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Dorothy Lucci, M.Ed., C.A.G.S. MGH Youthcare Rebecca Parrish, M.S.

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Presentation on theme: "Dorothy Lucci, M.Ed., C.A.G.S. MGH Youthcare Rebecca Parrish, M.S."— Presentation transcript:

1 Consultation for Students with ASD Supporting Inclusion and Social Relationships
Dorothy Lucci, M.Ed., C.A.G.S. MGH Youthcare Rebecca Parrish, M.S. Northeastern University Who we are - introduce ourselves personal and work backgrounds, experience with ASD why are passionate about this topic Get a sense of who is in the room Do not use or reproduce without written permission

2 Agenda and Learning Objectives
Our model of consultation School-wide application Class-wide application Individual student application Examples using case study Do not use or reproduce without written permission

3 Skills of the Consultant
Rapport building Empower the Team Empower the Student Teach (fishing vs. fish) Facilitate teamwork Include families no shame, no blame non-judgmental philosophy encourage honesty and openness Educate the educator - give the team skills to use in the future, critical skills for choosing appropriate interventions understand the reason behind the strategies so they can be applied appropriately in the future with other students or in other situations teaching families ways to improve communication skills at home Do not use or reproduce without written permission

4 Do not use or reproduce without written permission
Our Philosophy No Shame-No Blame Access, Membership, Participation Student-centered Strength-based It takes a village Meet the consultee where they are School climate Classroom context Social is as important as academics View Behavior as Communication Do not use or reproduce without written permission

5 Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model (1979)

6 Do not use or reproduce without written permission
Goals of Consultation Increase student communication, social relatedness, and social competence Develop staff knowledge and skills Support families Flexible problem solving Keep students in their home schools Maximally include students in general education classrooms Teach pro-social skills to all students Imbed social thinking into academic curriculum Do not use or reproduce without written permission

7 Strengths of this model
Individual focus - Addresses the whole child System focus – the student is a part of a class, school, community, and family Incorporates Universal Design and Differentiated Instruction Increase social relationships and inclusion for students with ASD Ecologically valid Gives consultee confidence and skills Do not use or reproduce without written permission

8 Do not use or reproduce without written permission
Benefits of this model Views the child through an ecological lens It incorporates the multidisciplinary team Helps teachers, programs, and schools enhance student’s access, membership, and participation in : High-quality academic instruction Social development curriculums Behavior support models Strategies to enhance communication Do not use or reproduce without written permission

9 How our model is different
Stresses flexibility over structure Assessment of the school and classroom culture guides consultation Consultation can be to the entire team Underlying goals of systems change Less focus on a single, observable behavior Do not use or reproduce without written permission

10 How our model is similar
Collaborative approach Attention to content and process Goal is to teach the consultee new skills and ways to view a problem Focus on the relationship between the consultant and consultee Data-based decision making is key Assessment of a behavior and its function Do not use or reproduce without written permission

11 RTI Application of the model
School-wide Class-wide Small group Individual student Do not use or reproduce without written permission

12 Do not use or reproduce without written permission
Case Example Two school systems call us in for a similar problem. They each have a 4th grade student, Sam, who is having trouble interacting with peers, making inappropriate comments, tantruming when he doesn’t get his way, and telling kids and teachers how to behave. The first school is Divine Elementary. It has a school-wide PBS system, Second Step curriculum, and social skills groups each week for Sam. The second school is Flailing Elementary and it is has no school-wide programming to address social development and behavior. Social skills groups for Sam. Expectations and discipline are inconsistent. Do not use or reproduce without written permission

13 Do not use or reproduce without written permission
“IMAGINE… educational practices in which learners with significant disabilities have the same learner outcomes as students without disabilities.” (Kleinert & Kearns, 2001 p. 21) Do not use or reproduce without written permission

14 Do not use or reproduce without written permission
Expectations We believe that students with ASD are capable of meeting the high expectations we set for them….. “Children do well if they can, ……. and if they can’t do well it is up to the adult to figure out why… so we can help.” Ross W. Greene, Ph.D. The Explosive Child Do not use or reproduce without written permission

