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1 IDEIA, SLD, RTI, and Cognitive Assessment Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. Professor of Psychology Center for Cognitive Development School Psychology Program.

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Presentation on theme: "1 IDEIA, SLD, RTI, and Cognitive Assessment Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. Professor of Psychology Center for Cognitive Development School Psychology Program."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 IDEIA, SLD, RTI, and Cognitive Assessment Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. Professor of Psychology Center for Cognitive Development School Psychology Program Director George Mason University Fairfax, VA

3 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA IDEA Reauthorization Topical outline IDEIA and forthcoming regulations A look at the Law Response to intervention Local comparison groups Measurement of improvement Research and reviews A cognitive approach to assessment Connecting LD definition with assessment of basic psychological processes

4 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA IDEA Reauthorization Topical outline IDEIA and forthcoming regulations A look at the Law Response to intervention Local comparison groups Measurement of improvement Research and reviews A cognitive approach to assessment Connecting LD definition with assessment of basic psychological processes

5 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA IDEIA 2004 Law Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004

6 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA IDEA Reauthorization The IDEIA and the No Child Left Behind Act have encouraged a reexamination of how school psychologists function There have been many meetings of researchers, practitioners, and professional organizations and articles written which discuss how to improve the system, especially for LD diagnosis

7 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA IDEA Reauthorization Reexamination of the role of the school psychologists is good for the evolution of the field how to improve diagnosis of Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) is particularly important how to reduce over-representation of minority children in special education is also needed

8 7 IDEIA What are some of the details of the new Law?

9 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA IDEIA 2004 Law RTI may be used AS A PART of the evaluation… but not as sole method IQ achievement discrepancy no longer required

10 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA IDEIA 2004 Law use a variety of assessment tools not use any single procedure assess cognitive factors

11 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA IDEIA 2004 Law non discriminatory assessments valid and reliable assessment

12 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA IDEIA Law Summary Ability achievement discrepancy is no longer required (not disallowed) A variety of assessment tools required The use of any single measure or assessment as the sole criterion for determining SLD is not permitted Assessments must not be discriminatory on racial or cultural basis Definition of SLD remains

13 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA IDEIA 2004 Law Definition of SLD remains the same

14 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA SLD Definition in Both Bills The definition of SLD has not changed The term specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations.

15 14 Reactions to IDEIA Anticipation of the Regulations that follow…

16 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA

17 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Align the definition of SLD with the classification criteria Replace discrepancy with pattern of strengths and weaknesses and cognitive abilities impacting achievement

18 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA

19 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA

20 19 SLD & Cognitive Processing Connecting the dots

21 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Hale, Naglieri, Kaufman, & Kavale (2004)

22 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Hale, Naglieri, Kaufman, & Kavale (2004) The definition of SLD is … a disorder in 1 or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. Neither the discrepancy model or RTI evaluates basic psychology processes

23 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Hale, Naglieri, Kaufman, & Kavale (2004) The method of RTI is disconnected from the definition of SLD Establishing a disorder in the basic psychology processes is essential for determining SLD Practitioners have ignored this approach because of limited availability of good measures of processing Times have changed

24 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Hale, Naglieri, Kaufman, & Kavale (2004) Processing measures of today are very different than those of the 1970s Tests that we specifically developed to measure basic psychological processes should be used Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children 2 nd Edition Cognitive Assessment System

25 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Hale, Naglieri, Kaufman, & Kavale (2004) Defining intelligence as processing leads to smaller race and ethnic differences than traditional IQ tests Yields excellent prediction to achievement Provides sensitivity to the cognitive disorders seen in many exceptional children Has demonstrated relationships to intervention Naglieri, J. A. (2003). Current advances in assessment and intervention for children with learning disabilities. In T. E. Scruggs and M. A. Mastropieri (Eds.) Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities Volume 16: Identification and assessment (pp ). New York: JAI.

