suspected.CAP is not an eligibility process so all students can benefit.CAP is effective at all levels, across special education populations and alternative programs.It comes into play when the teacher’s routine interventions and strategies are no longer successful.
11 How does CAP affect general ed and special ed students respectively? Since it is a strength-based problem solving process, the focus is on problem resolution. Therefore, it can be applied effectively for both special education and general education students.The process looks at all classroom factors (the “classroom ecology”) to link supports with needs.Once a student is identified in need of special education services, CAP is useful in determining effective IEP goals and objectives, related services, assessment of goal attainment, and functional analysis.
12 How can the CAP process improve a student's educational performance? The CAP is designed to specifically identify solutions - the instructional, behavioral and social adjustments that lead to student success.CAP relies on evidence to support interventions.Teachers are supported by staff skilled in counting behavior and measuring student achievement (e.g., DIBELS).Benchmarks are established that indicate current performance. These “signposts” monitor our work and demonstrate progress toward skill attainment.
13 Here’s a snapshot of how CAP and RTI work at one of our elementary schools… Gaithersburg ES Demographics53.1% Hispanic29. 6% African American11.2% Caucasian5.9 % Asian0.2 % Am IndFree & reduced lunch 77.7%Title I schoolFocused Academic Support
14 Phase One – CAP Strategic Analysis Active Format (Kovaleski, 2004) Students at “risk” were referred for problem solving and progress monitoring at each grade level by the building level Collaborative Action Process (CAP) TeamUsing the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy (DIBELS)All K- 4th grade students were screened(Nonsense word fluency, oral reading fluency) 10/2004Students grouped in three groupsLOW RISKSOME RISKAT RISK (10/2004)Students in all groups were given 1 hour of focused reading in combination with their regular reading block.
15 Phase Two - Problem Solving Process The “SOME RISK” and “AT RISK” students were assessed every two weeksThe DIBELS data along with other relevant information was used for problem analysis (CAP building level problem solving)Instruction was matched to assessment outcomes (AT RISK group)
16 Phase Three – Multidisciplinary Team The AT RISK Students were tracked for low academic performance and poor response to appropriate instructionThe IEP team is charged with determining whether the student meets the qualifications for special education
18 How has this changed my role as the school psychologist Expansion of the “assessment” role for the school psychologist beyond the traditional “norm-referenced” testing modelPrevents pressure on the school psychologist to provide “expert” answers; promotes trans-disciplinary teaming and collaborationIncreases direct time consulting with and engaging students, parents and teachers in teaching and learningAllows for a thorough analysis of student skills, knowledge, and tasks within the classroom instructional context
19 Lessons learnedProblem-solving at the local school level begins with analyses of the instructional and behavioral needs and successes at each grade levelThe Collaborative Action Process provides a unique format for trend analysisEarly intervention approaches (aka RTI) that “drill-down” and look for why students are not achieving is an efficient and effective use of staff timeFor RTI approaches to be successful attention must be focusing on three critical criteria:Was the intervention delivered with fidelity?Did the intervention have sufficient power?Did we give the intervention enough time?Documentation is the road map to success:Who does what for whom, when, where, and for how long.Communicate, document, evaluate and monitorMore time (testing the right students) for school psychologists to work with teachers and develop academic strategies for all students.
20 Lessons LearnedWhen students displayed little progress in Phase 2 of the RTI format,the CAP team, with the help of the school psychologist, was able to develop promising strategies. These strategies/interventions were utilized to identify accurate goals and objectives for students later identified for special education services.Phase three program options; summer school, after school tutorials, 504 plan, or evaluation for special education.
21 Lessons LearnedComplex diagnostic procedures are not always necessary to make relevant instructional change. (Nevertheless, don’t count out norm referenced assessments in stage three to answer or clarify other questions you may have about characteristics of how the student learns relative to special education considerations.) Comprehensive assessments may include, Record review, Interview, Observation, and Test (RIOT).Phase II Intervention - Prevent the development of significant academic deficiencies by intervening in the early grades.15 Kindergarten students were identified during team problem-solving meeting as needing additional repetitions with letter ID and or letter sounds12 out of the 15 are English Language Learners11 third grade students were trained by the school psychology intern to do the drill sandwich technique. The intervention is implemented 3 times per week during recess for 15 minutes each time.Assessments are conducted weekly in order to determine progress of learned letters/letter soundsThe intervention has been implemented for 5 weeksData has indicated gains. Students learned an average of 3 letters/letter sounds per week.
22 More lessons learnedGrade level problem- collaborative teams were effective when a skilled service provider (e.g., the school psychologist) coached the teamRTI and CAP incorporate problem solving, prevention activities and focused early intervention before consideration of special education eligibility. (Therefore the focus of the referral is on problem solving and finding out “why” )Skills in Curriculum-based Measurement and Curriculum-based assessment are essentialThere is no set of universal interventions that will be universally effective.Observations and data show that interventions must be monitored and much depends on the context and classroom environmentLearn as much as possible about your school culture, curriculum and instructionChange is difficult. Develop a good working relationship with your school principal and your director of psychological services. It is all about relationship building
23 Challenges Progress monitoring Implementation of specific targeted interventionsTime and competing responsibilitiesSchool-wide implementationPersonnel changesA litigious and rule driven environmentSystemic issuesPolitical will