15 Do not use or reproduce without written permission
Making It Happen Access (Jorgenensen, C., Sonnenmeier, R. & McSheehan, M.) Grade level curriculum in typical routines Lower level curriculum in typical routines Functional Skills in typical routines Functional skills in atypical routines Developmental curriculum Do not use or reproduce without written permission

16 Do not use or reproduce without written permission
Making It Happen Membership (Jorgenensen, C., Sonnenmeier, R. & McSheehan, M.) Student is a full time member of a general education class Student is part-time member of general education class Student is visitor in general education class Student is a member of special education class Do not use or reproduce without written permission

17 Do not use or reproduce without written permission
Making It Happen Participation (Jorgenensen, C., Sonnenmeier, R. & McSheehan, M.) In general education class and participates in all typical routines In general education class and participates in some typical routines In and out of general educational class – participates in different routines Out of general education class – limited participation with general education classmates Do not use or reproduce without written permission

18 Making it Happen It Takes A Village - Collaboration
Whole team meets regularly to plan & review Special education staff meet regularly to plan & review Team meets whenever there is a problem Team meets quarterly to review progress Team meets yearly to develop IEP Do not use or reproduce without written permission

19 Universal Design & Differentiated Instruction
is a set of 3 principles for curriculum development that give all students equal access to learn I. Provide Multiple Means of Representation - Comprehension: Perception, Language, Expressions and Symbols II. Provide Multiple Means of Action and Expression – Executive Functions – Physical action, Expression and Communication III. Provide Multiple Means of Engagement – Self Regulation Recruiting interest, Sustaining Effort and Persistence Do not use or reproduce without written permission

20 Universal Design & Differentiated Instruction
is NOT a one size fits all model of instruction/learning provides a framework for creating instructional goals, methods, materials, and assessments that work for everyone is flexible, customized and individualized for individual students allows for the human variation of skills, needs, interests, strengths, challenges etc. that is makes up all of our students in our classrooms Recognizes students’ varying background knowledge, readiness, learning styles, and interests and to react to that. Maximizes each student’s growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is and designing instruction that matches students’ needs. Do not use or reproduce without written permission

21 Teachers Design & Differentiate By
Adapted from The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1999) Content Process Product Readiness Interest Learning Profile Do not use or reproduce without written permission

22 School-Wide Programming Considerations
It Takes A Village to educate students with AS - Create a Team through collaboration, communication, and consultation Building Atmosphere - Directly Teach social curriculum and create an Inclusive, Accepting Atmosphere among staff & students - Students with AS are Quirky Administration - has to want these students, set the stage for their participation & create an atmosphere for inclusion & acceptance Policies/Procedures - discipline, grading, homework, modifications to instructional requirements & outcomes Do not use or reproduce without written permission

23 School-Wide Programming Considerations
Professional Development - Knowledge about AS and the related areas (ToM, SI, EF etc. ) is critical to success, Time & commitment for students and staff Staff Attitude - Consistent yet Flexible, a sense of Humor - able to laugh at self, ability to Think Outside the Box, Patient/Caring, Willing to ask for Help and know that you don’t know it all, Team Player, Organized Flexible and Creative Academic, Social, and Behavioral Strategies - leave early/arrive late, independent studies, classes to/not to take, length of classes, PE, Cafeteria, Assemblies, Unstructured/ Structured times of the day (hallways, recess, etc.), potential break spaces Do not use or reproduce without written permission

24 School-Wide Programming Considerations
Materials/Supplies - Purchase materials specific to Students with AS to guide instruction, Create a reference library of published & teacher-made materials Technology - availability, usage, integration into overall curriculum Peer Attitudes - Develop value and appreciation of diversity by fostering empathy and compassion Tier 1 Social and Behavioral supports – character education, positive behavioral supports, bullying prevention, self-regulation training, etc. Do not use or reproduce without written permission

