2 Families and ChildrenChildren are an integral part of the cultural image of the family, and their presence (and absence) raises interesting questions about what society believes constitutes a real family.Yet children are only one component comprising a family ideal.The context or setting in which children are raised (by a single mother, by a same-sex couple, by grandparents, etc.) is also part of the image of the ideal family.
3 ChildbearingMost U.S. families have one to three children; two is the average.This is a much lower number than in the past.Family size has been in decline for most of the twentieth century (apart from the baby boom period, 1946–1964; see Chapter 2).But even within these simple numbers, there is a more complex and diverse story of family diversity.In particular, the past few decades have seen a number of growing changes and trends.The most important change has been the number of parents who have children outside of marriage.There is also a trend toward single motherhood, which is generally recognized.Other trends are not so noticeable.
4 Childbearing: Trends Childbearing Trends The organization of U.S. family life is changing dramatically, adding to its increasing diversity.The following three slides list three recent changes to the American family.
5 Childbearing: Cohabitation Childbearing TrendsAbout a third of unmarried parents are actually living together (cohabiting) at the time of the birth.Source: U.S. Census Bureau (2011).
6 Childbearing: More Than Two Parents Childbearing TrendsAbout a third of unmarried parents are actually living together (cohabiting) at the time of the birth.While fewer parents are married now than in the past, many children are involved with more than two parents.While this fact may be slightly ironic, it is happening because an increasing number of families include stepparents and siblings from previous relationships.In fact, more than 25 percent of parents with two or more children have those children with two or more partners.Source: Dorius (2011).
7 Childbearing: Women without Children Childbearing TrendsAbout a third of unmarried parents are actually living together (cohabiting) at the time of the birth.While fewer parents are married now than in the past, many children are involved with more than two parents.The number of women reaching age 45 without having any children has doubled since the 1980s.More families are having their first child at older ages.And there are more adults, both singles and couples, who are spending a larger proportion of their lives without children.Source: Abma and Martinez (2011).
8 Childbearing: Terms and Concepts Childbearing TrendsTerms and ConceptsThese trends underscore the fact that the form and organization of U.S. family life are changing in ways that are making it increasing diverse.And for those families that have children, the ways in which the family is structured reflect the increasing diversity of childrearing practices and family arrangements.There is also an increase in the number of childless families and families with less children than in the past.This highlights the decreasing role of children in family life, at least for some individuals.The next few slides will establish some terms and concepts for the study of children in families.
9 Childbearing: Parent Terms and Concepts Parent When an individual “has” a child, either biologically or by adoption, she or he becomes a parent.
10 Childbearing: Parent Definition Terms and ConceptsParentAn adult intimately responsible for the care and rearing of a childIn sociology and family studies, a parent is an adult intimately responsible for the care and rearing of a child.
11 Childbearing: Biological Parents Terms and ConceptsBiological ParentsThe adults whose bodies – including the father’s sperm and the mother’s egg – produce a childBiological parents are identified as the adults whose bodies physically produce the child (including the father’s sperm and the mother’s egg).A woman who carries a fetus to term without providing the egg is a surrogate parent, and is not considered a biological parent.
12 Childbearing: Adoptive Parents Terms and ConceptsAdoptive ParentsPeople who are parents to a child they did not produce biologicallyAdoptive parents are parents to children they did not produce biologically.U.S. adoption is usually a legal arrangement with rights, responsibilities, and obligations enforced by the government, although some stepparents or other family partner may informally take the role of an adoptive parent.The arrangement of parents is not restricted to mother-father couples or only two parents.There are situations where there is (sometimes legal) ambiguity.The increase in different types of blended families can sometimes create confusion (and will be discussed more in Chapter 10).
13 Childbearing: Fertility Terms and ConceptsFertilityWhen individuals are able to produce children biologically, they are often described as fertile and are compared to those who cannot have children (who are sometimes called infertile).However, fertility means something more specific in sociology.
14 Childbearing: Fertility Definition Terms and ConceptsFertilityThe number of children born in a society or among a particular groupIn sociology, fertility means “the number of children born in a society or among a particular group.”There are many different way in which to quantify the fertility rate of a society.One of these numbers is the total fertility rate.
15 Childbearing: Total Fertility Rate Terms and ConceptsTotal Fertility RateThe number of children born to the average woman in her lifetime.The total fertility rate is “the number of children born to the average woman in her lifetime.”Fertility rates are usually measured for women because the information used for calculations is obtained from birth certificates, which do not necessarily specify the fathers.The total fertility rate is useful for understanding and thinking about the overall population.Demographers use the overall total fertility rate to estimate the replacement fertility of a country.If a country has a total fertility rate of more than 2.1 (that is, a rate of 2.1 children born for an average woman in her lifetime), the population will usually grow.If the total fertility rate is lower than 2.1, the population will start to shrink.Thus demographers refer to a total fertility rate of 2.1 as replacement fertility.
