Presentation on theme: "Emotion Regulation in Early Childhood: A Building Block to Success Kristin Rezzetano, M.S.Ed., Stephanie Marshall, M.S.Ed., & Kara McGoey, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:
1 Emotion Regulation in Early Childhood: A Building Block to Success Kristin Rezzetano, M.S.Ed., Stephanie Marshall, M.S.Ed., & Kara McGoey, Ph.D.
2 Background Self Regulation Essential for adaptive and independent functioningEmotion regulationIncludes emotional lability, flexibility, and contextual responseUse of emotional response to meet demands of the situation and achieve personal goalsDeficits linked to psychopathological traits, disorders such as ADHD, ASDs, Bipolar D/O, Depression, AnxietyAlink, Cicchetti, Kim, & Rogosch, 2009; Kopp, 1989; Thompson & Goodvin, 2007
3 Development of Emotion Regulation Infancy<6m. – dependent on caregiversTemperamentResearch supports increased negativity/proneness to distress in certain infantsRudimentary ER abilities begin to developTurning head away, sucking, object playSocial referencing/theory of mind develop5m. – more intentional communication leads to caregiver ER12 m. – can communicate needs, if not met
4 Development of Emotion Regulation ToddlerhoodLocomotion allows for moving away, toward objects as emotion regulationLanguage develops – increased emotional understanding and ability to express emotionsEmotions are in reference to something-agent of changeUnderstand advantages/disadvantages of emotional displaysBegin to see impact of attachment/parent responsivity on ERInteraction of temperament, security, and parent behaviors/environment shape EREC begins to play a role via temperamental characteristics
5 Development of Emotion Regulation PreschoolMust learn to regulate emotions given the demands of the situationHome vs. PreschoolLanguage continues to develop(e.g., “use your words”)Temper tantrums may persist in moments of extreme emotionPeer relationshipsPeer relationships - must learn to negotiation socially, wherein emotion regulation plays a large role
6 Development of Emotion Regulation ChildhoodMore sophisticated cognitive components – may re-evaluate situation or deny negative elements rather than removing themselvesSocial/cultural/gender norms influence ERAdolescenceIncreased development of prefrontal cortexIntegration of emotion, cognition, & behaviorAdolescence - Emotional expression is specified – different towards adults and peers, dependent on situation
7 Emotion Regulation & Social Competence Success in interacting socially with others (Fabes, Gaertner, & Popp, 2006)Associated with school readiness, academic achievement, fewer behavioral problems, higher ERNegative emotional expression, lack of emotion regulation, deficient emotional expression, insecure attachment all related to difficulties with SC (Denham, 2002)
8 Emotion Regulation & Academic Functioning Relationship between emotion regulation, emotion knowledge/language, social competence, and academic skills and motivation (Eisenberg, Sadovsky, & Spinrad, 2005)Emotional lability predicted by socially negative behavior in the classroom, related to maladaptive learning; early socially negative behavior related to maladaptive learning later in school year (Fantuzzo, Bulotsky-Shearer, Fusco, & McWayne, 2005)
10 Emotion Regulation Checklist – Sample Items Emotion Regulation dimension: empathy, self-awareness of emotion, appropriateness of emotional displays“Is empathic toward others”, “Can say when she/he is feeling sad, angry or mad, fearful or afraid”, “Exhibits wide mood swings”(Fantuzzo et al., 2005, p. 263)
11 Assessment Emotion Regulation Q-Sort (Shields & Cicchetti, 1997) Uses the California Child Q-Set (CCQ; Block & Block, 1980)10 items reflecting positive and negative emotion regulation strategies
12 Emotion Regulation Q-Sort: Sample Items Positive:“Can recover from stress”“Is empathic”Negative:“Goes to pieces under stress”“Is easily irritated”
13 Assessment Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ: Gross & John, 2003) Measures cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression of emotions10 items (6 cognitive, 4 expressive) on 7-point Likert scaleCognitive reappraisal considered an antecedent-focused strategy (i.e., rethinking a situation to reduce emotional impact – such as viewing a bad grade on a test as a reminder to study harder next time)Expressive suppression considered a response-focused strategy (i.e., inhibition of emotion-expressive behavior that is already enacted – such as bluffing during a card game)
14 ERQ: Sample Items Reappraisal: Suppression: “When I want to feel less negative emotion, I change the way I’m thinking about the situation”“I control my emotions by changing the way I think about the situation I’m in”Suppression:“I keep my emotions to myself”“When I am feeling positive emotions, I am careful not to express them”Reliability and validity developed with undergraduate sample; half or more women in 20’s, somewhat ethnically diverse sample (large portion Caucasian and Asian American, some Latino, less African American)Measure not appropriate for young children, as it requires degree of insight into emotional appraisals and reactions