25 Class-Wide Programming Considerations
Teacher Attitude - Serves as a model for valuing diversity in the classroom, sets the classroom climate, Consistent yet Flexible, a sense of Humor - able to laugh at self, ability to Think Outside the Box, Patient/Caring, Willing to ask for Help and know that you don’t know it all, Team Player, Organized Classroom Environment (human and non-human) - classroom set-up, motor pathways, organizational structures, transitional cues, visuals, schedules, rules, consequences/rewards, expectations Technology - usage, integration, and availability Do not use or reproduce without written permission

26 Class-Wide Programming Considerations
Classroom Climate - a place where all learners are valued, honored and respected Curriculum - embedding school-wide character curriculum into daily programming, social thinking & social skills are embedded into all aspects of the day, viewing humanities curriculum through a social lens Flexible and Creative Academic, Social, and Behavioral Strategies - leave early/arrive late, classes to/not to take, length of classes, PE, Cafeteria, Assemblies, Unstructured/ Structured times of the day (hallways, recess, etc.), potential break spaces Specific ASD Interventions - Michelle Garcia Winner’s curriculum, visual supports, social stories, 1-5 scale, power cards, How Does Your Engine Run, language scripts, social-mapping, behavior plans… Do not use or reproduce without written permission

27 Do not use or reproduce without written permission
Food for Thought… I’ve come to a frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in my classroom. It is my personal approach that creates the climate. It is my daily mood that makes the weather. As a teacher, I possess a tremendous power to make each child’s day miserable or joyous. I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal, encourage or hinder. In all situations, it is my responses that decides whether a crisis will be escalated or de-escalated and a child humanized or de-humanized. Concept adapted from Hiam Ginott Do not use or reproduce without written permission

28 Remember the Ecological Context
Neighborhood Education Laws Other History Teachers Admin TAs Student Students Typicall there are multiple needs in a school…. School, class, and student. Always multiple needs, no matter how good the school. How do you figure out where to begin under the mulititude of choices one has and the rubric is …. Safety first , structure, connection, being in relationships. How do we do that - simultaneously we may be doing tier 1 and tier 2 and a tier 3 related to the child. Microsystem Macrosystem Mesosystem Exosystem Specialists Peers Culture Staff Social Fabric Community

29 Ecological Assessment: School
It Takes a Village - Who are the team members? How do they interact as a group? Are parents incorporated into the school? Building Atmosphere - Are you greeted when you walk in? Are people smiling? How do teachers interact in the hallways? Administration - Are they visible/present? Do they support special education and inclusion? Policies/Procedure - Is there a mission statement, school values? Is it communicated or displayed? Call from someone --> gather info --> look at faces (eye contact? Smiling? Greeted by office staff? What is the atmosphere? Collegeal to each other? Stranger? Observe kids and staff in the hall…subtle interactions unrelated to consultation question (teasing, running, respectful, polite, etc) Classroom - copy of above but in the classroom. What is the energy, positive feeling? Negative? Environment - clear pathways to move, behavioral expectations, visuals, follow through from teachers when she says shh, tranisition warnings, clarity in directions, waiting for kids to think, only calling on kids wh raise their hands, what is the flavor, general feel and consistency of what is seen Kids - is the kid happy, enjoying school, movement, relaxed/tense, Do not use or reproduce without written permission

30 Ecological Assessment: School
Professional Development - Available for non-special education staff? How often? Staff Attitude - How do staff interact with students? Are they open to consultation Flexible and Creative Academic, Social, and Behavioral Strategies - Alternatives for schedules? Assemblies? Materials/Supplies – What materials are visible? Do teachers have a budget for supplies? Does library have relevant books? Do not use or reproduce without written permission

31 Ecological Assessment: School
Peer Attitudes - What are recess and lunch like? Is it communicated that diversity is valued? Tier 1 Social and Behavioral Supports - Yes or no? Visuals around building? Hear relevant language in hallways? Other Things to Consider: - Layout of the building? Proximity of classroom to break space? Technology - How is it used? When is it used? Is it integrated? Available? Do not use or reproduce without written permission

