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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENT MENTAL HEALTH, ACCULTURATIVE STRESS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: A CROSS- CULTURAL ANALYSIS Loren Albeg Sara Castro Olivo,

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Presentation on theme: "THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENT MENTAL HEALTH, ACCULTURATIVE STRESS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: A CROSS- CULTURAL ANALYSIS Loren Albeg Sara Castro Olivo,"— Presentation transcript:

1 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENT MENTAL HEALTH, ACCULTURATIVE STRESS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: A CROSS- CULTURAL ANALYSIS Loren Albeg Sara Castro Olivo, PhD Valerie Perry University of California, Riverside

2 INTRODUCTION

3 MENTAL HEALTH 20% of U.S. school-age children report symptoms related to mental health disorders (Surgeon General Report, 1999) 66% of the 20% do not receive proper treatment (Surgeon General Report, 1999) 10% of U.S. school-age children 9 and older report serious emotional disturbances (Surgeon General Report, 1999) These percentages are even higher for underrepresented ethnic minority groups (Surgeon General Report, 2001)

4 MENTAL HEALTH: ETHNIC MINORITIES Ethnic minorities are less likely to receive proper treatment for mental health problems (Surgeon General Report, 1999; Gonzales & Kim, 1997; Vega &Rumbaut, 1991). 50% of students with serious emotional disturbances drop out of high school (Presidents New Freedom Commission on Mental Health, 2003) Dropout rates are higher for ethnic minority students (National Institute on the Education of At-Risk Students, 1996) By % of children will be from racial and ethnic minority groups (Surgeon General Report, 2001)

5 MENTAL HEALTH AND ACADEMICS American schools reach 48 million students for 1,080 hours per year (Kolbe et. al 1997; Gresham 1995) Schools are in a unique position to provide preventative mental health care (Presidents New Freedom Commission on Mental Health, 2003) Mental health is essential to learning! (Presidents New Freedom Commission on Mental Health, 2003) Mental health is related to academic performance (Mistry, Benner, Tan, & Kim, 2009; Schwartz & Gorman, 2003)

6 ACCULTURATIVE STRESS Acculturative stress represents the negative side effects of acculturation, including pressures to retain aspects of the heritage culture as well as pressures to acquire aspects of the receiving culture (Rodriguez, Myers, Mira, Flores, & Garcia-Hernandez, 2002) Ex: Collectivism vs. Individualism

7 ACCULTURATIVE STRESS, MENTAL HEALTH, & ACADEMICS Ethnicity related factors and acculturative stress are potential risk factors for school failure (Altschul, Oyserman, &Bybee, 2008; Supple et al., 2006; Schwartz, Zamboanga, and Jarvis, 2007) Theory and some of our preliminary data indicate that acculturative stress, mental health and academic performance are related (Blanco-Vega, Castro-Olivo, & Merrell, 2008; Castro Olivo, 2006).

8 GOALS

9 AIMS OF THE PRESENT STUDY 1) Add to the literature on mental health, acculturative stress, and academic performance 1) Apply the relationships between mental health, acculturative stress, and academic performance across cultures 2) Inform practice

10 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1) Are mental health symptoms associated with academic performance? 2) Is acculturative stress associated with academic performance? 3) Is acculturative stress associated with mental health symptoms? 4) Do acculturative stress levels and mental health symptoms differ by English language proficiency level/ primary language? 5) Do acculturative stress levels and mental symptoms differ by race/ethnicity?