15 AssessmentPreschool Self-Regulation Assessment (PSRA; Smith-Donald, Raver, Hayes, & Richardson, 2007)“Portable” assessment of preschoolers’ regulatory skills in behavioral, attentional, and emotional domainsScores based on direct assessment and behavioral report
16 PRSA Sample items Direct Tasks Examiner Report Balance Beam, Pencil Tap, Tower, Toy Sorting, Toy Wrap, Snack Delay, Tongue TaskExaminer ReportIntensity and frequency of anger/irritability, sadness, positive emotions3-point Likert scale rating
17 PRSAToolkit available online atIncludes script, assessor report, score sheet, code sheet, training materialsEnglish and Spanish versions availableCertification opportunities
18 Assessment: Other Methods Direct Assessment/ObservationDisappointment taskProvide child with undesirable toy as reward for completing taskObserve response: Is child actively regulating emotion? Passively managing emotion? Acting disruptively?See Feng, Shaw, Kovacs, Lane, O’Rourke, & Alarcon (2008)Asked children to rank-order set of toys for reward; provided them with the least desirable for completing taskLeft the child alone with undesirable toy for 2 minutes, then returned to give them the desired toyIdentified two factors: active regulation and joy; and passive regulation and sadness
19 InterventionCall for use of interventions to address emotion regulation in the school environment to promote behavioral and academic success (Raver, Garner, & Smith-Donald, 2007)Promotion of self-regulation for all childrenPractice emotion regulation in multiple contextsDifferentiating externalizing/aggressive behavior from dysregulated behaviorEmotion regulation can be learned through play (Bodrova & Leong, 2005)
20 Intervention The Incredible Years (TIY; Webster-Stratton, 2008) Intervention program designed for children ages 0-12Parent, Teacher, and Child training programsBASIC Preschool/Early Childhood program developed for children ages 3-6Addresses social, emotional, and school readiness skillsBASIC Early Childhood can be administered by a parent or teacher at home or in schoolLeader’s manual includes commonly asked questions, brainstorm/value activities, role play practice, home activities, and handouts
21 The Incredible Years Parenting Program (BASIC) Dina Dinosaur Program Positive parenting: setting limits, addressing misbehavior, providing praise, encouraging positive play skillsDina Dinosaur ProgramChild training: social problem solving, managing frustration, perspective taking, behavior, empathyTeacher Classroom Management ProgramBehavior management**INFORMATION ON FREQUENCY OF INSTRUCTION, MATERIALS
22 The Incredible Years BASIC Early Childhood Parent Program Strengthening Children’s Social Skills, Emotion Regulation, and School Readiness SkillsProgram 2Using Praise and Incentives to Encourage Cooperative BehaviorProgram 3Positive Discipline – Rules, Routines and Effective Limit SettingProgram 4Positive Discipline – Handling MisbehaviorIncludes 9 DVD’s that can be shown in weekly 2-hour group sessionsLeader manual, parent home notes as reminders for skill covered that week, take-home practice assignments for parents, book for parents trouble shooting guide, refrigerator magnetsAimed at parents but could be used for teacher training?
23 The Incredible Years Dina Dinosaur Treatment Program How to Do Your Best in SchoolProgram 2Understanding and Detecting FeelingsIdentifying self and others’ feelings, changing negative emotions to positiveProgram 3Detective Wally Teaches Problem-Solving Steps7-step problem-solving and anger managementProgram 4Molly Manners Teaches How to Be FriendlyIncludes preschool/pre-k and school-aged lessonsDesigned for small group (6 children), hr sessions delivered weeklyVideotape vignettes and puppets as props, with scripts and discussion questions for leaderDelivered by counselors, therapists, early childhood specialistsCan be offered simultaneously with parent program
24 The Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program Anger Management/Emotion RegulationProviding stability/consistency, accepting emotions and emotional expressions, using feeling language, discouraging physical/verbal aggression to express emotions, teaching self-calming techniques
25 Second Step, 1997A research based program created by the Committee for ChildrenSchool-based social skills curriculum that includes teacher friendly curricula, training for educators, and parent education components.Intended for children from preschool through grade nine* Committee for Children
26 Second Step Preschool/Kindergarten Curriculum Thirty-six lessons divided into three unitsEmpathy TrainingImpulse ControlAnger managementLessons include songs, role plays, and puppet activitiesEach lesson is minutes long.
