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Bridging Research and Practice: Be the Hyphen!

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Presentation on theme: "Bridging Research and Practice: Be the Hyphen!"— Presentation transcript:

1 Bridging Research and Practice: Be the Hyphen!
Edward O’Connor, Ph.D. Midwest Instructional Leadership Council Elizabeth Witter Freeman, Ph.D. Monona Grove School District Monona, WI Bradley C. Niebling, Ph.D. (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

2 Presentation Overview
Research-to-Practice Gap Scientist-Practitioner Model Problem-solving Model Applied Problem Identification Problem Analysis Intervention Design Call to the Field (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

3 Synopsis This paper has the following objectives:
To briefly summarize the professional discussion regarding "research-practice" problems To discussion the limitations of the scientist- practitioner model to reduce the “research-to- practice gap” To initiate discussions of a new, alternate role structure for school psychologists One that better addresses research-practice problems One that will call upon the development of a new school psychologist “role” This paper is intended to promote a discussion and provide preliminary ideas for updating the scientist-practitioner model that recognize the need for individual school psychologists to serve roles that can be placed at one of three distinct points along the science – practice continuum. Thus, this paper has two major objectives: 1) summarizing the professional discussion regarding the "research-practice" problems, and 2) to initiate discussion regarding an alternative, finer-grained view of the scientist-practitioner model to produce a new model that better addresses the problems we continue to observe in establishing connections between research and practice. (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

4 Research-to-Practice Gap
General agreement of existence of gap Lack of agreement as to whether the gap is considered problematic PITs special issue (May, 2005) Gap as delay Reading Problem Solving RtI (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

5 The Previous Solution….
The proposed remedy to reduce this gap seemed to be to train professionals to be Scientist-Practitioners (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

6 Scientist-Practitioner Model: History
Boulder Conference on Graduate Education in Clinical Psychology (Raimy, 1950) 1954 – APA’s Thayer Conference on School Psychology Barlow, Hayes and Nelson articulated a "Scientist-Practitioner" model to serve as a framework for the training of school psychologists.  American Psychological Association's Thayer Conference on School Psychology, which Harris, Maynard Reynolds, and Dean Walter William Cook of the College of Education attended in 1954. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search The scientist–practitioner model, also called the Boulder model[1], is a training model for graduate programs that focuses on creating a foundation of research and scientific practice. It was developed primarily to train clinical psychologists but has been adapted by other specialty programs. According to this model, a psychologist is a scientist and a competent researcher, and also a practitioner who applies knowledge and techniques to solve problems of clients.[2] Contents [hide] 1 Model 1.1 Creation 1.2 Core tenets 2 See also 3 Further reading 4 References 5 External links [edit] Model [edit] Creation The model traces its roots to the Boulder Conference on Graduate Education in Clinical Psychology (1949) held in Boulder, Colorado. The conference developed a model of training and education leading to professional practice in which Clinical Psychologists adhere to scientific methods, procedures, and research in their day-to-day practice. Some (e.g., Francine Shapiro) have reframed the model as clinical psychologists as applied scientists.[citation needed] The goal of the training, educational model, an eventual practice is for clinicians to use scientific methodology in their practice-decision; to work with clients using scientifically valid methods, tools, and techniques; to inform their clients of scientifically-based findings and approaches to their problems; and to conduct practice-based research. [edit] Core tenets Core tenets of the scientist–practitioner model include:[3] Delivering psychological assessment (psychological testing) and psychological intervention procedures in accordance with scientifically-based protocols; Accessing and integrating scientific findings to inform healthcare decisions; Framing and testing hypotheses that inform healthcare decisions; Building and maintaining effective teamwork with other healthcare professionals that supports the delivery of scientist–practitioner contributions; Research-based training and support to other health professions in the delivery of psychological care; Contributing to practice-based research and development to improve the quality and effectiveness of psychological aspects of health care. Some have questioned if is possible, in today's climate, to continue to expect practicing clinical psychologists to be able to adhere to the ideals and tenets of the scientist–practitioner model. Many clinicians find it difficult to complete their practical duties let alone conduct research (which often goes unfunded) or to remain up-to-date with cutting edge science. Those clinical psychologists who do adhere to a scientist-practitioner model of practice are likely to utilize techniques that have been scientifically validated through extensive research. It is widely accepted, for example, that cognitive–behavioral therapy is effective in treating a host of mental illnesses. (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

