Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Supreme Court Cases through pictures. Marbury vs. Madison 1803.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Supreme Court Cases through pictures. Marbury vs. Madison 1803."— Presentation transcript:

1 Supreme Court Cases through pictures

2 Marbury vs. Madison 1803

3 Marbury vs. Madison Established the Supreme Court’s power of judicial review The Court has the power of judicial review – the ability to review laws at the federal, state, and local levels and determine if the laws are constitutional. Therefore, it is not the Constitution that gives them the power – “the Constitution is what the Supreme Court says it is” ~ Former Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes

4 McCulloch v. Maryland 1819

5 Gibbons v. Ogden 1824

6 Dred Scott v. Sandford 1857

7 Plessy v. Ferguson 1896

8 Plessy vs. Fergussen Louisiana. Homer Plessy, an African American, decides to sit in a section of a train marked “For whites only!” When he refused to move, he was arrested and convicted for violating Louisiana’s segregation law. Taken to the Supreme Court, and upheld as Constitutional under the 14 th Amendment equal protection clause. Said African Americans could be provided “separate but equal” public facilities; began nation-wide segregation.

9 Separate but equal

10 Korematsu v. US 1944

11 Brown vs. Board of Education 1954

12 Brown vs. Board of Education Justices ruled that racially separate schools are unequal because they are separate. Court finds unanimously that segregation is a violation of 14 th Amendment equal protection clause. Overturned Plessy vs. Fergussen (1896); which said African Americans could be provided “separate but equal” public facilities; began school integration


14 Mapp vs. Ohio 1961

15 Engel vs. Vitale 1962

16 Engel vs. Vitale Held that a public school district’s practice of starting the day with prayer violates the establishment clause What is the establishment clause?

17 Gideon vs. Wainwright 1963

18 Heart of Atlanta Motel vs. US 1964

19 Miranda vs. Arizona 1966

20 Swann vs. Charlotte Mecklenburg School District 1969

21 Tinker vs. Des Moines 1969 Freedom of Speech/ Students Rights

22 Tinker vs. Des Moines Des Moines, Iowa: In protest of the Vietnam War, students wore black armbands to school. The principal feared that their symbolic gesture might cause commotion, so the principal forced students to take either take off the armbands or face suspension. The Supreme Court ruled the following, according to the Oyez Project: “The wearing of armbands was "closely akin to 'pure speech'" and protected by the First Amendment. School environments imply limitations on free expression, but here the principals lacked justification for imposing any such limits.”

23 Hazelwood vs. Kuhlmeier Hazelwood East High near St. Louis, MO, sponsored a student newspaper as part of its journalism classes. Before it could be printed, had to be viewed by Principal Reynolds. He objected to 2 articles because spoke of students, and so he cancelled the pages. Newspaper students sued the school, claiming 1 st Amendment rights had been denied. Local court upheld decision that 1 st Amendment rights denied. Brought to the Supreme Court, and denied: “[a school] may refuse to disseminate student speech that does not meet [its] standards.”

24 The New York Times vs. US 1971 Pentagon Papers Free Press

25 Furman vs. Georgia 1972 Equal Protection/ Due Process Cruel and Unusual Punishment/ 8 th Amendment

26 Roe v. Wade 1973 Abortion Rights Right of Privacy/ State Rights/ Reserved

27 Roe vs. Wade Legalized a woman’s right to an abortion under certain circumstances.

28 United States vs. Nixon 1974 Watergate/ Federal Due Process Executive Power

29 University of California vs. Bakke 1978 Affirmative Action/ Equal Protection

30 University of California vs. Bakke 1978 Ruled in favor of affirmative action, and established the rights of students to appeal college admission policies. This particular case ruled against the admission process of the Medical School which set aside 16 of 100 seats for non-white students. Could not set aside a certain amount of seats for a certain race because would exclude other races, but could consider race as a “plus” factor in admissions program.

31 Texas vs. Johnson 1989 Flag Burning/ Free Speech

32 New Jersey vs. T.L.O 1985 Search and Seizure/ Students Due Process

33 Skokie vs. Illinois (1977)

34 Skokie is a town in Cook County, Illinois, near Chicago. It was settled by German farmers, but had a substantial Jewish population. In the mid-1970s, Skokie was at the center of a case concerning the First Amendment right to assemble and the National Socialist Party of America, a neo- Nazi group. Skokie ultimately lost that case. The Illinois lower court ruled that the Nazi party could not march down Main Street or wear the Swastika in demonstration in Skokie against the Jewish population there. Supreme Court ruled that the members of the Nazi Party in Skokie could march down Main Street and that their First Amendment rights had been violated by the Illinois lower court.

35 Phillips vs. Martin Marietta (1971)

36 Under Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, an employer may not refuse to hire women with pre-school children while hiring men with such children. Ida Phillips, a mother, applied for a job at the company and was denied because of her circumstance as a mother. Phillips sued under Title VII claiming that the policy was discriminatory. The Supreme Court unanimously held that the Marietta Corp. policy did discriminate on the basis of sex and overturned the lower courts finding then sent the case back to the lower court for trial.

37 Schenck vs. United States (1919)

38 Schenk vs. United States (1919) Charles Schenck, of the Socialist Party of America, was responsible for printing, distributing, and mailing leaflets that advocated opposition to the draft to prospective military draftees during World War I. These leaflets contained statements such as; "Do not submit to intimidation", "Assert your rights”. For these acts, Schenck was convicted of violating the Espionage Act of 1917. Schenck appealed to the United States Supreme Court, arguing that the court decision violated his First Amendment rights. The Court, unaminously held that Schenck's criminal conviction was constitutional. The First Amendment did not protect speech encouraging insubordination, since the circumstances of wartime permit greater restrictions on free speech than would be allowable during peacetime.

39 Schenck vs. United States (1919) In this, the Supreme Court invented the “Clear and present danger test” to determine when a state could constitutionally limit an individual's free speech rights under the First Amendment. In reviewing the conviction of a man charged with distributing provocative flyers to draftees of World War I, the Court asserted that, in certain contexts, words can create a "clear and present danger" that Congress may constitutionally prohibit. While the ruling has since been overturned, Schenck is still significant for creating the context-based balancing tests used in reviewing freedom of speech challenges

Download ppt "Supreme Court Cases through pictures. Marbury vs. Madison 1803."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google