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School Psychology & Behavior analysis: Collaboration for Systems Change Elizabeth Sexton, Ph.D., NCSP Jody Silva, M.A., BCBA Claudia Rossi, M.Ed.

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Presentation on theme: "School Psychology & Behavior analysis: Collaboration for Systems Change Elizabeth Sexton, Ph.D., NCSP Jody Silva, M.A., BCBA Claudia Rossi, M.Ed."— Presentation transcript:

1 School Psychology & Behavior analysis: Collaboration for Systems Change Elizabeth Sexton, Ph.D., NCSP Jody Silva, M.A., BCBA Claudia Rossi, M.Ed.

2 ABA... Involves the process of systematically applying interventions based upon empirically derived principles of behavior to improve socially meaningful behavior, and to demonstrate that the interventions employed are responsible for improvement in behavior. (Steege, 2007)

3 Context Research on students with EBD: National Center for Educational Statistics: Approximately.96% of total school populationApproximately.96% of total school population 51% 16 years or older drop out of high school51% 16 years or older drop out of high school

4 Context Of students who did graduate (Merrell & Walker): 44% had been involved with the courst by end of second year after graduation44% had been involved with the courst by end of second year after graduation Witin 3 years after graduation, more than 50% had at least 1 arrestWitin 3 years after graduation, more than 50% had at least 1 arrest More likely to be placed in restrictive settings & drop out of high schoolMore likely to be placed in restrictive settings & drop out of high school

5 Context Teachers of students with EBD: Most have less than 5 years of experienceMost have less than 5 years of experience Most stay less than 5 years in the professionMost stay less than 5 years in the profession

6 Findings indicate that ¼ to ½ of all beginning teachers leave teaching within four years, and many do so because of the lack of an adequate system of learning supports. (Adelman & Taylor, 2002)

7 Behavior Analytic Irony Functional Analysis & positive behavior support have been mandated by IDEAFunctional Analysis & positive behavior support have been mandated by IDEA

8 Behavior Analytic Irony Gresham, 2004; Fox & Davis, 2005: Little empirical support for external validity of FBA for students with average intellectual ability within the school settingLittle empirical support for external validity of FBA for students with average intellectual ability within the school setting Interventions often dont have empirical supportInterventions often dont have empirical support

9 Behavior Analytic Irony Interventions chosen on basis of personal appeal, popularity, ease of implementation rather than degree of researchInterventions chosen on basis of personal appeal, popularity, ease of implementation rather than degree of research Integrity of behavior interventions either not monitoredIntegrity of behavior interventions either not monitored Research based woefully insufficientResearch based woefully insufficient Interventions that were serendipitous in nature resulted in larger effect sizeInterventions that were serendipitous in nature resulted in larger effect size

10 Behavior Analytic Irony Blood & Neal (2007) -- Large gap between assessment of student needs & use of that information to shape interventionLarge gap between assessment of student needs & use of that information to shape intervention Behavior plans were compliance documents rather than tools to shape behaviorBehavior plans were compliance documents rather than tools to shape behavior No consistent identification of:No consistent identification of: –Antecedents & consequences –Establishing operations or setting events –Any instructional use of behavior function to help shape interventions

11 Behavior Analytic Irony Iwata & Worsdell (2005) Few data that indicate that school personnel can determine behavioral function reliably or accurately And Use this information to design appropriate function-based interventions

12 RTI & Behavior Analysis BA technology provides a systematic means by which: assessments can be performed assessments can be performed targeted interventions can be developed targeted interventions can be developed ongoing monitoring of responsiveness to those interventions can be done ongoing monitoring of responsiveness to those interventions can be done

13 Quantum Behavior Analysis... What it takes to change the world is one simple powerful idea J. Jackley

14 Quantum Behavior Analysis... A broad system of supports is needed to enable the creation of a system of competent behavior support... That will be sustainable (Witt, VanderHeyden & Gilbertson, 2004) Intersection between clinical & organizational behavior analysis

15 Quantum Behavior Analysis Embedded in OBM & systems-level behavior analysis the eagle & the earthworm (Sultzer-Azaroff, 2000)

