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National Association of School Psychologists

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Presentation on theme: "National Association of School Psychologists"— Presentation transcript:

1 Model of Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services (NASP, 2010)
National Association of School Psychologists 4340 East West Highway, Suite 402 Bethesda, Maryland 20814 Phone: Website:

2 Model of Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services (NASP, 2010)

3 Standards for School Psychology Revised and Adopted - 2010
Standards for Graduate Preparation of School Psychologists Standards for the Credentialing of School Psychologists Principles for Professional Ethics Model for Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services NASP 2010 Standards (four documents named above) were revised following a three and one-half year process. Input from NASP members, leaders and affiliated group representatives occurred during the TRANSPARENT revision process. In total, more than 4000 school psychologists provided input. In March, 2010, the four NASP 2010 Standards were UNANIMOUSLY approved by the NASP Delegate Assembly. These are CONSENSUS documents that define our profession as unique. As you know, the documents are available for free online or in book form for a nominal cost. BUT if they don’t get out into the hands of school psychologists and national, state, and local decision-makers, the process was in vain. 3

4 Standards for School Psychology
NASP mission as a context for standards: The mission of the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) is to represent school psychology and support school psychologists to enhance the learning and mental health of all children and youth. The NASP Standards define our field and are the best and most complete documents for articulating who we are and what we do. 4

5 Standards Documents Provide a unified set of national principles that guide graduate education, credentialing, professional practice and services, and ethical behavior of effective school psychologists Intended to: define contemporary school psychology promote school psychological services for children, families and schools provide a foundation for the future of school psychology The Standards are consensus documents meaning that as a field, we agree that these define us. Not all SP agree with them, but the feedback and forum for discussion was broad enough to allow a consensus to develop. 5

6 Standards Documents, continued
Used to communicate NASP’s positions and advocate for qualifications and practices of school psychologists with stakeholders, policy makers, and other professional groups at the national, state, and local levels. This is the getting it out there part! 6

7 Impact of NASP Standards
NASP has promoted standards for over 30 years. These standards have transformed the profession and are the backbone of preparation and practice. Most states use these standards for credentialing and licensure purposes. Many school districts use these standards as the basis for SP performance evaluations. Currently: 182 training programs are NASP Approved 31 states accept the NCSP 11,629 school psychologists hold the NCSP 70% of all school psychology programs are NASP approved. Note: This has resulted in the virtual elimination of the 30-hour masters entry level in a relatively brief time frame. So with respect to preparation, credentialing, and ethics, our Standards have been quite influential. 7

8 The Practice Model is designed to promote the connection between our training, standards and our actual practice. BUT the actual practice of school psychologists remains highly variable and many of our colleagues do not have the opportunity to practice in ways consistent with their preparation. So… 8

9 Why We Need a Practice Model
It provides a more organized and coherent framework to advocate for and communicate about school psychological services, particularly with school administrators and policymakers It provides a concrete tool for advocating for roles and job preservation It promotes consistency of practice by delineating what services might reasonably be expected to be available from school psychologists It provides direction for excellence in delivery of services In short, promotion of a practice model can move the field and make the standards a reality… 9

10 Model for Comprehensive and Integrated SP Services: Components
Two major sections: Professional Practices – aligned with 10 domains of practice that are the core components of the model Organizational Principles – intended to be utilized by organizations that employ school psychologists 10

11 This is the final revised graphic. School psychologists
have a foundation knowledge base in both education and psychology Use effective strategies to help students succeed academically, socially, behaviorally, and emotionally Apply their knowledge & skills by creating and maintaining safe, supportive, fair, and effective learning environments and enhancing family-school collaboration for all students Ensure that their knowledge, skills, and professional practices reflect understanding and respect for human diversity and promote effective services, advocacy, and social justice for all children, families, and schools Integrate knowledge and skills across all 10 domains of practice, resulting in direct, measurable outcomes for children, families, and schools 11