26 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA What is Next? Current status as of March 2005 Regulations which are interpretations of the law are being written Input on the regulations was due by Feb 28, 2005 We need to learn about the strengths and weakness of the options RTI – which may be included Assessment of basic psychological processes – which needs to be assessed

27 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA IDEA Reauthorization Topical outline IDEIA and forthcoming regulations A look at the Law Response to intervention Local comparison groups Measurement of improvement Research and reviews A cognitive approach to assessment Connecting LD definition with assessment of basic psychological processes

28 27 Alternatives to ability achievement discrepancy Response to Intervention

29 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA IDEA Reauthorization Topical outline IDEA reauthorization The problem of LD identification Response to intervention Local comparison groups Measurement of improvement A cognitive approach to assessment

30 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA RTI Advocates Argue The current system is focused on eligibility not instruction Many LD students had bad instruction not a valid way to identify LD a wait-to-fail model Focused on the ATI concept Assessment of processing is psychometrically suspect and largely irrelevant to the identification of LD Eligibility process is expensive Not working because teams ignore established classification criteria Gresham, F.M. (2001). Response to intervention: An alternative approach to the identification of learning disabilities, White paper presented for the Learning Disabilities Summit, Office of Special Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education, August, 2001.

31 30 Response to Intervention and SLD A summary of the method and researchers response to RTI

32 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Kovaleski & Prasse (2004) The dual discrepancy format for SLD identification Part 1: Low academic performance Part 2: Poor response to appropriate instruction

33 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Kovaleski & Prasse (2004) Part 1 Low academic performance The student must be significantly below same-grade peers Shinn (2002) notes that a 2.0 grade level discrepancy is a typical index that identifies a significant academic deficiency This is based on a discrepancy from grade-level performance without reference to an assessment of the students ability level (i.e., IQ)

34 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Assessing Academic Performance Low academic performance (continued) BUT… Shinns 2.0 grade level discrepancy is also a wait to fail model because you cant be behind by two years until you are in at least second grade BUT…The grade equivalent method has many well known psychometric problems AND…differences in curriculum can influence who is behind

35 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Kovaleski & Prasse (2004) Part 1 Low academic performance (continued) Advocates argue for RTI as a curriculum- based measurement (CBM) approach Reading fluency is overemphasized The students discrepancy is determined in relation to classmates by comparing the performance on CBM measures with norms from the students school or school district

36 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Assessing Academic Performance Local Norms Advantage Local norms are good at telling where the child is in relation to the smallest comparison group – the childs classroom Disadvantage Local norms only tell where the child is in relation to the smallest comparison group – the childs classroom Change the classroom and the score changes Change the school and the score changes

37 36 The Problem with Local Norms Fairfax County Schools

38 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Fairfax County Elementary Reading scores were obtained for all 69 elementary schools in Fairfax County Public Schools The schools were ranked on reading scores The 10 th, 35 th, and 59 th ranked schools were selected School based standard scores were computed Reading score – standard score (mean 100, SD of 15) were computed and compared across schools

39 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA The same Reading score of 55 yields a standard score of 112 (above average) for a child in Herndon Elementary School but a score of 92 (average) in Columbia Elementary School and a score of 84 (well below average) in Flint Hill Elementary School.

40 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Local Norms for Inner City Schools Scores based on a national norm group indicate these children are low

41 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Local Norms for Inner City Schools Standard scores based on a national norm group indicate these children are low Standard scores based on local mean falsely describe half the children with national scores below 85 as OK

42 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Local Norms How effective is a local norm? It calibrates a child based on a comparison to the classroom, school, or school district Is it consistent across classrooms? By definition – NO Is it consistent across schools? By definition – NO Is it consistent across districts? By definition – NO Local norms provide an inconsistent unit of measurement

43 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Fairfax County Elementary Conclusions on Local Norms Local norms are useful to determine how the child compares to the rest of the class and for instructional planning A wide variety can exist between schools in the same school district A child may be failing in one class but doing well in another Determining SLD on local norms will yield considerable inequities especially for minority groups

44 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Kovaleski & Prasse (2004) Part 2 Poor response to appropriate instruction The student performs poorly to carefully planned and precisely delivered instruction The data are developed through ongoing progress monitoring on a critical academic measure during the course of an individually designed intervention The use of CBM as an ongoing performance measure (usually through data collected twice per week) is recommended

