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Do not use or reproduce without written permission Consultation for Students with ASD Supporting Inclusion and Social Relationships Dorothy Lucci, M.Ed.,

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Presentation on theme: "Do not use or reproduce without written permission Consultation for Students with ASD Supporting Inclusion and Social Relationships Dorothy Lucci, M.Ed.,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Do not use or reproduce without written permission Consultation for Students with ASD Supporting Inclusion and Social Relationships Dorothy Lucci, M.Ed., C.A.G.S. MGH Youthcare Rebecca Parrish, M.S. Northeastern University

2 Do not use or reproduce without written permission Agenda and Learning Objectives Our model of consultation School-wide application Class-wide application Individual student application Examples using case study

3 Do not use or reproduce without written permission Skills of the Consultant Rapport building Empower the Team Empower the Student Teach (fishing vs. fish) Facilitate teamwork Include families

4 Do not use or reproduce without written permission Our Philosophy No Shame-No Blame Access, Membership, Participation Student-centered Strength-based It takes a village Meet the consultee where they are School climate Classroom context Social is as important as academics View Behavior as Communication

5 Bronfenbrenners Ecological Model (1979)

6 Do not use or reproduce without written permission Goals of Consultation Increase student communication, social relatedness, and social competence Develop staff knowledge and skills Support families Flexible problem solving Keep students in their home schools Maximally include students in general education classrooms Teach pro-social skills to all students Imbed social thinking into academic curriculum

7 Do not use or reproduce without written permission Strengths of this model Individual focus - Addresses the whole child System focus – the student is a part of a class, school, community, and family Incorporates Universal Design and Differentiated Instruction Increase social relationships and inclusion for students with ASD Ecologically valid Gives consultee confidence and skills

8 Do not use or reproduce without written permission Benefits of this model Views the child through an ecological lens It incorporates the multidisciplinary team Helps teachers, programs, and schools enhance students access, membership, and participation in : –High-quality academic instruction –Social development curriculums –Behavior support models –Strategies to enhance communication

9 Do not use or reproduce without written permission How our model is different Stresses flexibility over structure Assessment of the school and classroom culture guides consultation Consultation can be to the entire team Underlying goals of systems change Less focus on a single, observable behavior

10 How our model is similar Do not use or reproduce without written permission Collaborative approach Attention to content and process Goal is to teach the consultee new skills and ways to view a problem Focus on the relationship between the consultant and consultee Data-based decision making is key Assessment of a behavior and its function

11 Do not use or reproduce without written permission RTI Application of the model School-wide Class-wide Small group Individual student

12 Do not use or reproduce without written permission Case Example Two school systems call us in for a similar problem. They each have a 4th grade student, Sam, who is having trouble interacting with peers, making inappropriate comments, tantruming when he doesnt get his way, and telling kids and teachers how to behave. The first school is Divine Elementary. It has a school- wide PBS system, Second Step curriculum, and social skills groups each week for Sam. The second school is Flailing Elementary and it is has no school-wide programming to address social development and behavior. Social skills groups for Sam. Expectations and discipline are inconsistent.

13 Do not use or reproduce without written permission IMAGINE… educational practices in which learners with significant disabilities have the same learner outcomes as students without disabilities. (Kleinert & Kearns, 2001 p. 21)

14 Expectations We believe that students with ASD are capable of meeting the high expectations we set for them….. Children do well if they can, ……. and if they cant do well it is up to the adult to figure out why… so we can help. Ross W. Greene, Ph.D. The Explosive Child Do not use or reproduce without written permission

15 Making It Happen Access (Jorgenensen, C., Sonnenmeier, R. & McSheehan, M.) Grade level curriculum in typical routines Lower level curriculum in typical routines Functional Skills in typical routines Functional skills in atypical routines Developmental curriculum Do not use or reproduce without written permission

16 Making It Happen Membership (Jorgenensen, C., Sonnenmeier, R. & McSheehan, M.) Student is a full time member of a general education class Student is part-time member of general education class Student is visitor in general education class Student is a member of special education class Do not use or reproduce without written permission