27 Second Step Barriers to implementation Schedule of implementationContent of the lessons (concrete vs. abstract)External and environmental factorsTeacher “buy-in”, support, and commitmentLack of training for Second StepCost
28 Embedded Interventions Interventions that can be embedded within everyday interactions to promote Social Competence and Emotion RegulationSchool-wide, Class-wide or Individual
29 Modeling and Role Playing Verbalize emotionsModel coping strategiesModel identification and problem solving when emotionalCreate role plays/scenarios to help children practice when not in crisis
30 Guide Children in Problem Solving Create a script or routine for solving conflicts in the classroomCreate a script or routine for managing emotionsAdult can guide child to use routine when upsetCreate specific emotional outletsAnger boxExcitement exclamation
31 Other Intervention Ideas Anger-mometerVideo modelingDIY Tucker TurtleSocial Stories
32 Anger-mometerCan be used to identify or reflect on situations in which child felt angryMay include pictures or wordsAsk child at what point on anger-mometer there is danger of “losing control”Encourage the child to identify what changes they noticed in their body at the time they were/are angry. Examples include: feeling hot in the face or tummy, clenched jaw or fists, shaking, seeing redPictures or words can be used, based upon age, functioning, and/or understanding of the child (ex. Children with autism- visual learners)Some children lose control easier than others, and may find it hard to monitor their anger. The most effective approach for these children may be appropriate and consistent consequences for their angry behaviors.
34 Video modeling Peer and adult modeling of prosocial behaviors Videotape the child exhibiting positive behavioral interactionsDiscuss what happened, feelings of persons involvedVideo clips should be as long as child’s attention span will allow. Keep them simple, only focus on 1-2 behaviors or skills at a time.
35 DIY Tucker Turtle4-step program used to teach the “Turtle Technique”– how to control feelings and calm down1) Recognize your feeling(s)2) Think “stop”3) Tuck inside your “shell” and take 3 deep breaths4) Come out when calm and think of a “solution”Combination of picture story and model. Read the story to children and model appropriate ways of remaining calm. Practice the steps often. Recognize and comment when the child stays calm.
36 Step 4Can be used to prepare for and help the child handle disappointment or change, or to think of possible solutions. Solutions include: get a teacher, ask nicely, ignore, play, say “Please”, share, trade a toy/item, wait and take turns
37 Social Stories Social scripts for child to follow in a given situation Used to address behaviors, transitions, new settingsInclude pictures and words to capture attention of childBehaviors include: keeping hands to self, biting, spitting, playing with friendsTransitions: clean up, washing hands/toileting, lining upNew settings: new school, field trip, vacation
38 Social Stories Consequence of Hitting Sometimes I get mad at my friends. They may do something that makes me upset, like take my toys. When I am upset, I must not hit other people. Hitting is not allowed at school. This is a school rule...
39 ConclusionEmotion regulation skills become increasingly refined and independent as children grow olderBoth direct assessment and self-report can be used to evaluate abilities in emotion regulationIntervention can be used to address emotion regulation in schoolsEarly childhood curricula such as The Incredible Years, Second StepEmbedded interventions can be implemented across levels
40 ReferencesCommittee for Children. (1997). Second Step: A violence prevention curriculum. Committee for Children.Fantuzzo, J. W., Bulotsky-Shearer, R., Fusco, R. A., & McWayne, C. (2005). An investigation of preschool classroom behavioral adjustment problems and social-emotional school readiness competencies. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 20,Feng, X., Shaw, D. S., Kovacs, M., Lane, T., O’Rourke, F. E., & Alarcon, J. H. (2008). Emotion regulation in preschoolers: the roles of behavioral inhibition, maternal affective behavior, and maternal depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49,Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85,Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (1997). Emotion regulation among school-age children: The development and validation of a new criterion q-sort scale. Developmental Psychology, 33,Webster-Stratton, C., & Reid, M. J. (2003). Treating conduct problems and strengthening social and emotional competence in young children: The Dina Dinosaur treatment program. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 11,Webster-Stratton, C. (2008). The Incredible Years parent training programs. Retrieved from