45 44 Does an increase in counts mean improvement is real? Good news can be relative

46 45 Rates of Improvement An Achievement Example

47 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Rates of Improvement Vocabulary Growth Meaning vocabulary growth average increase is 2,500 words per year (McCormick, 1998) A child needs to learn about 2,500 words per year to keep up with peers But a child can learn more words every year and still fall behind

48 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Rates of Improvement-Vocabulary

49 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Improvement or Deterioration? 50% increase in number of words per year expressed as standard scores in relation to normal growth rate 50% increase in number of words learned per year

50 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Rates of Improvement Visual examination of changes in rate are only sufficient to demonstrate change from baseline Changes over time are helpful for instructional decisions Aim lines based on local norms are misleading

51 50 Conclusions Regarding Kovaleski & Prasse (2004) The dual discrepancy format: Low academic performance and Poor response to instruction

52 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Conclusions on Dual Discrepancy Changes over time do not necessarily mean the child has reached a level that is consistent with normative expectations Competency levels can be set so low, and improvement defined by such small steps, that apparent improvement may be better described as showing Illusory Validity

53 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Conclusions on Dual Discrepancy RTI may be a reasonable way to find children who are doing poorly in class RTI problems Local norms do not provide consistency Increases in performance can be misleading

54 53 What do Researchers say about RTI? Advantages, disadvantages, claims, and inconsistencies

55 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA NRCLD Conference on RTI (Dec 03)

56 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA RTI Conference Vellutino (2003) RTI Advocates have argued that IQ scores are unrelated to childrens response to intervention Therefore IQ tests are irrelevant Vellutino especially has made this claim and provided a report of his research

57 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Full Scale IQ scores (Vellutino) Effect Size =.6 FSIQ

58 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Full Scale IQ scores Wechsler FSIQ From: Case, Speece,& Molly (2004). Validity of Response to Intervention….School Psychology Review, 32, Effect size = 1.0

59 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA RTI Conference - Vaughn Sharon Vaughn described a study of the 3 Tier model Reading fluency was measured From K to 3 rd grade, 20% of the children did not benefit from intervention – they are considered SLD School psychologist were not included at any level It took THREE YEARS to identify these children Wait to fail ! The study identified 20% of the sample That is a large percentage of the sample Conclusion: the hope that RTI offers faster identification of LD and reduces the numbers of children found was not achieved

60 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA RTI Conference - Gerber Michael Gerber- The costs of RTI He estimated that the cost for TRI for grades K-3 for the first year of a national scale implementation was $2,033,228,291 The 2003 Federal Appropriations for NCLB (Title II, Part A) is $1,780,825,000 The cost is $252,403,291 more than the allocation!

61 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA RTI Conference - Kavale Success is not well defined in the RTI model Increases in rate of learning alone are not sufficient There are not clear definitions or cut scores to indicate failure to respond to intervention RTI is a good first step SLD is more than just reading failure but RTI has been limited to reading fluency

62 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA RTI Conference - Kavale The definition of LD has been ignored There is no connection between the definition of SLD and the method of RTI RTI is not sufficient for identification of LD a formal evaluation is absolutely necessary or inappropriate conclusions may be reached because reading failure can be caused by depression, emotional / behavioral disorders, anxiety disorders, ADHD, etc.

63 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA RTI Conference - Scruggs (2003) RTI reading interventions should be used in general education to assure high-quality instruction and provide alternatives to special education placement LD identification should be accomplished on the basis of strict adherence to criteria for identification which as commonly known, has not been followed in many parts of the country

64 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA RTI Conference - Mastropieri The RTI model is too focused on reading decoding and ignores other areas such as reading comprehension, math, science, etc. Implementation of RTI at middle and high school levels seems unlikely This is particularly important given the number of students who are currently identified at the middle and early high school level

65 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA RTI Conference - Mastropieri The RTI movement is an attempt to change regular education Earlier attempts to change regular education emanating from special education have failed RTI is too limited to meet the diverse needs of SLD children SLD is more than reading decoding or reading fluency Too much emphasis on phonics

66 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA RTI Conference - Mastropieri She asked Where is the solid research base providing scientific evidence for optimal instructional methods and materials across all grade levels and all curriculum levels? The reading methods are described as scientifically based but where is the science?