17 Making It Happen Participation (Jorgenensen, C., Sonnenmeier, R. & McSheehan, M.) In general education class and participates in all typical routines In general education class and participates in some typical routines In and out of general educational class – participates in different routines Out of general education class – limited participation with general education classmates Do not use or reproduce without written permission

18 Making it Happen It Takes A Village - Collaboration Whole team meets regularly to plan & review Special education staff meet regularly to plan & review Team meets whenever there is a problem Team meets quarterly to review progress Team meets yearly to develop IEP Do not use or reproduce without written permission

19 Universal Design & Differentiated Instruction is a set of 3 principles for curriculum development that give all students equal access to learn I. Provide Multiple Means of Representation - Comprehension: Perception, Language, Expressions and Symbols II. Provide Multiple Means of Action and Expression – Executive Functions – Physical action, Expression and Communication III. Provide Multiple Means of Engagement – Self Regulation Recruiting interest, Sustaining Effort and Persistence Do not use or reproduce without written permission

20 Universal Design & Differentiated Instruction is NOT a one size fits all model of instruction/learning provides a framework for creating instructional goals, methods, materials, and assessments that work for everyone is flexible, customized and individualized for individual students allows for the human variation of skills, needs, interests, strengths, challenges etc. that is makes up all of our students in our classrooms Do not use or reproduce without written permission

21 Teachers Design & Differentiate By Adapted from The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1999) Do not use or reproduce without written permission ContentProcessProduct Readiness Interest Learning Profile

22 School-Wide Programming Considerations It Takes A Village to educate students with AS - Create a Team through collaboration, communication, and consultation Building Atmosphere - Directly Teach social curriculum and create an Inclusive, Accepting Atmosphere among staff & students - Students with AS are Quirky Administration - has to want these students, set the stage for their participation & create an atmosphere for inclusion & acceptance Policies/Procedures - discipline, grading, homework, modifications to instructional requirements & outcomes Do not use or reproduce without written permission

23 School-Wide Programming Considerations Professional Development - Knowledge about AS and the related areas (ToM, SI, EF etc. ) is critical to success, Time & commitment for students and staff Staff Attitude - Consistent yet Flexible, a sense of Humor - able to laugh at self, ability to Think Outside the Box, Patient/Caring, Willing to ask for Help and know that you dont know it all, Team Player, Organized Flexible and Creative Academic, Social, and Behavioral Strategies - leave early/arrive late, independent studies, classes to/not to take, length of classes, PE, Cafeteria, Assemblies, Unstructured/ Structured times of the day (hallways, recess, etc.), potential break spaces Do not use or reproduce without written permission

24 School-Wide Programming Considerations Materials/Supplies - Purchase materials specific to Students with AS to guide instruction, Create a reference library of published & teacher-made materials Technology - availability, usage, integration into overall curriculum Peer Attitudes - Develop value and appreciation of diversity by fostering empathy and compassion Tier 1 Social and Behavioral supports – character education, positive behavioral supports, bullying prevention, self-regulation training, etc. Do not use or reproduce without written permission

25 Class-Wide Programming Considerations Teacher Attitude - Serves as a model for valuing diversity in the classroom, sets the classroom climate, Consistent yet Flexible, a sense of Humor - able to laugh at self, ability to Think Outside the Box, Patient/Caring, Willing to ask for Help and know that you dont know it all, Team Player, Organized Classroom Environment (human and non- human) - classroom set-up, motor pathways, organizational structures, transitional cues, visuals, schedules, rules, consequences/rewards, expectations Technology - usage, integration, and availability Do not use or reproduce without written permission

26 Class-Wide Programming Considerations Classroom Climate - a place where all learners are valued, honored and respected Curriculum - embedding school-wide character curriculum into daily programming, social thinking & social skills are embedded into all aspects of the day, viewing humanities curriculum through a social lens Flexible and Creative Academic, Social, and Behavioral Strategies - leave early/arrive late, classes to/not to take, length of classes, PE, Cafeteria, Assemblies, Unstructured/ Structured times of the day (hallways, recess, etc.), potential break spaces Specific ASD Interventions - Michelle Garcia Winners curriculum, visual supports, social stories, 1-5 scale, power cards, How Does Your Engine Run, language scripts, social- mapping, behavior plans… Do not use or reproduce without written permission