16 Quantum Behavior Analysis OBM creates a structure for addressing behavior needs proactively & effectively

17 Quantum Behavior Analysis OBM --creating self-sustaining systems training & education are aimed at all levels of the organization

18 Quantum Behavior Analysis putting scientific methods in the hands of teachers and students, to transform classrooms into places for data-based discovery, fully integrated with educational practice. (Binder, 1996)

19 Quantum Behavior Analysis focus on individualized strategies AND Focus on classroom, school-wide, & school system-wide strategies

20 Quantum Behavior Analysis Entails learning how to support And Reinforce both teachers and students

21 Quantum Behavior Analysis Ultimate Goal – to affect the broader working culture which sustains complex and challenging behavior

22 Quantum Behavior Analysis Lutzker & Whitaker -- both big & dirty Big = serves multiple participants over an extended length of time Dirty = among the most difficult kinds of applications to carry out

23 ... A broad system of supports is needed to enable the creation of a system of competent behavior support... That will be sustainable. ( Witt, et. Al., 2004)

24 Quantum Behavior Analysis A multielement/multicomponent treatment package

25 Quantum Behavior Analysis For Students – assessment of initial behavior repertoire assessment of initial behavior repertoire design of behavior interventions to expand this repertoire design of behavior interventions to expand this repertoire

26 Quantum Behavior Analysis For Teachers – direct training direct training on-site modeling on-site modeling performance feedback performance feedback program evaluation program evaluation

27 A system of expert pedagogy and curricular design which involves training mentors to a high level of behavior analytic skill, who can then impart this expertise to other teachers (Greer, 2002)

28 Teachers First Effective & ineffective teachers do not differ in how they deliver consequences for undesirable behavior. Rather, they differ in their use of antecedent strategies to prevent the occurrence of problem behaviors in the first place. (Witt, et al, 2004)

29 Teachers First Treatment Integrity = the degree to which an independent variable is implemented as intended

30 Teachers First Integrity of plan implementation requires – data collection data collection analysis of interventions implemented to decrease likelihood of behaviors occurrence analysis of interventions implemented to decrease likelihood of behaviors occurrence teachers response to target behavior teachers response to target behavior

31 Lack of treatment integrity results in increased behavioral intensity and persistence

32 Teachers First School Psychologist Consultant role – ensure plan implementation ensure plan implementation ensure sustainability of system ensure sustainability of system function asteacher function asteachertrainermodeler

33 Teachers First School Psychologist Consultant Role – provision of supervisory support at a level to reduce stress & increase self-efficacy for supersiees provision of supervisory support at a level to reduce stress & increase self-efficacy for supersiees embed an understanding of principles that govern basic behavior analytic technology embed an understanding of principles that govern basic behavior analytic technology

34 Theres no failure, only feedback

35 Teachers First Performance Feedback Components – frequent data review frequent data review praise for correct implementation praise for correct implementation corrective feedback corrective feedback addressing questions as they arise addressing questions as they arise

36 Data collection Sheet Teacher 1

37 Teacher 2

38 Teacher 1

39 Teacher 2

40 Teacher 1

41 Teacher 2

42 Behavior Framework Specifics Its all PBS Its all behavior analytic technology Increases in interventions and support, based on data & needs of the student

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44 Behavior Framework Specifics The task of designing a reinforcement- based intervention thus becomes one of determining which conditions to change, how to limit reinforcement for problem behavior, and how to strengthen alternative behavior. (Iwata & Worsdell)

45 Behavior Framework Specifics Essential features of intervention programs – reinforcement based reinforcement based decrease behavior by – decrease behavior by – -- altering antecedent conditions to make behavior less susceptible to reinforcement -- altering antecedent conditions to make behavior less susceptible to reinforcement -- eliminating reinforcement for the behavior -- eliminating reinforcement for the behavior -- reinforcing the absence of problem behavior or occurrence of an alternative behavior -- reinforcing the absence of problem behavior or occurrence of an alternative behavior

46 Behavior change methodology

47 Behavior Analytic Fundamentals antecedent intervention antecedent intervention Establishing/motivating operation manipulation (EO/MO) Establishing/motivating operation manipulation (EO/MO) Functional Communication Training (FCT) Functional Communication Training (FCT) Token Economy Token Economy