67 66 Research on RTI Fuchs, D., Mock, D., Morgan, P, & Young, C. (2003). Responsiveness-to-intervention: Definitions, evidence, and implications fro the learning Disabilities Construct. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18,

68 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Fuchs, et al., (2003) Ohios Intervention Based Assessment IBA combines a behavioral problem-solving approach with collaborative consultation Behavioral definition of the problem Baseline data are collected Behavioral definition of the problem Goals are set Intervention plan implemented Compare student to baseline

69 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Fuchs, et al., (2003) Telzrow,et al., 2000 evaluated the IBA program 329 schools were involved The present study suggests that reliable implementation of problem solving approaches in schools remains elusive They did not find evidence of reliable and consistent implementation

70 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Fuchs, et al., (2003) Pennsylvanias Instructional Support Teams (IST) Collaborative problem solving that provides prereferral intervention like Ohio Composition of team is a little different IST uses curriculum-based assessment Baseline, a goal is set, intervention planned 50 day limit –If no success, multidisciplinary evaluation possible

71 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Fuchs, et al., (2003) Pennsylvanias Instructional Support Teams (IST) Kovaleski et al., (1999) studied the impact of IST and found the students showed better progress than students in non-IST schools But, according to Fuchs time on task and task completion and comprehension are only indirect academic measures (p. 162)

72 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Fuchs, et al., (2003) Heartland (Iowa) and Minneapolis four level model 1.Teacher and parents try to fix problem 2.Teacher and Building Assistance Team select, implement, & monitor intervention 3.Behavioral problem solving used to refine or redesign the intervention 4.Special educational assistance is considered

73 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Fuchs, et al., (2003) Although the Minneapolis Public Schools (2001) report that, The problem-solving model has undergone considerable evaluation we found few published or unpublished evaluations; none in peer-reviewed journals. The report described school wide reading gains…but no data were presented

74 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Fuchs, et al., (2003) CONCLUSION #1 Evaluations of collaborative problem solving have generally failed to produce persuasive evidence that classroom-based interventions (1) are implemented with fidelity and (2) strengthen students academic achievement or improve classroom behavior (p. 163)

75 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Fuchs, et al., (2003) CONCLUSIONS #2 & 3 There is insufficient evidence of the effectiveness of RTI approaches in Ohio and Pennsylvania… and especially in versions used in Heartland and Minneapolis (p. 166) More troubling…is that these largely untested procedures are the basis of…RTI…which is being considered as a replacement for IQ-achievement discrepancy

76 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Fuchs, et al., (2003) CONCLUSION #4 The absence of evidence weakens the assumption that RTI provides feasible, timely, and effective interventions (p. 166). Proponents of RTI as an alternative means of LD identification must sill prove that their problem-solving approach is worthy of the descriptor scientifically based (p. 167)

77 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA RTI – Pros and Cons RTI may be a reasonable way to find children who are doing poorly in class RTI problems Local norms do not provide consistency Increases in performance can be misleading There is no evidence that RTI is effective for SLD identification RTI is inconsistent with the definition of SLD RTI is not well supported by research

78 77 Information from NASP

79 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA IDEA Reauthorization & RTI Other issues…

80 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA IDEA Reauthorization & LD Assessment is defined as a process of gathering information from a variety of sources, using a variety of methods that best address the reason for evaluation.

81 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA IDEA Reauthorization & LD Select assessment methods that include multiple sources of information…procedures…and settings

82 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA IDEA Reauthorization & LD Not limited to any single methodology or theoretical framework Comprehensive and address educational, cognitive, and mental health needs Multidimensional NASP endorses assessment practices that are:

83 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA IDEA Reauthorization & LD All approaches to assessment are used in ways consistent with their scientific base… This includes norm and performance based, standardized and functional assessments; intelligence, cognitive processing, social-emotional, academic skills, etc

84 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA IDEA and Cognitive Assessment Topical outline IDEA reauthorization The problem of LD identification Response to intervention Local comparison groups Measurement of improvement A cognitive approach to assessment Connecting LD definition with assessment of basic psychological processes

