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Response to Intervention (RTI): Considerations for Identification and Instructional Reform Joseph F. Kovaleski Indiana University of PA David Prasse Loyola.

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Presentation on theme: "Response to Intervention (RTI): Considerations for Identification and Instructional Reform Joseph F. Kovaleski Indiana University of PA David Prasse Loyola."— Presentation transcript:

1 Response to Intervention (RTI): Considerations for Identification and Instructional Reform Joseph F. Kovaleski Indiana University of PA David Prasse Loyola University Chicago

2 Reasons for Change Current system – process above results Current system – process above results Current system – wait to fail model Current system – wait to fail model Dual system- general and special Dual system- general and special Culture of compliance Culture of compliance Identification methods lack validity Identification methods lack validity Rigorous research and evidence-based practice Rigorous research and evidence-based practice Focus on compliance and bureaucratic imperatives not academic achievement. Focus on compliance and bureaucratic imperatives not academic achievement.

3 Consensus Reports on Rethinking Learning Disabilities OSEP: Learning Disabilities Summit (2001) OSEP: Learning Disabilities Summit (2001) Fordham Foundation/ Progressive Policy Institute: Rethinking Special Education (2001) Fordham Foundation/ Progressive Policy Institute: Rethinking Special Education (2001) National Research Council: Minority Over- Representation in Special Ed (2002) National Research Council: Minority Over- Representation in Special Ed (2002) Presidents Commission on Excellence in Special Ed (2002) Presidents Commission on Excellence in Special Ed (2002)

4 … the IQ-achievement discrepancy does not reliably distinguish between disabled and non-disabled readers … children who were found to be difficult [and easy] to remediate … and it does not predict response to remediation. Vellutino et al. (2000), p. 235

5 Senate Report re IDEIA The committee believes that the IQ-achievement discrepancy formula, which considers whether a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability, should not be a requirement for determining eligibility under the IDEA. There is no evidence that the IQ- achievement discrepancy formula can be applied in a consistent and educationally meaningful (i.e., reliable and valid) manner.

6 In addition, this approach has been found to be particularly problematic for students living in poverty or culturally and linguistically different backgrounds, who may be erroneously viewed as having intrinsic intellectual limitations when their difficulties on such tests really reflect lack of experience or educational opportunity.

7 IDEIA 2004 Changes Specific Learning Disabilities The LEA shall not be required to take into consideration whether the child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability in oral expression, listening comprehension, written expression, basic reading skill, reading comprehension, mathematical calculation, or mathematical reasoning.

8 IDEIA 2004 Changes Specific Learning Disabilities (cont.) In determining whether a child has a specific learning disability, a local educational agency may use a process which determines if a child responds to scientific, research-based intervention.

9 Senate Report re IDEIA The bill allows local educational agencies to make an eligibility determination through … a process based upon a child's response to scientific, research-based intervention. The (Presidents) Commission recommended that the identification process … be simplified and that assessments that reflect learning and behavior in the classroom be encouraged, with less reliance on the assessments of IQ and achievement ….

10 Is this a radical change? The ability-achievement discrepancy may still be used if the LEA chooses. The ability-achievement discrepancy may still be used if the LEA chooses. Or not, if the LEA elects to use RTI. Or not, if the LEA elects to use RTI. Low achievement, exclusion provisions, and assessment of lack of instruction are already part of IDEIA. Low achievement, exclusion provisions, and assessment of lack of instruction are already part of IDEIA.