32 Ecological Assessment: Class
Teacher Attitude/Style - Follow through? Clarity in directions? Wait time for kids to think? Classroom Environment (human and non-human) - Draw a diagram of the classroom. Paths for movement? Classroom Climate - What is the general feeling? Do kids help each other? clear pathways to move, behavioral expectations, visuals, follow through from teachers when she says shh, tranisition warnings, clarity in directions, waiting for kids to think, only calling on kids wh raise their hands, what is the flavor, general feel and consistency of what is seen Do not use or reproduce without written permission

33 Ecological Assessment: Class
Curriculum - Type/Pacing/Mode of Instruction - Group work/individual? Flexible and Creative Academic, Social and Behavioral Strategies - Breaks? Reinforcement plan? Hands on academics? Technology - How is it used? When is it used? Is it available? Integrated? Specific ASD Interventions - Transition warnings? Visuals? Individual schedule? Do not use or reproduce without written permission

34 Ecological Assessment: Child
Quality of Life - Is the child smiling, laughing? Does the child look relaxed? Anxious? Is the child engaged? Is the child in relationship with others? Is the child’s leisure needs being met? Have to meet consultees initial request, even though our goal may be bigger and broader - about buy-in. Do not use or reproduce without written permission

35 Ecological Assessment - Child
Is the child a member of the class? Does the child participate? Is the child able to access the curriculum? Does the child have an acceptable means of communicating needs, wants, negation etc? How does the child interact during various types of learning situations? Are the child’s ____(i.e. sensory etc) needs being met? How is the child’s rhythm, pacing, timing etc? What accommodations are in place? Does the child have access to technology? Do not use or reproduce without written permission

36 School, Class, Child Assessment
Keep the focus on the referral question Gather information Interview staff, parents, peers Read the file Conduct observations in a variety of contexts/people Formulate the plan Do not use or reproduce without written permission

37 The Consultation Decision Tree
Where do we begin? Referral Question Data Collection Interventions Gather info --> informs us about how to start… school-wide, class-wide, student specific, or combo -> premise for all is everyone comes to school wanting to have a good day, be happy, be safe, and be a part of things -> Is the student happy, safe, etc? if not, why? -> what is being communicated by the “problem” -> What can we do to help him meet the above stated goals - > How can “problem” be changed to be more adaptive/typical -> Interventions to meet that goal Class- Wide School-Wide Child

38 Decision Tree - Now What?
Remember the initial request…the staff/administrators want the behavior to stop/fix it! However, in our minds we start outside the child first…it is easier to change what goes on around the child than to change the child…..we work with the human and nonhuman environment remember it is neurology! Do not use or reproduce without written permission

39 Decision Tree - Now What?
Set the stage – map out the findings Provide examples – alternative perspective Think Big Picture to details Think details to Big Picture Set the ground rules Agree to disagree Change is slow and takes time Teaching is from the inside out Baby Steps-small victories = Buy in Do not use or reproduce without written permission

40 Case Example: Divine Elementary
School-Wide Assessment + positive finding, - negative finding , * mixed finding Paperwork suggests collaboration looks ok, open to consultation Staff were welcoming, friendly want consultation Administration appears to want consultation Mission is posted, PBS slogans on wall, student handbook clear Technology is available in classes and in a computer lab * Some staff are consistent, refer to visuals Professional Development No alternatives or flexibility for lunch/recess Staff inconsistent with discipline and expectations Not a lot of available resources Do not use or reproduce without written permission

41 Case Example: Divine Elementary
Class-Wide Assessment Welcoming classroom atmosphere Peers seem inclusive and supportive Use of Tier 1 strategies and language Student has individualized interventions (individual schedule, earned breaks, home-school long, behavior plan) * Materials specific to ASD * Technology not fully integrated but available Not an active participant in class Social thinking is not a part of classroom Break room is not consistently available Do not use or reproduce without written permission