27 Food for Thought… I ve come to a frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in my classroom. It is my personal approach that creates the climate. It is my daily mood that makes the weather. As a teacher, I possess a tremendous power to make each child s day miserable or joyous. I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal, encourage or hinder. In all situations, it is my responses that decides whether a crisis will be escalated or de-escalated and a child humanized or de-humanized. Concept adapted from Hiam Ginott Do not use or reproduce without written permission

28 Remember the Ecological Context Student Teachers Peers TAs Other Admin Staff Specialists Students Culture Community Social Fabric Education Laws Neighborhood History

29 Ecological Assessment: School It Takes a Village - Who are the team members? How do they interact as a group? Are parents incorporated into the school? Building Atmosphere - Are you greeted when you walk in? Are people smiling? How do teachers interact in the hallways? Administration - Are they visible/present? Do they support special education and inclusion? Policies/Procedure - Is there a mission statement, school values? Is it communicated or displayed? Do not use or reproduce without written permission

30 Ecological Assessment: School Professional Development - Available for non-special education staff? How often? Staff Attitude - How do staff interact with students? Are they open to consultation Flexible and Creative Academic, Social, and Behavioral Strategies - Alternatives for schedules? Assemblies? Materials/Supplies – What materials are visible? Do teachers have a budget for supplies? Does library have relevant books? Do not use or reproduce without written permission

31 Ecological Assessment: School Peer Attitudes - What are recess and lunch like? Is it communicated that diversity is valued? Tier 1 Social and Behavioral Supports - Yes or no? Visuals around building? Hear relevant language in hallways? Other Things to Consider: - Layout of the building? Proximity of classroom to break space? Technology - How is it used? When is it used? Is it integrated? Available? Do not use or reproduce without written permission

32 Ecological Assessment: Class Teacher Attitude/Style - Follow through? Clarity in directions? Wait time for kids to think? Classroom Environment (human and non-human) - Draw a diagram of the classroom. Paths for movement? Classroom Climate - What is the general feeling? Do kids help each other? Do not use or reproduce without written permission

33 Ecological Assessment: Class Curriculum - Type/Pacing/Mode of Instruction - Group work/individual? Flexible and Creative Academic, Social and Behavioral Strategies - Breaks? Reinforcement plan? Hands on academics? Technology - How is it used? When is it used? Is it available? Integrated? Specific ASD Interventions - Transition warnings? Visuals? Individual schedule? Do not use or reproduce without written permission

34 Ecological Assessment: Child Quality of Life - –Is the child smiling, laughing? –Does the child look relaxed? Anxious? –Is the child engaged? –Is the child in relationship with others? –Is the childs leisure needs being met? Do not use or reproduce without written permission

35 Ecological Assessment - Child Is the child a member of the class? Does the child participate? Is the child able to access the curriculum? Does the child have an acceptable means of communicating needs, wants, negation etc? How does the child interact during various types of learning situations? Are the childs ____(i.e. sensory etc) needs being met? How is the childs rhythm, pacing, timing etc? What accommodations are in place? Does the child have access to technology? Do not use or reproduce without written permission

36 School, Class, Child Assessment Keep the focus on the referral question Gather information Interview staff, parents, peers Read the file Conduct observations in a variety of contexts/people Formulate the plan Do not use or reproduce without written permission

37 The Consultation Decision Tree Referral Question Data Collection Interventions School- Wide Class- Wide Child Where do we begin?