11 IDEIA 2004 –CHANGES : Eligibility Determinations A child shall not be determined to be a child with a disability if determinant factor is: Lack of scientifically-based instructional practices and programs that contain the essential components of reading instruction. Lack of scientifically-based instructional practices and programs that contain the essential components of reading instruction. Lack of instruction in math Lack of instruction in math Limited English Proficiency Limited English Proficiency

12 Should Cognitive Processes be Included? There is no substantial body of evidence that attempts to assess cognitive processing improve LD identification, control prevalence, translate into more effective instruction, or improve prediction of the outcomes of interventions. There is no substantial body of evidence that attempts to assess cognitive processing improve LD identification, control prevalence, translate into more effective instruction, or improve prediction of the outcomes of interventions. At best, these measures should be optional, not required, components of a comprehensive evaluation. At best, these measures should be optional, not required, components of a comprehensive evaluation. Any psychological process is meaningful only if it has direct functional correlates to classroom learning (e.g., phonological awareness). Any psychological process is meaningful only if it has direct functional correlates to classroom learning (e.g., phonological awareness).

13 The construct of LD is changing. Under RTI approaches, the discrepancy is relative to the expectation that all children can learn (cf. NCLB), not just students with average IQs. Under RTI approaches, the discrepancy is relative to the expectation that all children can learn (cf. NCLB), not just students with average IQs. RTI identifies which students do not respond to instructional procedures under which most students do succeed. RTI identifies which students do not respond to instructional procedures under which most students do succeed.

14 Its not just about identification… IDEIA and NCLB are companion laws. IDEIA and NCLB are companion laws. They are mutually referential. They are mutually referential. Together, they envision a seamless system of supports, based on the use of scientifically based instruction, in both general and special education. Together, they envision a seamless system of supports, based on the use of scientifically based instruction, in both general and special education. The mission is the development of proficiency in basic skills (particularly reading) for all students. The mission is the development of proficiency in basic skills (particularly reading) for all students.

15 NCLB AND IDEIA 2004 Scientifically based instruction, curriculum, and interventions. Scientifically based instruction, curriculum, and interventions. Identification of learning problems early. Identification of learning problems early. Ongoing monitoring to determine impact of curriculum and instruction. Ongoing monitoring to determine impact of curriculum and instruction. Design and implement remedial and individualized intervention for those who dont respond. Design and implement remedial and individualized intervention for those who dont respond. Inclusion of students in single accountability system. Inclusion of students in single accountability system. Documentation of student outcomes through AYP. Documentation of student outcomes through AYP.

16 House Report re IDEIA … a child cannot be determined to be a child with a disability solely because the child did not receive scientifically based instruction in reading. With the combination of programs authorized under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (NCLB), particularly Reading First and Early Reading First, and the prereferral services concept … the Committee hopes that local educational agencies will improve their reading and literacy instruction to enable all children to read at grade level by the third grade.

17 The Committee believes that these changes will help reduce the number of children being inappropriately referred to, and identified under, special education and should encourage schools to improve their programs on these subjects in early grades.

18 Treatment Validity The selection of any assessment instrument or procedure is solely dependent on its ability to provide specific information about scientifically validated instructional strategies that have a high probability of producing meaningful change in the students academic or social-emotional skills. The selection of any assessment instrument or procedure is solely dependent on its ability to provide specific information about scientifically validated instructional strategies that have a high probability of producing meaningful change in the students academic or social-emotional skills. Measures must relate to child outcomes. Measures must relate to child outcomes.

19 What is a Comprehensive Evaluation Using RTI? Direct measurement of achievement, behavior and the instructional environment in relevant domains as the core foci of a comprehensive evaluation for LD. Direct measurement of achievement, behavior and the instructional environment in relevant domains as the core foci of a comprehensive evaluation for LD. Focus is on achievement, behavior, and instructional environment. Focus is on achievement, behavior, and instructional environment.

20 Comprehensive evaluation using RTI includes: Use of a variety of techniques driven by the referral question, Use of a variety of techniques driven by the referral question, Multiple sources of information, procedures, and settings, Multiple sources of information, procedures, and settings, Multidimensional assessment based on students needs, Multidimensional assessment based on students needs, Not limited to a single methodology. Not limited to a single methodology.