42 Case Example: Divine Elementary
Student (Sam) Assessment + Follows directions + Member of the classroom + Preferred academic task is independent and successful + Well organized for familiar tasks and routines Initiates and responds to peers Sensory seeking Has an individual schedule and break card, but does not utilize them Impulsive blurting out during academic lessons When his preference isn’t chosen during recess or group activities he tantrums Often tells others when they are not following the rules Heightened level of anxiety and insecurity No technology use Desk and locker are with the other kids, no separate cubby or desk removed Do not use or reproduce without written permission

43 The Divine Elementary Consultation Decision Tree
Where do we begin? Referral Question Data Collection Interventions Gather info --> informs us about how to start… school-wide, class-wide, student specific, or combo -> premise for all is everyone comes to school wanting to have a good day, be happy, be safe, and be a part of things -> Is the student happy, safe, etc? if not, why? -> what is being communicated by the “problem” -> What can we do to help him meet the above stated goals - > How can “problem” be changed to be more adaptive/typical -> Interventions to meet that goal Class- Wide Child Do not use or reproduce without written permission

44 Divine Elementary: Decision Tree
Overall Building and class have many strengths Class-wide needs: More specific strategies and supports that will allow all students more access, membership, and participation Social Changes (group work, classroom vibe) Behavioral changes (teaching what to do vs. highlighting what not to do, communication options) Social thinking principles Relaxation and Coping Skills Individual needs: Sensory diet / Consult OT Develop clearer schedule/break card that can be implemented with simple adult prompts Secret signal for blurting out behavior Specific ASD Recommendations (power cards, social stories, thermometers, etc.) Increase technology use We need to continue to assess: Administration Professional Development Supplies and Materials Do not use or reproduce without written permission

45 Case Example: Flailing Elementary
School-Wide Assessment: Greeted by friendly staff Parents appear involved Professional Development No Tier 1 Social or Behavioral program Appears to be conflict among team members No Flexibility in scheduling for ASD students Staff are reprimanding students from other classes in the hallway Technology - computer lab, 1 desktop per class Space is old, cramped, dreary Do not use or reproduce without written permission

46 Case Example: Flailing Elementary
Class-Wide Assessment: Teacher is flexible and caring Open to consultation Specific ASD interventions Availability of break space and visuals, but teacher does not utilize Peers are inconsistent, no overt teasing but student is not obviously included No clear expectations or rules Inconsistent discipline No technology use Classroom is difficult to navigate Mode of instruction is mostly lecture and independent reading Do not use or reproduce without written permission

47 Case Example: Flailing Elementary
Student (Sam) Assessment + Member of the classroom + Preferred academic task is independent and successful + Well organized for familiar tasks and routines Responds to peers, but does not initiate Does not follow directions Does not have individualized interventions Impulsive blurting out during academic lessons When his preference isn’t chosen during recess or group activities he tantrums No technology use Often tells others when they are not following the rules Appears very anxious and insecure Do not use or reproduce without written permission

48 The Flailing Elementary Consultation Decision Tree
Where do we begin? Referral Question Data Collection Interventions Gather info --> informs us about how to start… school-wide, class-wide, student specific, or combo -> premise for all is everyone comes to school wanting to have a good day, be happy, be safe, and be a part of things -> Is the student happy, safe, etc? if not, why? -> what is being communicated by the “problem” -> What can we do to help him meet the above stated goals - > How can “problem” be changed to be more adaptive/typical -> Interventions to meet that goal Class- Wide School-Wide Child Do not use or reproduce without written permission

49 Flailing Elementary: Decision Tree
The school and class have some strengths, as people seem happy School-wide Needs: Implement a Tier 1 Behavioral Support Program Establish clear guidelines and expectations for communication and decision-making on Sam’s team Spruce up the building in simple ways (art teacher) Professional development in UD and DI Class-wide needs: Establish clear rules, expectations, rewards, and consequences Tier 2 intervention to address teasing and class climate Increase use of visuals and structures (homework posted, schedule posted, use of white board) Rearrange the classroom Relaxation and Coping Skills Improve technology integration into teaching For teachers and students - teach the why and not just the discete skill. Do not use or reproduce without written permission