38 Decision Tree - Now What? Remember the initial request…the staff/administrators want the behavior to stop/fix it! However, in our minds we start outside the child first…it is easier to change what goes on around the child than to change the child…..we work with the human and nonhuman environment remember it is neurology! Do not use or reproduce without written permission

39 Set the stage – map out the findings Provide examples – alternative perspective Think Big Picture to details Think details to Big Picture Set the ground rules Agree to disagree Change is slow and takes time Teaching is from the inside out Baby Steps-small victories = Buy in Decision Tree - Now What? Do not use or reproduce without written permission

40 Case Example: Divine Elementary School-Wide Assessment + positive finding, - negative finding, * mixed finding +Paperwork suggests collaboration looks ok, open to consultation +Staff were welcoming, friendly want consultation +Administration appears to want consultation +Mission is posted, PBS slogans on wall, student handbook clear +Technology is available in classes and in a computer lab * Some staff are consistent, refer to visuals ?Professional Development –No alternatives or flexibility for lunch/recess –Staff inconsistent with discipline and expectations –Not a lot of available resources Do not use or reproduce without written permission

41 Case Example: Divine Elementary Class-Wide Assessment +Welcoming classroom atmosphere +Peers seem inclusive and supportive +Use of Tier 1 strategies and language + Student has individualized interventions (individual schedule, earned breaks, home-school long, behavior plan) * Materials specific to ASD * Technology not fully integrated but available –Not an active participant in class –Social thinking is not a part of classroom –Break room is not consistently available Do not use or reproduce without written permission

42 Case Example: Divine Elementary Student (Sam) Assessment + Follows directions + Member of the classroom + Preferred academic task is independent and successful + Well organized for familiar tasks and routines *Initiates and responds to peers *Sensory seeking *Has an individual schedule and break card, but does not utilize them –Impulsive blurting out during academic lessons –When his preference isnt chosen during recess or group activities he tantrums –Often tells others when they are not following the rules –Heightened level of anxiety and insecurity –No technology use Do not use or reproduce without written permission

43 The Divine Elementary Consultation Decision Tree Referral Question Data Collection Interventions Class- Wide Child Where do we begin? Do not use or reproduce without written permission

44 Divine Elementary: Decision Tree Overall Building and class have many strengths Class-wide needs: –More specific strategies and supports that will allow all students more access, membership, and participation –Social Changes (group work, classroom vibe) –Behavioral changes (teaching what to do vs. highlighting what not to do, communication options) –Social thinking principles –Relaxation and Coping Skills Individual needs: –Sensory diet / Consult OT –Develop clearer schedule/break card that can be implemented with simple adult prompts –Secret signal for blurting out behavior –Specific ASD Recommendations (power cards, social stories, thermometers, etc.) –Increase technology use Do not use or reproduce without written permission

45 Case Example: Flailing Elementary School-Wide Assessment: +Greeted by friendly staff +Parents appear involved ?Professional Development –No Tier 1 Social or Behavioral program –Appears to be conflict among team members –No Flexibility in scheduling for ASD students –Staff are reprimanding students from other classes in the hallway –Technology - computer lab, 1 desktop per class –Space is old, cramped, dreary Do not use or reproduce without written permission

46 Case Example: Flailing Elementary Class-Wide Assessment: +Teacher is flexible and caring +Open to consultation ?Specific ASD interventions *Availability of break space and visuals, but teacher does not utilize -Peers are inconsistent, no overt teasing but student is not obviously included -No clear expectations or rules -Inconsistent discipline -No technology use -Classroom is difficult to navigate -Mode of instruction is mostly lecture and independent reading Do not use or reproduce without written permission

47 Case Example: Flailing Elementary Student (Sam) Assessment + Member of the classroom + Preferred academic task is independent and successful + Well organized for familiar tasks and routines *Responds to peers, but does not initiate –Does not follow directions –Does not have individualized interventions –Impulsive blurting out during academic lessons –When his preference isnt chosen during recess or group activities he tantrums –No technology use –Often tells others when they are not following the rules –Appears very anxious and insecure Do not use or reproduce without written permission

48 The Flailing Elementary Consultation Decision Tree Referral Question Data Collection Interventions Class- Wide Child Where do we begin? School- Wide Do not use or reproduce without written permission