21 Entitlement for Special Education Educational Progress DiscrepancyInstructional Needs Assessment and Progress Data From Problem Solving Process Convergence of Data from a Variety of Sources (Grimes & Tilly, 2003)

22 Discrepancy: Deviation from Established Benchmarks Assessment of performance compared to national/state/local benchmarks: State and district group tests, and State and district group tests, and National benchmark tests (e.g., DIBELS), and National benchmark tests (e.g., DIBELS), and CBM results compared to local norms*, and maybe… CBM results compared to local norms*, and maybe… Norm-referenced tests of achievement (if they meet the treatment validity criterion, and provide additional needed information) Norm-referenced tests of achievement (if they meet the treatment validity criterion, and provide additional needed information) *Note that Shinns 2.0X format is not a calculation of grade levels.

23 Rate of Progress Assessment of the students performance on critical academic skills under verifiable conditions of scientifically validated instruction. Assessment of the students performance on critical academic skills under verifiable conditions of scientifically validated instruction. Rate of progress is deficient compared to peers, and is insufficient to attain state/local benchmarks within a reasonable time period. Rate of progress is deficient compared to peers, and is insufficient to attain state/local benchmarks within a reasonable time period. Note: Rates of progress in response to highly effective interventions has been empirically established (Deno, et al., 2001). Note: Rates of progress in response to highly effective interventions has been empirically established (Deno, et al., 2001).

24 Evaluating the Need for Specially Designed Instruction Deviations in materials Deviations in materials Deviations in planning Deviations in planning Deviations in personnel Deviations in personnel

25 Rule-outs are still included: Hearing and vision problems Hearing and vision problems Mental retardation Mental retardation Emotional problems Emotional problems Cultural and language issues Cultural and language issues

26 Psychometric Integrity of RTI Components Basic premise: identification is more reliable when based on multiple measures gathered over time than on a single assessment. Basic premise: identification is more reliable when based on multiple measures gathered over time than on a single assessment. CBM has been extensive support in terms of validity and reliability for measurements of both deficiency and rate of progress (e.g., Good & Jefferson, 1998; Deno et al., 2001). CBM has been extensive support in terms of validity and reliability for measurements of both deficiency and rate of progress (e.g., Good & Jefferson, 1998; Deno et al., 2001).

27 Building the Infra-structure for RTI Using RTI requires an infra-structure of assessment and intervention techniques. Using RTI requires an infra-structure of assessment and intervention techniques. We do not recommend implementing RTI if the infra-structure is not in place. We do not recommend implementing RTI if the infra-structure is not in place. Therefore, initial efforts should be placed on building the infra-structure. Therefore, initial efforts should be placed on building the infra-structure.

28 Three Tier Model of Teaming Tier 1 Grade level teaming based on data Standard Protocol Interventions Problem-solving Team Tier 3 Special Education Tier 2

29 The Three-Tier Process Ensures that scientifically validated interventions are used at a high degree of fidelity. Ensures that scientifically validated interventions are used at a high degree of fidelity. Allows for the collection of valid, reliable, and functionally meaningful data that inform both identification and treatment decisions. Allows for the collection of valid, reliable, and functionally meaningful data that inform both identification and treatment decisions.

30 Our Position The practice of school psychology should be guided by its effects on student outcomes; not by … Tradition Tradition Guild issues Guild issues Unsupported Theory Unsupported Theory Constructs (e.g., LD) Constructs (e.g., LD)

31 We do not argue that the particular procedures that we describe must be mandated practice for all school psychologists. We do not argue that the particular procedures that we describe must be mandated practice for all school psychologists. However, we also resist the idea that others vision of the practice of school psychology should be mandated for all. However, we also resist the idea that others vision of the practice of school psychology should be mandated for all.

32 We understand the plurality of opinions on these issues. We understand the plurality of opinions on these issues. We challenge our colleagues to be guided by the same basic criterion that we set for ourselves … student outcomes. We challenge our colleagues to be guided by the same basic criterion that we set for ourselves … student outcomes.


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