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Chapter 25: Plant Responses And Adaptations

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1 Chapter 25: Plant Responses And Adaptations

2 Hormones and Plant Growth
Plant cells send signals to one another that indicate when to divide, when not to divide, and when to develop into a new kind of cell When animals reach adulthood, they stop growing Even when plants reach adulthood, they keep growing Meristems allow plants to remain “forever young”

3 What do plants grow in response to?
Light Moisture Temperature Gravity

4 What is a plant hormone? A substance that is produced in one part of an organism and affects another part of the same individual Control a plant’s patterns of growth and development, and the plant’s responses to environmental conditions

5 Plant Hormones To respond to a hormone, the target cell must contain a receptor to which the hormone binds If the receptor is present, the hormone can influence the target cell by: -changing its metabolism -affecting its growth rate -activating the transcription of certain genes A single hormone may affect two different tissues in different ways

6 Auxins Phototropism – tendency of a plant to grow toward a source of light Auxins are produced in the apical meristem and are transported downward into the rest of the plant Auxins stimulate cell elongation Responsible for gravitropism Gravitropism – response of a plant to the force of gravity Involved in the way roots grow around objects in the soil

7 Auxins Regulate cell division in meristems
Apical dominance is the phenomenon in which the closer a bud is to the stem’s tip, the more its growth is inhibited Compounds that mimic auxins are used as herbicides to kill weeds Herbicides – compounds that are toxic to plants

8 Cytokinins Cytokinins – plant hormones that are produced in growing roots and in developing fruits and seeds Stimulate cell division and the growth of lateral buds Cause dormant seeds to sprout Delay the aging of leaves Inhibit elongation and cause cells to grow thicker

9 Plant Hormones BOTH: Determine how a plant grows Auxins Cytokinins
Stimulate cell elongation Inhibit growth of lateral buds Inhibit elongation Stimulate lateral bud growth BOTH: Determine how a plant grows

10 Gibberellins Gibbberellin – growth-promoting substance
Produce dramatic increases in size, especially in stems and fruits Produced by seed tissue Responsible for rapid early growth of plants

11 Ethylene Ethylene – plant hormone that stimulates fruits to ripen
Plants produce their own ethylene In response to auxins, fruit tissues release small amounts of ethylene, which then stimulates fruits to ripen Used to control the ripening process of fruit

12 25-2 plant responses

13 Plant tropisms include gravitropism, phototropism, and thigmotropism
Plant tropisms include gravitropism, phototropism, and thigmotropism. Each of these responses demonstrate the ability of plants to respond to external stimuli

14 25-2 Plant Responses Tropism= the response of plants to external stimuli Phototropism: response to light Auxin controls it Auxin=hormone Maximizes plant exposur to sunlight Gravitropism: response to gravity Auxin controls Roots grow with gravity Stem grows against gravity

15 More tropism!!! :D Thigmotropism=Response to touch
Plants that are touched regularly may be stunted in growth Vines and climbing plants grow around anything that they touch.

16 EVEN MORE Tropisms!!!:D Hydrotropism: response to water
E.g. plant grows towards where water is abundant Chemotropism: response to chemicals Thermotropism: response to temperature Heliotropism: response to the position of the sun

17 Rapid Response Plant movements that are not tropisms
Tropisms involve plant growth Tropisms DO NOT happen rapidly!!! Ex. Venus fly trap

18 Photoperiodism Photoperiodism: plants ability to respond to periods of light and darkness Short-day plants: flower when days are short Long-day plants: flower when days are long Phytochromes are plant pigment that absorbs red light is responsible for photoperiodism.

19 Winter Dormancy Dormancy: is the period during which an organism’s growth and activity decrease or stop Shorter days and colder temperatures reduces rate of photosynthesis Keeping the leaves would be costly in terms of water loss The leaves have little chance of surviving the winter

20 Leaf Abscission Plant reduces auxin production, and increases ethylene production Leaf stops making chlorophyll Remaining chlorophyll breaks down and exposes accessory pigments Nutrients are transported from the leaf to the plant Abscission Layer – seals off the leaf from the rest of the plant

21 Plant Adaptations By Jenny Song
Angiosperms can survive in many different locations. How is this possible? Plant Adaptations By Jenny Song

22 Through natural selection, plants have evolved different adaptations to live successfully in each environment.

23 Adaptations are special features that allow a plant or animal to live in a particular place or habitat

24 Aquatic Plants Often live in MUD(contain little oxygen)
To get enough oxygen, many aquatic pants have air-filled spaces in their tissues. Oxygen diffuses through these spaces from the leaves to the roots. Example of an Aquatic Plant: Waterlillies

25 Salt-Tolerant Plants Plants that grow in salt water or in very salty air near the ocean. These plants have special cells that pump salt out of the plant tissues and onto the leaf surfaces. Then, the rain washes off the salt. Ex. Lampranthus spectabilis (trailing iceplant)

26 Xerophytes (Desert Plants)
These plants often have extensive roots, reduced leaves, and thick stems that can store water. Seeds of many desert plants can remain dormant for years. These seeds will germinate only when enough moisture guarantees them a chance to survive.

27 Nutritional Specialists
Plants that grow in soil with little nutrients. Ex. Carnivorous plants and parasites Carnivorous plants trap and digest insects to get nitrogen. Parasites get water and nutrients directly from a host plant. These plants HARM their host plants

28 Epiphytes Plants that are not rooted in soil.
They grow directly on the bodies of other plants. Are NOT parasites. They gather their own moisture from the rain. They make their own food. Most live in Rain Forests.

29 Chemical Defenses Many plants produce chemicals that are poisonous to the animals that eat them. Chemical defenses protect plants from potential predators. Digitalis (Foxglove) is poisonous when eaten.

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