16 Childbearing: Number of Children Born by the Time a Woman Reaches Age 45 Source: National Center for Health Statistics (2013).This figure shows the number of children born by the time a woman reaches age 45.The average number of children for the average U.S. woman is approximately two.About one-third of women have had two children by the age of 45.One-third of women have had three or more children by the age of 45.One-third of women have had no children by the age of 45.There are more complex patterns of childbearing related to marital status, race/ethnicity, and education.
17 Childbearing: Unmarried Parents The rise in the number of unmarried parents is closely related to the decline of marriage (discussed in Chapter 8).Since the 1980s, marriage has declined more than childbearing.This has caused an increase in the number of unmarried parents.
18 Childbearing: Percentage of Births to Unmarried Women This figure shows the percentage of births to unmarried women.This number has increased from 28 percent in 1990 to 41 percent in 2011.Source: U.S. Census Bureau (2011); J. Martin et al. (2013).However, individuals become single parents in a variety of different ways.
19 Childbearing: Young Adults Unmarried ParentsYoung adults with children who are not ready or willing to marryYoung adults, with or without children, may not be ready or willing or feel able to marry (because of real or unrealistic expectations).These individuals are more likely to be economically disadvantaged (McKeever & Wolfinger, 2011).
20 Childbearing: Single Older Women Unmarried ParentsYoung adults with children who are not ready or willing to marrySingle older women who decide to have childrenOlder women may be single either by life circumstances or deliberate choice.Some women decide to have a child or children with or without a partner because they do not want to wait to get married (or do not want to get married at all).While they may prefer to be married, they decide to adopt, use a sperm donor, or get pregnant using alternative (relationship) arrangements.The families in these circumstances are less likely to be poor (Hertz, 2006).
21 Childbearing: Divorced Adults Unmarried ParentsYoung adults with children who are not ready or willing to marrySingle older women who decide to have childrenDivorced adults with childrenThere are individuals who are divorced with children.They may be in a serious relationships but are not remarried.They may or may not get remarried, either by choice or because the complications of remarriage create obstacles for them (Brown, 2000).
22 Childbearing: Gay and Lesbian Couples Unmarried ParentsYoung adults, with children, who are not ready or willing to marrySingle older women who decide to have childrenDivorced adults with childrenGay and lesbian couples, with children, who are not marriedGay and lesbian couples may not be married, either by choice or because of legal restrictions (Gates et al., 2007).
23 Childbearing: Race and Ethnicity Unmarried ParentsRace and EthnicityThe second fertility pattern involves race and ethnicity,Single parenthood is much more common is some racial-ethnic groups than in others,American Indian, African- American. and Puerto Rican families are more likely to include single-parent households.There also differences in total fertility rates among racial-ethnic groups.
24 Childbearing: Total Fertility Rates This figure shows the total fertility rates by race-ethnicity and the expected births per women in 2010.Source: Martin et al. (2012).Latinas have high total fertility rates because of several factors, including immigration, demographics, and religion (explained in Chapter 3).
25 Childbearing: Education Unmarried ParentsRace and EthnicityEducationThe third fertility pattern involves education.Women with lower levels of education have more children (Kravdal & Rindfuss, 2008).This is true, not only in the United States, but globally as well.
26 Childbearing: Average Number of Children Ever Born to Women Ages 40 to 44 This figure shows the average number of children ever born to women ages 40 to 44 and the mothers’ levels of education in 2010.Source: U.S. Census Bureau (2011).Women without a high school diploma have an average of 2.6 children, compared to 1.8 (or less) for women with a college degree.This can be partially explained by the fact that some women do not go back to school after they have children .Some women postpone having children until after they have finished school.As a result, those women with less education start having children earlier and end up having more children overall.
27 Childbearing: Opportunity Cost Unmarried ParentsRace and EthnicityEducationOpportunity CostAlso, women who have higher levels of education end up thinking about the opportunity cost of having (more) children.
28 Childbearing: Opportunity Cost Definition Unmarried ParentsRace and EthnicityEducationOpportunity CostThe price one pays for choosing the less lucrative of available optionsMany women in the workforce must face the choice between choosing to have children (and loosing or making a lower income) and having a career and high income.Deciding to have children is considered the less lucrative option and is viewed by social scientists as an opportunity cost.The opportunity cost is greater for women with higher levels of education (and therefore, higher levels of income and occupation) than it is for women with less education.This way of thinking implies that women (and men) carefully consider all economic options before deciding whether to have children.And some research has shown that half of all pregnancies are considered “unintended,” meaning the woman was not trying to get pregnant (Finer & Henshaw, 2006).A larger proportion of unintended births occur among those with less education (and thus lower incomes), partly because of inadequate health care, contraception, and health education.