85 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA IDEA and Cognitive Assessment How do we connect the definition of LD with methods to assess it? Measure basic psychological processes using well validated standardized tests built on current views of processing Two options to measure processing Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive (PASS) theory and CAS (Naglieri & Das, 1997) The K-ABC II (Kaufman & Kaufman, 2004)

86 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Hale, Naglieri, Kaufman, & Kavale (2004) Measuring processing has advantages: smaller race and ethnic differences than traditional IQ tests excellent prediction to achievement sensitivity to the cognitive disorders seen in many exceptional children Connection to intervention Naglieri, J. A. (2003). Current advances in assessment and intervention for children with learning disabilities. In T. E. Scruggs and M. A. Mastropieri (Eds.) Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities Volume 16: Identification and assessment (pp ). New York: JAI.

87 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Naglieri, Kaufman, Kavale, Hale

88 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Naglieri, Kaufman, Kavale, Hale specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes... (§ 602(30)(A)) The law provides that, as part of the evaluation procedures in Sec. 614 of IDEIA, the local education agency shall use technically sound instruments that may assess the relative contribution of cognitive and behavioral factors… (§ 614(b)(2)(C)).

89 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Naglieri, Kaufman, Kavale, Hale The regulations should provide that a comprehensive evaluation of these basic psychology processes must be part of the methods used to determine whether the child is learning disabled. In so doing, the definition of SLD and the procedures used to determine eligibility would be united.

90 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Naglieri, Kaufman, Kavale, Hale We also strongly support section § 614(b)(3)(A)(iii) of the law which states that assessment of these basic psychological processes must be conducted using well validated, reliable, norm-referenced cognitive measures that are not discriminatory on racial or cultural basis.

91 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Naglieri, Kaufman, Kavale, Hale we support the use of a response to intervention method at the pre-referral stage. We further support the fact that Congress has recognized (Sec. 614(b)(6)(B)) that the use of the RTI must include cognitive assessment conducted using well validated, reliable, norm referenced measures in accordance with paragraphs (2) and (3) of Sec. 614(b).

92 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA IDEIA 2004 Law assess cognitive factors

93 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Naglieri, Kaufman, Kavale, Hale We hope that the regulations will not favor the use of any particular methodology for eligibility determinations because, for example, we are not aware of any studies that show RTI can be conducted in a manner that is valid and reliable across state and local educational authorities nor that this method is nondiscriminatory.

94 93 IDEIA, SLD, RTI, and Cognitive Assessment Conclusions and Closing Thoughts

95 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Summary School Psychology is a field that is diverse and diversity is our strength There are many tools that we can use, and this variety allows us to be more effective We should use methods that … are consistent with the definition of SLD are consistent with the non discriminatory requirement are an alternative to IQ achievement discrepancy are related to instructional interventions

96 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA Summary IDEIA law, CEC position, Roundtable Consensus Report, and NASP documents all say use more than one methodology The most defensible way to identify SLD is through a comprehensive evaluation conducted by a school psychologist that includes basic psychological processes (SLD definition) in addition to other data (e.g., RTI, achievement test data, measures of emotional status, etc.)

97 Jack A. Naglieri, Ph.D. George Mason Univ, Fairfax, VA References Hale, B., Naglieri, J. A., Kaufman, A. S. & Kavale, K. A. (2004). Specific learning disability classification in the new Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: The danger of good ideas. The School Psychologist, 58, Kavale, K. A., Kaufman, A. S., Naglieri, J A., & Hale, J. B. Changing procedures for identifying learning disabilities: The danger of poorly supported ideas. The School Psychologist, 59, Naglieri, J. A. (2003). Current advances in assessment and intervention for children with learning disabilities. In T. E. Scruggs and M. A. Mastropieri (Eds.) Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities Volume 16: Identification and assessment (pp ). New York: JAI. Naglieri, J. A. (2002). Best practices in interventions for school psychologists: A cognitive approach to problem solving. In A. Thomas & J. Grimmes (Eds.). Best practices in school psychology (4th Ed)(pp ). Bethesda, MD: NASP.


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