50 Flailing Elementary: Decision Tree
Individual needs: Individualized schedule with integrated behavior plan Reward to do preferred game/activity with his choice of peer Scheduled and structured breaks Sensory diet / Consult OT Secret signal for blurting out behavior Specific ASD Recommendations (power cards, social stories, thermometers, etc.) Modified academic instruction and expectations Allow technology use Alternatives for lunch, recess Member of the classroom + Preferred academic task is independent and successful + Well organized for familiar tasks and routines Responds to peers, but does not initiate Does not follow directions Does not have individualized interventions Impulsive blurting out during academic lessons When his preference isn’t chosen during recess or group activities he tantrums Often tells others when they are not following the rules Appears very anxious and insecure Do not use or reproduce without written permission

51 Do not use or reproduce without written permission
General Guidelines Adults and students who feel valued, safe and respected do better academically & socially Create Safety Create mutually respectful relationships Create acceptance of diversity Humor Pause/Slow Down Open communication Do not use or reproduce without written permission

52 Individual Supports for Students with ASD
Lenses to think about Communication Behavior = Communication Anxiety/Emotion Regulation Human/Non-Human Environment Central Coherence Executive Functioning Theory of Mind Social Thinking Sensory Integration Do not use or reproduce without written permission

53 Communication Systems
So what’s Communication, anyway? It is made up of… 7% = Verbal Words We Say 23 % = Paraverbals (rate, tone, volume...) 70% = Non-Verbals Pragmatics = the social use of language. The way we use language socially varies by context. Kids with AS may know what to say but not know when to say it or to whom or why or how or where to say it All children with AS have PRAGMATICS deficits that need to be addressed. Do not use or reproduce without written permission

54 Behavior = Communication ASSUMPTION:
All of the child’s overt BEHAVIORS SERVE some COMMUNICATIVE FUNCTION Standard Verbal (talk, picture boards, sign language…) Non-Standard Verbal (prosody, perseverative…) Standard Non-Verbal (gestures, point, affect, proximity…) Non-Standard Non-Verbal (tantrums, running away, throwing…) Do not use or reproduce without written permission

55 Communicative Function Categories
Requests Comments Declaration of Feelings Negations Sensory Self/Non-Interactive Do not use or reproduce without written permission

56 Behavior May Not Be What It Appears To Be
Behavior = Communication (requests, feelings, negations, comments, self, sensory) Behaviors can appear willful, weird/odd, rude, defiant, manipulative, annoying etc…. Behaviors are related to neurology, the environment, a child’s internal psychological state/emotional state/understanding, sensory input, developmental level… AS is a neurological disorder -- it’s easier to change what’s external to the child than to change the child Do Not Use Without Permission Do not use or reproduce without written permission

57 Three times to Intervene
1. Before the fact -Take the wall away. 2. During the fact -Intervene just as he starts to teeter. 3. After the fact -“Couldn’t put Humpty together again” Do not use or reproduce without written permission

58 Anxiety and Emotion Regulation
Children with AS: Often misinterpret the environment, and this can increase anxiety Lose IQ points when anxious (we all do) leading to decreased coping & problem solving abilities Challenges with anxiety are often misinterpreted as behavioral – THINK ABOUT ANXIETY FIRST Do not use or reproduce without written permission

59 Consider the Non-Human Environment
The Non-Human Environment has to be addressed when teaching students with AS Non-Human Environment (inside/outside, place) Seating Options & Room Arrangement Sensory Influences (color, visuals, smells, lighting, manipulatives, temperature, air quality, music/ sounds…) Animals & Plants Seasons & Weather Tasks & Curriculum Do not use or reproduce without written permission