7 Scientist-Practitioner Model
Model of training and education adhere to scientific methods, procedures, and research in their day-to-day practice. clinicians are to use scientific methodology in their practice-decision; to work with clients using scientifically valid methods, tools, and techniques; to inform their clients of scientifically-based findings and approaches to their problems; and to conduct practice-based research Core tenets of the scientist–practitioner model include:[3] Delivering psychological assessment (psychological testing) and psychological intervention procedures in accordance with scientifically-based protocols; Accessing and integrating scientific findings to inform healthcare decisions; Framing and testing hypotheses that inform healthcare decisions; Building and maintaining effective teamwork with other healthcare professionals that supports the delivery of scientist–practitioner contributions; Research-based training and support to other health professions in the delivery of psychological care; Contributing to practice-based research and development to improve the quality and effectiveness of psychological aspects of health care. (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

8 Solution…Interrupted
Scientist-practitioner remains elusive Production of research from former school psychology graduate students is lacking (Gelso, 2006) The Use of research- and evidence-based practices in schools falls short of ambitions set 60 years ago (Broekkamp& Van Hout-Wolters, 2007; Riley- Tillman et. al, 2005). Research-to-practice gap continues to be identified as a major problem in the field Brad takes this slide, just weaves in alignment role and how I’m a hyphen (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

9 Back to Square One There is a need to re-examine the scientist- practitioner model and ways to reduce the research-practice gap Brad This paper is intended to promote a discussion and provide preliminary ideas for updating the scientist-practitioner model that recognize the need for individual school psychologists to serve roles that can be placed at one of three distinct points along the science – practice continuum. Thus, this paper has two major objectives: 1) summarizing the professional discussion regarding the "research-practice" problems, and 2) to initiate discussion regarding an alternative, finer-grained view of the scientist-practitioner model to produce a new model that better addresses the problems we continue to observe in establishing connections between research and practice. (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

10 Setting the Stage - Phases
Brad (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

11 Problem-Solving Model
A framework to guide study and discussion of the research-to-practice gap Provides a framework to organize the discussion Promotes “scientific” thinking Addresses the need to prioritize and clarify critical elements of the “problem” Provides a foundation for systems level research Brad (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

12 Brad Curtis, M. J., Cohen, R. & Castillo, J. (2009). Facilitating Implementation of PS/RtI Using Systems Change Principles. NASP Convention: Boston, MA (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

13 Problem-Identification
Problem: Gap between research and practice. Defined as: the delay or latency between the emergence of compelling and substantial research evidence regarding effective instructional practices and the widespread use and application of those practices by educators.  Evidence examples: RtI – 27 years Deno &Merkin, 1977 IDEA 2004 Effective Reading Instruction (DI) – 24 years 1977 “Project Follow Through” evaluated Reading First (NCLB 2001)  Brad IDEA 2004 – RtI and ESEA/NCLB in Reading First Deno, S. L. and Merkin, P. K. (1977) Database program modification: A manual. Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children (National Research Council 1998) and/or National Reading Panel (2000) (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

14 Current Reality Brad (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council
3/3/10

15 Problem-Analysis and Hypothesis Development
Need to generate possible “root-causes” or “keystone” circumstances that serve to create and sustain the problem. Our initial thinking… Top-down View Missing Perspectives Unrealistic Model Lacking Infrastructure (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

16 PA: Top-down View Expressed implicitly in the language used (“research to practice”) Mechanisms applied to generating and evaluating research Lack of true collegial opportunities offered to practitioners Solutions for “practice” to change and lessen the gap Professional training and conferences highlights academicians (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