49 Flailing Elementary: Decision Tree The school and class have some strengths, as people seem happy School-wide Needs: –Implement a Tier 1 Behavioral Support Program –Establish clear guidelines and expectations for communication and decision-making on Sams team –Spruce up the building in simple ways (art teacher) –Professional development in UD and DI Class-wide needs: –Establish clear rules, expectations, rewards, and consequences –Tier 2 intervention to address teasing and class climate –Increase use of visuals and structures (homework posted, schedule posted, use of white board) –Rearrange the classroom –Relaxation and Coping Skills –Improve technology integration into teaching Do not use or reproduce without written permission

50 Flailing Elementary: Decision Tree Individual needs: –Individualized schedule with integrated behavior plan –Reward to do preferred game/activity with his choice of peer –Scheduled and structured breaks –Sensory diet / Consult OT –Secret signal for blurting out behavior –Specific ASD Recommendations (power cards, social stories, thermometers, etc.) –Modified academic instruction and expectations –Allow technology use –Alternatives for lunch, recess Do not use or reproduce without written permission

51 General Guidelines Adults and students who feel valued, safe and respected do better academically & socially –Create Safety –Create mutually respectful relationships –Create acceptance of diversity –Humor –Pause/Slow Down –Open communication Do not use or reproduce without written permission

52 Individual Supports for Students with ASD Lenses to think about –Communication –Behavior = Communication –Anxiety/Emotion Regulation –Human/Non-Human Environment –Central Coherence –Executive Functioning –Theory of Mind –Social Thinking –Sensory Integration Do not use or reproduce without written permission

53 Communication Systems So whats Communication, anyway? It is made up of… –7% = Verbal Words We Say –23 % = Paraverbals (rate, tone, volume...) –70% = Non-Verbals So whats Communication, anyway? It is made up of… –7% = Verbal Words We Say –23 % = Paraverbals (rate, tone, volume...) –70% = Non-Verbals Pragmatics = the social use of language. The way we use language socially varies by context. Kids with AS may know what to say but not know when to say it or to whom or why or how or where to say it All children with AS have PRAGMATICS deficits that need to be addressed. Pragmatics = the social use of language. The way we use language socially varies by context. Kids with AS may know what to say but not know when to say it or to whom or why or how or where to say it All children with AS have PRAGMATICS deficits that need to be addressed. Do not use or reproduce without written permission

54 Behavior = Communication ASSUMPTION: All of the childs overt BEHAVIORS SERVE some COMMUNICATIVE FUNCTION Standard Verbal (talk, picture boards, sign language…) Non-Standard Verbal (prosody, perseverative…) Standard Non-Verbal (gestures, point, affect, proximity…) Non-Standard Non-Verbal (tantrums, running away, throwing…) Do not use or reproduce without written permission

55 Communicative Function Categories Requests Comments Declaration of Feelings Negations Sensory Self/Non-Interactive Do not use or reproduce without written permission

56 Do Not Use Without Permission Behavior May Not Be What It Appears To Be Behavior = Communication (requests, feelings, negations, comments, self, sensory) Behaviors can appear willful, weird/odd, rude, defiant, manipulative, annoying etc…. Behaviors are related to neurology, the environment, a childs internal psychological state/emotional state/understanding, sensory input, developmental level… AS is a neurological disorder -- its easier to change whats external to the child than to change the child Do not use or reproduce without written permission

57 Three times to Intervene 1. Before the fact -Take the wall away. 2. During the fact -Intervene just as he starts to teeter. 3. After the fact -Couldnt put Humpty together again Do not use or reproduce without written permission

58 Anxiety and Emotion Regulation Children with AS: Often misinterpret the environment, and this can increase anxiety Lose IQ points when anxious (we all do) leading to decreased coping & problem solving abilities Challenges with anxiety are often misinterpreted as behavioral – THINK ABOUT ANXIETY FIRST Do not use or reproduce without written permission