29 AdoptionAdoption was, and still remains, an option for parents who are unable or unwilling to raise their own biological children.Adoption used to be more common and more secretive before the 1960s.Adoption became less common after the 1930s because of the decline of the stigma of unwed motherhood, the growing availability of birth control, and the legality of abortion.Women who were not willing or able to become parents were less likely to have children as a result.Only approximately 2.1 percent of all U.S. children are adopted today .Furthermore, adoptions are much less secretive and almost all adopted children know that they are adopted.Today, adopted children can be divided into three categories:37 percent are adopted through the foster care system;38 percent are U.S. born and adopted through private services;25 percent are born in other countries and adopted by U.S. parents (Vandivere, Malm, & Radel, 2009).
30 Adoption: Children Adopted into the United States from Other Countries This figure shows the number of children adopted into the United States from other countries from 1990 through 2013.Source: U.S. Department of State (2014).International adoption can be complicated and controversial.There are many legal and cultural difficulties and considerations, which are not always taken into consideration by all parties involved in the adoption process.The Hague Adoption Convention is an international agreement that seeks to facilitate adoptions in the interests of these children.Among other things, the convention attempts to protect children against economic and cultural exploitation.
31 Why (Not) Have Children? The reasons individuals decide to have or to not have children are many and varied.They may include both conscious and unconscious factors.In preindustrial families, many couples had many children (partly) because of their labor.And before government programs such as Social Security, children were often expected to take care of parents in their later years.In modern society, children are a large expense (even considered an investment), who are considered valuable more for symbolic and emotional reasons than for economic ones (Schoen et al., 1997).Parents expect children to be a source of pride, achievement, accomplishment, and love.Yet there are also reasons why individuals in modern society do not have children.For some individuals or couples, this is a deliberate choice; for others, it may be a matter of circumstances or biology.
32 Why (Not) Have Children? Abortion The reasons for terminating a pregnancy are varied and may be complicated.Sometimes the termination of a pregnancy may be because of medical reasons, but surveys have found that the most common reasons include decisions based on economics, education, or other family concerns (Finer et al., 2005).Women who are most likely to have abortions are those who are most likely to have unintended pregnancies (Jones, Finer, & Singh, 2010).
33 Why (Not) Have Children? Pregnancy Outcomes This figure shows the breakdown of pregnancy outcomes according to marital status.Source: Ventura et al. (2012).Abortion remains a divisive and contentious issue in the United States in spite of the right to abortion being protected at the federal level (the 1973 Roe v. Wade Supreme Court ruling).
34 Why (Not) Have Children? Infertility AbortionInfertilityIn addition to unintended pregnancies, there are also unsuccessful pregnancies and the experience of infertility.
35 Why (Not) Have Children? Infertility Definition AbortionInfertilityThe failure of a couple to have a successful pregnancy despite deliberately having sex without contraceptionThis is the usual definition of infertility; it is used as general description without having to obtain a specific cause or medical diagnosis.Demographers use an (arbitrary) time period of 12 months of sex without contraception as part of the definition.Given this general definition, approximately 9 percent of couples experience infertility around the world; the United States has a slightly lower rate of 7 percent per couple (Boivin et al., 2007).There are many causes of infertility, including but not limited to, advanced age, poor health, smoking, and obesity.While infertility is a natural part of the sexual experience, there is also a pattern of infertility linked to inequality.Social conditions contribute to the problem of infertility.Higher rates of infertility can be attributed to lower education and poorer overall health.
36 Why (Not) Have Children? Infertility for 12 Months White women are the least likely to experience infertility.Women with higher levels of education have lower rates of infertility.Source: Bitler and Schmidt (2006).In the past, women have tended to be blamed for infertility more than men.However, male and female medical conditions are equally likely to be the cause of infertility for a couple.Infertility is now considered to be a treatable problem because of medical research and a shift in cultural attitudes.This has increased the options for families, but certain couples are unable to take advantage of medical advancement and treatments.
37 Why (Not) Have Children? Living without Children AbortionInfertilityLiving without ChildrenAs opposed to couples and individuals who desire to have children but cannot (because of infertility), many people choose to deliberately avoid or postpone having children.Those who experience infertility are childless; those who choose not to have children are childfree.
38 Why (Not) Have Children? Childfree Living AbortionInfertilityLiving without ChildrenChildfree LivingFamilies without children (by choice) is just another type of family arrangement in modern society.Part of this phenomenon has been attributed to a backlash against the culture of intensive parenting and the rise of modern individualism.While the choice not to have children is becoming increasingly more acceptable, people who decide not to have children are in the minority.And even though it is becoming more socially acceptable, making this particular choice (often) requires reasoning and justification to oneself and others.