17 PA: Missing Perspectives
Practitioner perspective often absent from discussion on research-to-practice gap Practitioners and action-research is under published Psychology in the Schools (2005) issue devoted to the research-to-practice gap finds that twenty- eight of thirty authors are affiliated with university or other research institutions Pre-service practitioners     (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

18 PA: Unrealistic Model Boulder placed the burden of this model on the practitioner Is it viable for practitioners to “do it all”, especially in this age of increased accountability, economic cutbacks, and underfunding? Present status indicates that it is too great of an expectation (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

19 PA: Lacking Infrastructure
Two distinctly different settings Lacking opportunities for collaboration Participant recruitment Practical training of graduate students (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

20 Intervention Design – Setting the Stage
Quantifying baseline explicitly elusive Lack of available research- and/or evidence- based interventions matched to identified needs Given persistence of problem, existing efforts and ideas to solve the problem, and case examples, we need to move forward (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

21 Intervention Design – Goal Areas
Develop a framework Recognition and pursuit of developing the role of "hyphen” Improved communication and collaboration Changes in research Changes in practice (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

22 Intervention Design – Framework Components
Scientists, Practitioners, and “Hyphens” Hyphen roles Support change Listen and learn Translate Train and Coach Advocate Evaluate Communication and collaboration Do we need a slide for each set of terms? (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

23 Intervention Design– Proposed Framework
Communication and Collaboration Scientist Practitioner Support Change Listen and Learn Train and Coach Translate Advocate Evaluate Communication and Collaboration (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

24 More Examples of “Hyphen” Activities
Current Approximations We Have Observed (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

25 District – University Partnerships
Monona Grove/University of Wisconsin- Madison School Psychology Students Assist with Benchmark Assessments Participate in District Trainings Assist in Delivery of Trainings Gain Access to Schools for Conducting Research Faculty University and District Faculty Collaboration High quality learning experiences Coordination of objectives Teaching Objectives Research Objectives Continuous Improvement Activities (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

26 District to District Collaboration
Southern Wisconsin Problem Solving Consortium Space and structure for joint learning Efficient delivery option for “best-practices” Opportunity to share resources Structure for political action Opportunity for expanding University – District Partnerships (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

27 Midwest Instructional Learning Council
Coordination of Professional Development Conference Direct District Support Information dissemination Research Funding Research Production Support for University – District Collaboration (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

28 Intervention Design – Key Questions
Do we need hyphens? If yes, then are the correct components in place in the proposed framework? What needs to be added? Removed? Changed? are the components correctly operationalized? The premise of this paper is that school psychology does need hyphens. However, for this idea to move forward systematically and successfully to scale, the field at large would also need to see a need. (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

29 Intervention Design – Required Conditions
To succeed, the work conditions around the effort must included: Leadership for change A framework for implementation Infrastructure in place to promote communication Credibility in both settings to facilitate the communication Time and resources available to organize and maintain the conversation Change in cultural beliefs and new traditions among individuals working in practice and those in research that include positive perceptions of each other In short, we believe the gap between research and practice will diminish when there are professionals with the skills to build the bridge….a Research- Practice Broker (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

30 Call to the Field Help build the new model Infrastructure
Communication Norms Structures, routines Hit this one hard…it’s more than just a call, it’s a challenge. If we want things to change, we can’t wait for others to do it. We need to all hop on board and do our part. (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

31 Let’s Start! Communication and Collaboration
Presenter Information Web Information Ed O’Connor Elizabeth Freeman Brad Niebling Twitter name: bniebling Skype name: bniebling Blog: com/ Midwest Instructional Leadership Council rg/ Discussion Boards (coming soon) Wiki Potentially coming soon Send us your links and contact information and we’ll post them (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10

32 References IDEA 2004 – RtI and ESEA/NCLB in 2001 - Reading First
Deno, S. L. and Merkin, P. K. (1977) Database program modification: A manual. Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children (National Research Council 1998) and/or National Reading Panel (2000) (c) Midwest Instructional Leadership Council 3/3/10


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