48 Behavior Analytic Fundamentals planned ignoring planned ignoring response cost response cost NCR NCR DRO/A DRO/A Extinction Extinction

49 Increase intervention & intensity ofintervention DRAFT Intensive, Function-based Tier 3 Intervention

50 Behavior Framework Specifics antecedent intervention antecedent intervention Establishing/motivating operation manipulation Establishing/motivating operation manipulation Functional Communication Training Functional Communication Training Token Economy Token Economy

51 Behavior Analytic Fundamentals planned ignoring planned ignoring response cost response cost noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) differential reinforcement (DRO/A) differential reinforcement (DRO/A) Extinction Extinction

52 Behavior Framework Specifics Understanding reinforcement Positive vs. negative Social vs automatic

53 Behavior Framework Specifics highly positive – positive praise, positive interaction, positive reinforcement highly positive – positive praise, positive interaction, positive reinforcement attention withheld to extinguish target behaviors attention withheld to extinguish target behaviors

54 Behavior Framework Specifics Level System Level System Token Economy Token Economy System of Positive Rewards System of Positive Rewards Response cost, planned ignoring, extinction Response cost, planned ignoring, extinction

55 ... Behavior maintained by reinforcement occurs because the presence of some antecedent event makes a reinforcer valuable... (michael, **)

56 Antecedent events – contextual or ecological variables contextual or ecological variables setting events setting events stimulus control stimulus control

57

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59 Scale up/scale down

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62 Behavior Framework Specifics Establishing operations/motivating operations = any antecedent that alters the effectiveness/value of a reinforcer

63 Behavior Framework Specifics Effects of EOs are diminished when responding produces reinforcement

64 Behavior Framework Specifics EO for positive reinforcement = deprivation EO for negative reinforcement = aversive stimuli

65 Behavior Framework Specifics Goal = to capture positive behavior and reinforce it & break the pattern of negative responding = to replace negative behavior with positive behavior = to replace negative behavior with positive behavior

66

67 Behavior Framework Specifics Functional Communication Training FCT = teaching behaviors that are functionally equivalent to the students challenging behavior

68 FCT Provides the student a more efficient way of obtaining the consequences that maintain problem behavior Use of alternative behavior reduces the use of challenging behavior (Durand & Carr, 1991)

69 The logic of this approach is that if the student has another, more efficient way of obtaining the consequences that maintain his or her problem behavior, the use of the alternative behavior will simultaneously reduce the use of challenging behavior. (Durand & Carr, 1991) (Durand & Carr, 1991)

70 FCT Positive Skills POSITIVE SKILLS -- Positive skills are taught and demonstrated through direct instruction and modeling. Games like Skills Bingo, Skills Charades and Around the World have also been developed, to provide ongoing modeling of target skills. Skills become increasingly complex as the student moves through levels, with each level incorporating more basic skills, and adding more complex skills. These skills include the following : –Teacher Attention (TA) –Following Instructions (FI) –Calm Person (CP) –Accepting Criticism (AC) –Accepting No (AN) –Problem Solving (PS) –Peer Cooperation (PC)

71 FCT General Skills –General Skills – –Ignoring –Disagreeing –Transition Daily skills –Daily skills – –Work Completion –On-task

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74 Catch them doing something good!!!

75 NCR the main advantage of NCR is that it may reduce problem behavior even though reinforcement for problem behavior is still available

76 NCR EOs can be lessened prior to problem behavior by providing noncontingent access to reinforcement

77 Differential Reinforcement NCR & extinction do not explicitly strengthen alternative behaviors that are less dangerous and more socially acceptable

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79 Differential Reinforcement DRA/O/I...

80 Extinction Target Behaviors Blurting Blurting out of seat out of seat verbal aggression verbal aggression physical aggression physical aggression property destruction property destruction destruction of point sheet destruction of point sheet stealing stealing

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82 Extinction Extinction = the reduction of behavior by withholding reinforcement

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84 Putting It All Together Operationalize everything Common Language/common behaviors System for ongoing training and feedback

85 Manual Overviews

86 Scaling Up & Scaling Down

87 Increase intervention & intensity ofintervention DRAFT Intensive, Function-based Tier 3 Intervention

88 My Best Piece of Poetry

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