11 METHODS

12 PARTICIPANTS Performing Arts Magnet School: a middle school in the Inland Empire 1,633 enrolled in school year 72% Hispanic/Latino 79% Socioeconomically disadvantaged 30% English Learners N = boys; 40 girls Median Age: 13 yrs 48% English Language Learners

13 PARTICIPANTS CONTINUED…

14 PARTICIPANTS CONTINUED..

15 MEASURES Academic Performance Student records Teacher Report on Academic and Class Performance School Functioning subscale of Behavior and Emotional Rating Scale-2 nd Edition (BERS-2): Youth Rating Scale School Belonging subscale of People in My Life (PIML). Acculturative Stress Acculturative Stress Inventory for Children (ASIC) Mental Health Symptoms Test

16 RESULTS

17 Question #1: Are mental health symptoms associated with academic performance? Variables Analyzed: Measure of mental health symptoms: Symptoms Test (child report) Measures of academic performance: California State Test scores (2009) GPA Teacher Report on Academic and Class Performance School Functioning subscale of the BERS-2 (child report) School Belonging subscale of People in My Life (child report)

18 QUESTION #1 RESULTS

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20

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22 RESULTS CONTINUED… Research Question #2: Is acculturative stress associated with academic performance? Variables Analyzed: Measure of Acculturative stress: Acculturative Stress Inventory for Children (ASIC)-child report Measures of academic performance: California State Test scores (2009) GPA Teacher Report on Academic and Class Performance School Functioning subscale of the BERS-2 (child report) School Belonging subscale of People in My Life (child report)

23 QUESTIONS #2: RESULTS

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25 RESULTS CONTINUED… Research Question #3: Is acculturative stress associated with mental health symptoms? Variables Analyzed: Measure of Acculturative stress: Acculturative Stress Inventory for Children (ASIC)-child report Measure of Mental Health Symptoms: Symptoms Test (child report)

26 QUESTIONS #3: RESULTS

27 RESULTS CONTINUED… Research Question #4: Do acculturative stress levels and mental health symptoms differ by English language proficiency level/ primary language? Variables Analyzed: Acculturative Stress Inventory for Children (ASIC)-child report and Symptoms Test (child report) were analyzed by California English Language Development (CELDT) Level and Primary Language Spoken at Home

28 QUESTION #4: RESULTS MEANS BY CELDT LEVEL N: 1 M: 22 SD: - N: 10 M: 18 SD:7.3

29 QUESTION #4: RESULTS MEANS BY CELDT LEVEL N: 1 M: 12 SD: - N: 10 M:14.3 SD: 5.4

30 QUESTION #4: RESULTS CELDT

31 QUESTION #4: RESULTS MEANS BY PRIMARY LANGUAGE N: 31 M: SD: 9.8 N: 31 M: SD: 9.8 N: 31 M: SD: 8.04 N: 62 M: SD: 9.07

32 QUESTION #4: RESULTS MEANS BY PRIMARY LANGUAGE

33 QUESTION #4: RESULTS PRIMARY LANGUAGE

34 RESULTS CONTINUED… Research Question #5: Do acculturative stress levels and mental symptoms differ by race/ ethnicity? Variables Analyzed: Acculturative Stress Inventory for Children (ASIC) and Symptoms Test were analyzed by race/ethnicity

35 QUESTION #5: RESULTS MEANS BY DICHOTOMIZED ETHNICITY

36

37 CONCLUSIONS Known: Acculturative stress is significantly related to mental health Mental health is significantly related to academics Unknown: Is acculturative stress directly and significantly related to academic performance? Do levels of acculturative stress and mental health symptoms differ by ethnicity? Do levels of acculturative stress and mental health symptoms differ by English language development level or primary language spoken at home?

38 IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE AND FUTURE RESEARCH

39 IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE Culturally adapted interventions that specifically address acculturative stress and mental health Ex: Jovenes Fuertes Potential Target Group?:

40 FUTURE DIRECTIONS AND LIMITATIONS Continue data collection Middle schools High schools Continue recruiting a more diverse sample Determine directional relationships between variables Limitations Potential self-selection bias Sample Analysis

41 MENTAL HEALTH SYMPTOMS: A POTENTIAL MEDIATING FACTOR? Acculturative Stress Mental Health Symptoms Academic Performance