60 Consider the Human Environment
External - What Non-verbal Communication (affect, gestures, body language, proximity, nuances…) Verbal Communication (prosody,tone, volume, rate, type, humor…) External - Who Type (1-1, dyad, small group…) Adults, peers, familiar/unfamiliar…. Internal - Who (Student characteristics/temperament…) Physical Health (hunger, thirst, hormones, emotions, sleep…) Do not use or reproduce without written permission

61 Central Coherence Theory & AS
Individuals with AS have deficits in “Getting the Big Picture” - Don’t see the Forest through the Trees” don’t understand how the parts relate to the whole and become the whole. have difficulty conceptualizing & integrating information tend not to relate information to a larger pattern of behavior and thought, develop schema. Do not use or reproduce without written permission

62 Executive Function in Children with ASD
Children with AS often have deficits in Executive Functioning . For example, they may: Not manage time effectively Get stuck on one topic or a detail Be inflexible Act impulsively Not plan well Be disorganized Not know what to attend to Not use previously learned knowledge Do not use or reproduce without written permission

63 Do not use or reproduce without written permission
Theory Of Mind ToM - the ability to appreciate that other people have different mental states: intentions, needs, desires, beliefs that may be different that your own ToM - the understanding that other people have thoughts & feelings and that these people can reflect on their thoughts/feelings and can reflect on others people’s thoughts/feelings and change their thinking and behavior ToM - involves: joint attention, representation, transitioning, inferring, categorizing, abstraction, pretending, etc. Do not use or reproduce without written permission

64 What is Social Thinking – MGW
“Simply put, social thinking is our innate ability to think through and apply information to succeed in situations that require social knowledge. Social thinking challenges represent a social executive function problem. The ability to socially process and respond to information requires more than factual knowledge of the rules of social interaction, it also requires the ability to consider the perspective of the person you are interacting with.” “Social thinking should be taught to kids with social learning challenges not as an additional school subject, but as a core instructional element that impacts each moment of the school day.” Do not use or reproduce without written permission

65 4 Steps of Perspective Taking M GW
Social behavior is based on social thought As soon as I share space with you: 1. I have a thought about you, you have a thought about me. 2. I try to determine why you are near me, what you may want from me (motive/intent). You wonder why I am near you, what I may want from you. 3. Given you are having a thought about me, I wonder what you are thinking about me? (you) 4. I monitor and possibly modify my behavior to keep you thinking about me the way I want you to think about me. (and reverse). Do not use or reproduce without written permission

66 Do not use or reproduce without written permission
Sensory Integration SENSORY INTEGRATION is… There are 7 senses , proprioception & vestibular the ability of our senses to work together and interconnect with other systems in the brain the ability to use information gathered from our senses to organize our behavior and interact successfully with the world the ability to filter out unimportant sensory information and organize ourselves for performing meaningful activity Do not use or reproduce without written permission

67 Do not use or reproduce without written permission
Our Senses 5+2 PROPRIOCEPTION - Processing information about the body’s position and parts received through muscles, ligaments and joints. Proprioception gives awareness of our body’s position without being vigilant VESTIBULAR - Processing information about movement, gravity and balance. Vestibular sense is located in the middle ear and detects position and movement of the head through space Do not use or reproduce without written permission

68 Sensory Integration in Children with ASD
Differences interpreting, filtering, modulating, and integrating sensory input Sometimes children’s behavior will be better understood by thinking about their sensory differences or anxiety level. Children may be over-and/or under aroused to sensory input. Do not use or reproduce without written permission

69 Putting that theory to use - What to look for when observing a child
Comprehensive observation provides a context in which to understand a specific behavior or learning issue - Take it all (SI, Attn., TOM…) into account Who is the child in each setting/situation or with particular people? Why is the child doing what he is doing (Functional Analysis B=C)? Is the child experiencing sufficient positive social connections? How can you tell? Is the child experiencing sufficient positive academic success - (engaged in what’s going on)? How can you tell? Assess the human and non-human environment Do not use or reproduce without written permission