59 Consider the Non-Human Environment The Non-Human Environment has to be addressed when teaching students with AS Non-Human Environment (inside/outside, place) Seating Options & Room Arrangement Sensory Influences (color, visuals, smells, lighting, manipulatives, temperature, air quality, music/ sounds…) Animals & Plants Seasons & Weather Tasks & Curriculum Do not use or reproduce without written permission

60 Consider the Human Environment External - What Non-verbal Communication (affect, gestures, body language, proximity, nuances…) Verbal Communication (prosody,tone, volume, rate, type, humor…) External - Who Type (1-1, dyad, small group…) Adults, peers, familiar/unfamiliar…. Internal - Who (Student characteristics/temperament…) Physical Health (hunger, thirst, hormones, emotions, sleep…) Do not use or reproduce without written permission

61 Central Coherence Theory & AS Individuals with AS have deficits in Getting the Big Picture - Dont see the Forest through the Trees dont understand how the parts relate to the whole and become the whole. have difficulty conceptualizing & integrating information tend not to relate information to a larger pattern of behavior and thought, develop schema. Do not use or reproduce without written permission

62 Executive Function in Children with ASD Children with AS often have deficits in Executive Functioning. For example, they may: –Not manage time effectively –Get stuck on one topic or a detail –Be inflexible –Act impulsively –Not plan well –Be disorganized –Not know what to attend to –Not use previously learned knowledge Do not use or reproduce without written permission

63 Theory Of Mind ToM - the ability to appreciate that other people have different mental states: intentions, needs, desires, beliefs that may be different that your own ToM - the understanding that other people have thoughts & feelings and that these people can reflect on their thoughts/feelings and can reflect on others peoples thoughts/feelings and change their thinking and behavior ToM - involves: joint attention, representation, transitioning, inferring, categorizing, abstraction, pretending, etc. Do not use or reproduce without written permission

64 What is Social Thinking – MGW Simply put, social thinking is our innate ability to think through and apply information to succeed in situations that require social knowledge. Social thinking challenges represent a social executive function problem. The ability to socially process and respond to information requires more than factual knowledge of the rules of social interaction, it also requires the ability to consider the perspective of the person you are interacting with. Social thinking should be taught to kids with social learning challenges not as an additional school subject, but as a core instructional element that impacts each moment of the school day. Do not use or reproduce without written permission

65 4 Steps of Perspective Taking M GW Social behavior is based on social thought As soon as I share space with you: 1. I have a thought about you, you have a thought about me. 2. I try to determine why you are near me, what you may want from me (motive/intent). You wonder why I am near you, what I may want from you. 3. Given you are having a thought about me, I wonder what you are thinking about me? (you) 4. I monitor and possibly modify my behavior to keep you thinking about me the way I want you to think about me. (and reverse). Do not use or reproduce without written permission

66 Sensory Integration SENSORY INTEGRATION is… There are 7 senses , proprioception & vestibular the ability of our senses to work together and interconnect with other systems in the brain the ability to use information gathered from our senses to organize our behavior and interact successfully with the world the ability to filter out unimportant sensory information and organize ourselves for performing meaningful activity Do not use or reproduce without written permission

67 Our Senses 5+2 PROPRIOCEPTION - Processing information about the bodys position and parts received through muscles, ligaments and joints. Proprioception gives awareness of our bodys position without being vigilant VESTIBULAR - Processing information about movement, gravity and balance. Vestibular sense is located in the middle ear and detects position and movement of the head through space Do not use or reproduce without written permission

68 Sensory Integration in Children with ASD Differences interpreting, filtering, modulating, and integrating sensory input Sometimes childrens behavior will be better understood by thinking about their sensory differences or anxiety level. Children may be over-and/or under aroused to sensory input. Do not use or reproduce without written permission

69 Putting that theory to use - What to look for when observing a child Comprehensive observation provides a context in which to understand a specific behavior or learning issue - Take it all (SI, Attn., TOM…) into account Who is the child in each setting/situation or with particular people? Why is the child doing what he is doing (Functional Analysis B=C)? Is the child experiencing sufficient positive social connections? How can you tell? Is the child experiencing sufficient positive academic success - (engaged in whats going on)? How can you tell? Assess the human and non-human environment Do not use or reproduce without written permission