12 Professional Practices that Permeate all Aspects of Service Delivery
Data-based decision making and accountability Knowledge of varied models and methods of assessment and data collection for identifying strengths and needs, developing effective services and programs, and measuring progress and outcomes. Examples: Use problem solving frameworks Collect and review student progress data Analyze school improvement data Evaluate treatment fidelity Valid & Reliable Assessments 12

13 Professional Practices That Permeate All Aspects of Service Delivery
Consultation and collaboration Knowledge of varied models and strategies for consultation, collaboration, and communication applicable to individuals, families, groups, and systems, and methods to promote effective implementation of services. Examples: Consult & collaborate with families, teachers, etc. Coordinate with community providers Work to advocate for needed change [it seems to me that it would make more sense to start the description with the foundational knowledge, then the aspects that permeate all services…but it could just be me] 13

14 Direct and Indirect Services for Children, Families and Schools
Student-Level Services Interventions and instructional support to develop academic skills knowledge of biological, cultural, and social influences on academic skills; learning, cognitive, and developmental processes; and evidence-based curricula and instructional strategies Examples Implement evidenced based interventions to improve student engagement and learning Promote the use of instructional strategies for diverse learners Use data to assess student gains 14

15 Direct and Indirect Services for Children, Families and Schools
Student-Level Services Interventions and mental health services to develop social and life skills knowledge of biological, cultural, and social influences on behavior and mental health; behavioral and emotional impacts on learning and life skills; and evidence-based strategies to promote social-emotional functioning and mental health Examples Implement evidenced based interventions to improve individual student social, emotional, and behavioral wellness Monitor fidelity of implementation Screen for & identify warning signs 15

16 Direct and Indirect Services for Children, Families and Schools
Systems-Level Services School-wide practices to promote learning knowledge of school and systems structure, organization, and theory; general and special education; technology resources; and evidence-based school practices that promote learning and mental health Examples Implement school-wide prevention and promotion programs Advocate for policies and practices that promote positive school environments 16

17 Direct and Indirect Services for Children, Families and Schools
Systems-Level Services Preventive and responsive services knowledge of principles and research related to resilience and risk factors in learning and mental health; services in schools and communities to support multi-tiered prevention, and evidence-based strategies for effective crisis response Examples: Participate in school crisis prevention and response teams Evaluate and engage in activities that alleviate risk and promote resilience 17

18 Direct and Indirect Services for Children, Families and Schools
System Level Services Family-school collaboration services knowledge of principles and research related to family systems, strengths, needs, and culture; evidence-based strategies to support family influences on children’s learning and mental health; and strategies to develop collaboration between families and schools Examples: Reach out and engage parents Promote respect and appropriate services for cultural and linguistic differences 18

19 Foundations of School Psychological Service Delivery
Diversity in development and learning knowledge of individual differences, abilities, disabilities, and other diverse characteristics; principles and research related to diversity factors for children, families, and schools, including factors related to culture, context, and individual and role differences; and evidence-based strategies to enhance services and address potential influences related to diversity Examples: Provide culturally competent and responsive services Promote fairness and social justice in school policies and programs 19

20 Foundations of School Psychological Service Delivery
Research and program evaluation knowledge of research design, statistics, measurement, varied data collection and analysis techniques, and program evaluation sufficient for understanding research and interpreting data in applied settings Examples: Gather data about the impact of services on student performance Assist in program evaluation Assist teachers in collecting meaningful student data 20

21 Foundations of School Psychological Service Delivery
Legal, ethical, and professional practice knowledge of the history and foundations of school psychology; multiple service models and methods; ethical, legal, and professional standards; and other factors related to professional identity and effective practice as school psychologists Examples: Remain knowledgeable about legal issues Comply with regulatory expectations Engage in professional development Use supervision & mentoring 21

22 Organizational Principles
Outlines the organizational conditions that must be met in order to ensure effective delivery of school psychological services for children, families, and schools. Remember, though, that you aren’t expected to make all of this happen at once; small drops radiating outward…. 22