42 REFERENCES Altschul, I., Oyserman, D., &Bybee, D. (2008). Racial-ethnic self schemas and segmented assimilation: Identity and the academic achievement of Hispanic youth. Social Psychology Quarterly. 71 (3), p Blanco-Vega, C. O., Castro Olivo, S. M., & Merrell, K.W. (2008). Social-emotional needs of Latino immigrant adolescents: A socio-cultural model for developing and implement and implementation of culturally sensitive intervention. Journal of Latinos in Education, 7 (1), Castro Olivo, S. (2006). The effects of a culturally-adapted social-emotional learning curriculum on social-emotional and academic outcomes of Latino immigrant high school students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon, Eugene. Chavez, D. V., Moran, V. R., Reid, S. L. & Lopez, M. (1997). Acculturative stress in children: A modification of the SAFE scale. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences,19,1, Ellis, B. H., MacDonald, H. Z., Lincoln, A. K., & Cabral, H. J. (2008). Mental health of Somali adolescent refugees: The role of trauma, stress, and perceived discrimination. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 76 (2), p Epstein, M. H., Mooney, P., Ryser, G. & Pierce, C. D. (2004). Validity and reliability of the Youth Rating Scale of the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale-Second Edition. Research on Social Work Practice, 14,

43 REFERENCES CONTINUED… Gonzales, N. A. & Kim, L. S. (1997). Stress and coping in an ethnic minority context. In S. A. Wolchik& I. N. Sandler (Eds.), Handbook of childrens coping: Linking theory and intervention (pp ). New York, NY: Plenum Press. Gresham, F. (1995). Best Practices in Social Skills Training. In Thomas and Grimes (Eds.) Best Practices in School Psychology (pp ). Washington, DC: The National Association of School Psychologists. Hollinger, D., & the National Institute on the Education of At-Risk Students. (1996, March). High School Dropout Rates. Consumer Guide 16. Washington, DC: Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved August 15, 2008, from, Hwang, W. C., & Ting, J. Y. (2008). Disaggregating the effects of acculturation and acculturative stress on the mental health of Asian Americans. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. 14 (2), p Kolbe, L. J., Collins, J. &Cortese, P. (1997). Building the capacity of schools to improve the health of the nation: A call for assistance from psychologists. American Psychologist. 52, Merrell, K. W., Juskelis, M. P., Tran, O. K. & Buchanan, R. (2008). Social and emotional learning in the classroom: Evaluation of strong kids and strong teens on students' social-emotional knowledge and symptoms. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 24,

44 REFERENCES CONTINUED… Mistry, R. S., Benner, A. D., Tan, C. S. & Kim, S. Y. (2009). Family economic stress and academic well-being among Chinese-American youth: The influence of adolescents' perceptions of economic strain. Journal of Family Psychology, 23, Murray, C. & Greenberg, M. T. (2000). Children's relationship with teachers and bonds with school. An investigation of patterns and correlates in middle childhood. Journal of School Psychology, 38, President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health (2003). Achieving the promise: Transforming mental health care in America. Final report (DHHS pub. no. SMA ) Rockville, MD: Author. Schwartz, D. & Gorman, A. H. (2003). Community violence exposure and children's academic functioning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, // Schwartz, S. J., Zamboanga, B. L., Jarvis, L. H. (2007). Ethnic identity and acculturation in Hispanic early adolescents: Mediated relationships to academic grades, prosocial behaviors, and externalizing symptoms. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. 13 (4), p Suarez-Morales, L., Dillon, F. R. &Szapocznik, J. (2007). Validation of the Acculturative Stress Inventory for Children. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13,

45 REFERENCES CONTINUED… Supple, A. J., Ghazarian, S. R., Frabutt, J. M., Plunkett, S. W. & Sands, T. (2006). Contextual influences on Latino adolescent ethnic identity and academic outcomes. Child Development, 77, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1999). Mental health: A report of the Surgeon General.Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved June 14, 2009, from: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Mental Health: Culture, Race, and EthnicityA Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services. Vega, W. W., &Rumbaut, R. G. (1991). Ethnic minorities and mental health. Annual Review of Sociology, 17 (3),


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