70 Do Not Use Without Permission Putting the Theory Into Practice Each Child is Unique - Know the Student with AS - treat respectfully, accept quirkiness, know his./her interests Its about relationships - Establish one! Children with AS are Consistently Inconsistent Make it visual! They dont get why we do what we do (ToM) - Always provide the Why Anxiety ---> fight/flight/fright --> Behavior Behavior = Communication - its your job to figure out what it means Dont engage in power struggles you will lose Emotions are connected to learning & memory-> participation (If I feel safe and relaxed Im available for learning) Do not use or reproduce without written permission

71 Putting the Theory Into Practice They dont see the forest through the tress - teach the big picture Sensory Needs have to be addressed - create a sensory diet Be flexible and creative when discipline is needed Teach to their learning style, strengths & interests - Universal Design & Differentiated Instruction If you can add an external structure, support, visual etc. do it Dont expect sustained effort all day They are square pegs trying to fit into round holes Always analyze using the Person, Activity, Environment (Human/Nonhuman Environment) Do not use or reproduce without written permission

72 Resources Web Pages OASIS (Online AS Information and Support): AANE (Aspergers Association of NE): Tony Attwood: Autism Society of America: Nonverbal Learning Disorder Association: Autism community Temple Grandin Universal Design Differentiated Instruction Books Emergence: Labeled Autistic by T. Grandin (and others) Right Address…Wrong Planet by G.P. Barnhill Pretending to be Normal: Living with Asperger Syndrome by L. Willey Quirky Kids by P. Klass and E. Costello Asperger Syndrome: An Owners Manual by E. Korin Aspergers Syndrome, The Universe, and Everything: Kenneths Book by K. Hall Freaks, Geeks, and Asperger Syndrome: A User Guide to Adolescence by L. Jackson Beyond the Wall: Personal Experiences with Autism and Asperger Syndrome, by S. Shore (and others) Unwritten Rules of Social Relationships By Temple Grandin and Sean Baron Do not use or reproduce without written permission

73 Resources The Hidden Curriculum: Practical Solutions for Understanding Unstated Rules in Social Situations by B.S. Myles et al. Incorporating Social Goals in the Classroom: A Guide for Teachers and Parents of Children with High Functioning Autism and Aspergers Syndrome by R.A. Moyes Answers to Questions Teachers ask about Sensory Integration, by J. Koomar, C. Kranowitz, S. Szklut, et. al. The Beyond Access Model Promoting membership, participation and learning for Students with Disabilities in the General Education Classroom by Cheryl Jorgenson, Michael McSheehan & Rae Sonnenmeier Institute on Disabilities The Incredible 5-Point Scale, by K.D. Buron and M. Curtis The Explosive Child: A new approach for understanding and parenting easily frustrated, chronically inflexible children By Ross Greene The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners By Carol Tomlinson Alternate Assessment: measuring outcomes and supports for students with disabilities by Harold Kleinert, Jacqui Kearns Teacher and child by Hiam Ginott The Ziggurat Model, R. Aspie & B. Grossman Thinking About You Thinking About Me, Michelle Garcia Winner Do not use or reproduce without written permission

74 Resources For peers of children with ASD (to explain ASD and build community): This is Asperger Syndrome by E. Gagnon and B.S. Smith Myles You are Special Too by J. Santomauro Coulter videos to explain Aspergers Syndrome to kids The Sixth Sense II by Carol Gray (implemented by teachers/adults; All Cats have Asperger Syndrome by K. Hoopman Blue Bottle Mystery: An Aspergers Adventure By Kathy Hoopman (and others by her) Adams Alternative Sports Day By Jude Welton (and others) Wishing on a Midnight Star by Nancy Ogaz Aspergers Syndrome: The Universe and Everything Kenneth Hall The Curious Incident of the Dog in the the Night-Time Mark haddon Do not use or reproduce without written permission


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