23 Organizational Principles
This section provides organizational recommendations to school districts pertaining to the delivery of school psychological services. Areas include: Organization of Services Working Climate Physical, personnel, and fiscal support systems Professional Communication Supervision and mentoring Professional development and recognition systems Organizations should use these principles to provide school psychological services. They delineate things such as the recommended ratios for school psychologist to student, guidelines for supervised experiences, working conditions, etc. This is the piece that will guide your district leadership (or state regulatory folks). 23

24 Key Issues Addressed Development and sustainability of comprehensive and coordinated school psychological services Levels and types of supports and resources needed Importance of attending to retention and recruitment Communication and interpersonal respect Professional development Mentoring and Performance Appraisal

25 School Psychology Ratio Organizational Principle 3.2
…. “Generally, the ratio should not exceed one school psychologist for every 1000 students. When school psychologists are providing comprehensive and preventive services (i.e., evaluations, consultation, individual/group counseling, crisis response, behavioral interventions, etc), this ratio should not exceed one school psychologist for every 500 to 700 students in order to ensure quality of student outcomes. Similarly, when school psychologists are assigned to work primarily with student populations that have particularly intensive special needs (e.g., students with significant emotional or behavioral disorders, or students with autism spectrum disorders), this school psychologist to student ratio should be even lower.” Perhaps the organizational guideline getting the most attention is the new “ratio for School Psychologists.” Currently, student to practitioner ratio standards are used in a variety of ways and by a variety of professions at the local, state, and national levels. School districts often use the ratios in staffing formulas to help determine the appropriate number of practitioners to employ relative to the number of students in a district. Departments of education use ratios in statutes and regulations as guides for employment standards as well as a criterion for measuring the sufficiency of personnel relative to student need. Ratios are also cited in existing and proposed legislation for the purpose of establishing need (i.e., identifying shortages of school psychologists in specific states or communities), setting employment standards for accountability measures (i.e., reducing class size policies), and for goal setting as part of capacity building programs (e.g., the ratios used in NCLB as part of the ESSCP grant, ratios cited in HB 6654/S3364, the Increased Student Achievement through Increased Student Support Act). A major consideration regarding the ratio standard is the “age” of the standard and whether the standard reflects current expectations of practice and research. The 1:1000 ratio is over 25 years old, having appeared in the 1984 version of the Professional Conduct Manual. Here is how it read in that edition:  The state legislature should ensure that there are sufficient numbers of adequately prepared and credentialed school psychologists to provide services consistent with these Standards.  In most settings, this will require at least one full-time school psychologist for each 1,000 children served by an LEA, with a maximum of four schools served by one school psychologist.  It is recognized that this ratio may vary based upon the needs of children served, the type of program served, available resources, distance between schools, and other unique characteristics (pp ). This document mentions the original Standards as having been published in 1978 (though a copy of that document is not available to see how the ratio appears there).  The role of the school psychologist has changed dramatically over the last 25 years, and it is reasonable to assume that this change in role may also warrant a change in the standard. 25

26 How does the Practice Model connect with Blueprint III?
The NASP Model for Comprehensive and Integrated School Psychological Services is the official model for practice adopted by our delegate assembly. All previous standards revisions and Blueprints 1-3 all helped inform this model. Blueprint 3 was a “blueprint” but not the final product. It was never formally adopted. Many of the conceptual ideas and components of Blueprint 3 are integrated into the Practice Model.

27 NASP Practice Model Resources
NASP is building a resource page for individuals and states to assist in the adoption of the practice model. When completed, resources will include: Practice model brochure Adaptable presentations Self assessment Tool Advocacy and marketing tools & tips for state association leadership and individuals Reference materials Related professional development materials

28 This slide presentation may be adapted by the user to reflect specifics in your district/schools. Content or “best practice” information may not be changed without approval from NASP. The NASP logo and any specific author credits must remain. State and local school psychology associations may add their logo and contact information to the presentation. This slide may be removed before giving a presentation. ©2010, National Association of School Psychologists, 4340 East West Highway, Suite 402, Bethesda, MD, 20814, (301)


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