70 Putting the Theory Into Practice
Each Child is Unique - Know the Student with AS - treat respectfully, accept quirkiness, know his./her interests It’s about relationships - Establish one! Children with AS are Consistently Inconsistent Make it visual! They don’t get why we do what we do (ToM) - Always provide the Why Anxiety ---> fight/flight/fright --> Behavior Behavior = Communication - it’s your job to figure out what it means Don’t engage in power struggles you will lose Emotions are connected to learning & memory-> participation (If I feel safe and relaxed I’m available for learning) Do Not Use Without Permission Do not use or reproduce without written permission

71 Putting the Theory Into Practice
They don’t see the forest through the tress - teach the big picture Sensory Needs have to be addressed - create a sensory diet Be flexible and creative when discipline is needed Teach to their learning style, strengths & interests - Universal Design & Differentiated Instruction If you can add an external structure, support, visual etc. do it Don’t expect sustained effort all day They are square pegs trying to fit into round holes Always analyze using the Person, Activity, Environment (Human/Nonhuman Environment) Do not use or reproduce without written permission

72 Do not use or reproduce without written permission
Resources Web Pages OASIS (Online AS Information and Support): AANE (Asperger’s Association of NE): Tony Attwood: Autism Society of America: Nonverbal Learning Disorder Association: Autism community Temple Grandin Universal Design Differentiated Instruction Books Emergence: Labeled Autistic by T. Grandin (and others) Right Address…Wrong Planet by G.P. Barnhill Pretending to be Normal: Living with Asperger Syndrome by L. Willey Quirky Kids by P. Klass and E. Costello Asperger Syndrome: An Owner’s Manual by E. Korin Asperger’s Syndrome, The Universe, and Everything: Kenneth’s Book by K. Hall Freaks, Geeks, and Asperger Syndrome: A User Guide to Adolescence by L. Jackson Beyond the Wall: Personal Experiences with Autism and Asperger Syndrome, by S. Shore (and others) Unwritten Rules of Social Relationships By Temple Grandin and Sean Baron Do not use or reproduce without written permission

73 Do not use or reproduce without written permission
Resources The Hidden Curriculum: Practical Solutions for Understanding Unstated Rules in Social Situations by B.S. Myles et al. Incorporating Social Goals in the Classroom: A Guide for Teachers and Parents of Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger’s Syndrome by R.A. Moyes Answers to Questions Teachers ask about Sensory Integration, by J. Koomar, C. Kranowitz, S. Szklut, et. al. The Beyond Access Model Promoting membership, participation and learning for Students with Disabilities in the General Education Classroom by Cheryl Jorgenson, Michael McSheehan & Rae Sonnenmeier Institute on Disabilities The Incredible 5-Point Scale, by K.D. Buron and M. Curtis The Explosive Child: A new approach for understanding and parenting easily frustrated, chronically inflexible children By Ross Greene The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners By Carol Tomlinson Alternate Assessment: measuring outcomes and supports for students with disabilities by Harold Kleinert, Jacqui Kearns Teacher and child by Hiam Ginott The Ziggurat Model, R. Aspie & B. Grossman Thinking About You Thinking About Me, Michelle Garcia Winner Do not use or reproduce without written permission 73

74 Do not use or reproduce without written permission
Resources For peers of children with ASD (to explain ASD and build community): This is Asperger Syndrome by E. Gagnon and B.S. Smith Myles You are Special Too by J. Santomauro Coulter videos to explain Asperger’s Syndrome to kids The Sixth Sense II by Carol Gray (implemented by teachers/adults; All Cats have Asperger Syndrome by K. Hoopman Blue Bottle Mystery: An Asperger’s Adventure By Kathy Hoopman (and others by her) Adam’s Alternative Sports Day By Jude Welton (and others) Wishing on a Midnight Star by Nancy Ogaz Asperger’s Syndrome: The Universe and Everything Kenneth Hall The Curious Incident of the Dog in the the Night-Time Mark haddon Do not use or reproduce without written permission


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