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The Cold War 1945-1991.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War 1945-1991."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War

2 Two sides of Cold War NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization
USA, France, Great Britain, West Germany CAPITALISM Warsaw Pact – pro Soviet countries – USSR, and all countries controlled by the USSR. COMMUNISM


4 NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization


6 Improve your knowledge
Yalta was the the penultimate of the wartime allied conferences. It dealt mainly with the settlement of post-war Europe. Allegedly FD Roosevelt was too ill to withstand Stalin’s demands, and his successor, Harry S Truman, took a tougher line. By by the time of the Potsdam Conference in July 1945, the West had the bomb and were anxious to restrict Russia.

7 YALTA (in the USSR) Date: Feb 1945 Present: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin

8 POTSDAM (Germany) Date: July 1945 Present: Churchill, Truman and Stalin

9 Divided Germany Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill
to describe the separating of Those communist lands of East Europe from the West. Divided Germany

10 Improve your knowledge
Divided Berlin Improve your knowledge The Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.

11 Berlin Wall Berlin is Germany’s capital city. The Soviets built the wall to keep communists from escaping to the American sector.

12 Berlin Wall Berlin Wall



15 Wall torn down in 1989.

16 Improve your knowledge
The nuclear bomb gave America a lead which was expected to last at least 5 years. The rapid Russian development of nuclear technology, helped by the work of the “atom spies” was a shock. Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared war against Japan at the beginning of August 1945 and rushed to advance into Asia to stake out a position for the post-war settlement. This helped make both the Korean and Vietnamese conflicts more likely.

17 Improve your knowledge
The Marshall Plan reflected the strength of the US economy and offered huge sums to enable the war shattered economies of Europe to rebuild and, by generating prosperity, to reject the appeal of Communism, Czechoslovakia showed interest in receiving Marshall Aid but was blocked by Russia. The Soviet system was as much dependent upon creating a self-contained economic bloc as it was in maintaining a repressive political system.


19 Berlin blockade led to Berlin Airlift

20 Improve your knowledge
West Berlin, as an outpost of Western democracy and economic success deep within the Communist zone, was both a nest of spies for both sides and a constant challenge to the Soviets. The Berlin Blockade was an attempt to starve the city into submission and the Allied airlift signalled the West’s determination to use all resources to defend Berlin. Thereafter, it was accepted by both sides that Berlin would act as the trigger for general war. Any Russian invasion would be followed by conflict with the considerable Allied forces camped permanently on the plain of West Germany. Both sides finding Europe too dangerous a site for confrontation, looked elsewhere to compete.

21 Space Race The USA and the Soviet Union raced as the world watched to be the first to conquer space.

22 1957 Sputnik – first satellite
Score 1 for Soviets!

23 First man in space Score: USA – 0 Soviets - 2

24 Apollo program USA spent the 60s trying to catch up to the Soviets.

25 Armstrong lands on moon!
What is the purpose of a space program?

26 Nuclear Missiles!

27 Truman Doctrine The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that the USA “would support free peoples who are resisting” communism. This led to containment – policy of containing communism where it is.

28 Communism spreads like a disease
Domino Theory Communism spreads like a disease

29 Korea and Vietnam USA tried to contain communism. In both wars, communist troops fought armies trained and funded by the USA.

30 Communists invaded from the north
Communists invaded from the north. China sent a million troops to help reds.

31 Korean War After the failure of the promise of Korean independence by the Allied nations, on June 25, 1950, communist North Korean troops invaded South Korea. Poorly armed, the South Koreans were no match for the North. The United Nations ordered North Korea to withdraw its troops. General MacArthur was appointed to command all UN troops in Korea. After three years of fighting a stalemate, more than 54,000 American troops perished.

32 What is the United Nations?

33 United Nations International Organization where countries try to find peaceful solutions It has no army but uses troops from other countries.

34 Vietnam War 1960s-1973 Through the Kennedy years, US troops trained S. Vietnamese troops to fight the Reds. After the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, under LBJ, US troops started to fight more.


36 Vietnam, 1968

37 Helicopters!

38 Napalm!

39 Seeing this on TV led to a
loss of support at home

40 Hippie bashing!!!

41 Hippies/Anti-war

42 Meanwhile. . . After Korea and before Vietnam got really bad, America felt they had a problem closer to home.


44 Bay of Pigs The CIA trained and funded an invasion of communist Cuba. The invasion failed, and Castro had some powerful friends!

45 Soviet response. Don’t worry comrade Castro. We got your back!

46 A U2 spy plane found these missile silos in Cuba, 1962.

47 Kennedy Khrushchev

48 People built more bomb shelters.

49 End to a crisis! The Soviets removed the missiles in Cuba.
In exchange, USA pledged to not invade Cuba again. And to remove missiles in Turkey (right).

50 Afterward A direct phone line was set up between their offices to bypass other channels.

51 November 22, 1963 LBJ took the Presidency JFK was shot in Dallas

52 How did the USA try to contain communism?

53 Marshall Plan – helped countries economically so they won’t go red.

54 Improve your knowledge
The “Red Scare”, launched by Senator Joe McCarthy, dominated US politics for several years and helped pressure Truman into the Korean War, a costly and ultimately stalemated conflict. Given the suddeness of the fall of China, the development of the Soviet bomb, and the shocking performance of the Western secret services, the level of panic is understandable.

55 Improve your knowledge
Truman restricted his ant-Soviet policy to one of “containment”, resisting the advance of Communism into South Korea. After some hesitation he resisted his Commander, Gen Douglas MacArthur’s attempt to “roll-back” Communism by invading North Korea and China. MacArthur was dismissed but Truman’s successors continued to be drawn into conflicts of containment for the rest of the cold war. The beginning of the Korean War also highlighted the failings of the United Nations. Up to 1950, Russia and America had respectively blocked each other’s iniatives by using their veto powers in the Security Council. Because the Russian delegates were boycotting the UN in 1950, Truman was able to condemn the Communist invasion of S Korea and to set up a counter-attack under the banner of the UN. In contrast to the pre-War League of Nations, at least this ensured that the UN would, in future, be able to deploy force in international disputes.

56 Helped anti-communist troops

57 Embargoes Refusing to trade or aid countries in order to punish them

58 Cuba embargo Still today, the USA has an economic embargo on communist Cuba. Their only cars are from before the embargo!

59 Castro is still alive!

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