39 Why (Not) Have Children? Family Arrangements of Adults Ages 25 to 49 The reasons for living without children is varied, but the number of U.S. adults without children is increasing.There has been a steady rise in the number and proportion of U.S. adults without children since the 1970s.Source: U.S. Census Bureau (2010).This trend is particularly pronounced for professional women with high levels of education, but it is occurring outside of this group as well (Lundquist, Budig, & Curtis, 2009).Furthermore, just as more individuals are spending fewer years of their lives being married, they are also spending fewer years of their lives with children.This is creating a new pattern in modern society where living with children is no longer the norm, but rather just one of many options.
40 Children’s Living Arrangements As marriage rates have declined and divorce rates have increased, family arrangements have grown more diverse.The social, economic, and cultural choices of adults greatly impact the lives of children.The study of childrearing often begins with the study of children’s living arrangements.
41 Children’s Living Arrangements: Living Arrangements of Children This figure shows the living arrangements of children by race/ethnicity from 1960 to 2010.Source: U.S. Census Bureau (2013).These groups include the majority of children.Data on smaller groups are included in Chapter 3.Data for Latinos were not available for the decades before 1980.The percentages shown in this figure highlight the themes of this text (next three slides): diversity, inequality, and social change.
42 Children’s Living Arrangements: Diversity Fifty years ago, the dominant household arrangement for children used to be a household with two married parents.There are now many more diverse arrangements, and no one type of structure is dominant.These variations now included extended families, same-sex parents, blended families, and cohabiting parents, among others.
43 Children’s Living Arrangements: Inequality DiversityInequalityThe rate and scale of transformation from married two-parent households varies according to groupAfrican-American children are experiencing a much more rapid shift toward single-mother families than children in other racial-ethnic groups.Single-mother families have fewer resources and lower incomes, and this contributes to growing inequality among family types.Also, children in single-parent homes are much more likely to experience disruption in family living arrangements (McLanahan & Percheski, 2008).
44 Children’s Living Arrangements: Social Change DiversityInequalitySocial ChangeDiversity and increased inequality are symptomatic of broader social change
45 Children’s Living Arrangements: Transitions DiversityInequalitySocial ChangeTransitionsTransitions within society are often experienced as transitions within the family.Transitions, for better or for worse, can have long-lasting impacts on children.Children who live with a cohabitating parent may experience multiple transitions in family composition (Kennedy & Bumpass, 2008).This may include parental relationships with multiple adults and a variety of arrangements of other (related or not) children (Cherlin, 2009).Family transitions always have an economic component (a parent may lose a job, unemployment may break up a marriage, etc.) and can add stress to every member of the family, especially children (Brown, 2006).There is an increase in multigenerational household because of shifting economic conditions.In the past, older adults who were parents depended on the economic security of their children.Because of the transitions to a postindustrial service economy, it is more common for adult children to depend on the economic security of their parents.Research suggest that when children live with grandparents, it is often reflective of economic hardship and is common among poor and immigrant families during hard times (Landale, Thomas, & Van Hook, 2011).
46 Children’s Living Arrangements: Percentage of All Children Living in Home of a Grandparent This figure shows the percentage of all children living in the home of a grandparent from 1970 to 2010.This has become an increasing trend, reflecting economic hardship for many families.Source: U.S. Census Bureau (2013).Green: percentage of children living with father onlyPink: percentage of children living with mother onlyOrange: percentage of children living with both parentsPurple: percentage of children living with neither parent
47 Parenting Parenting The activity of raising a child Parenting is the activity of raising a child.The word parenting (in English) is less than 100 years old, but the concept of caring for children is not new.The term parenting became much more popular and used frequently in the 1970s (Cohen, 2010).Thus parenting is made up of many different components and many different types of relationships.And parenting occurs in a wide variety of social environments that very from place to place.According to Cohen, parenting (at least in terms of parental behavior) includes three broad categories (next three slides): socialization, social bonds, and social networks.These components are in addition to money and other financial resources.
48 Parenting: Socialization Through socialization, individuals internalize elements of society and social structure (from Chapter 5).For sociologists, individual personality is developed through social processes.Parents are one of the primary agents of socialization for children.Successful socialization prepares children for future social situations as adults.
49 Parenting: Social Bonds SocializationSocial BondsAs discussed in Chapter 2, children build stable bonds with parents in order to create a needed foundation for learning and development.Without these bonds, children may be at risk when they later form relationships with others.
50 Parenting: Social Networks SocializationSocial BondsSocial NetworksParents establish social networks with and for their children.Parental networking begins early and can be extensive and subtle.Parents create deliberate (and sometimes unintentional) networks of friends, relatives, mentors, and others, which have a profound effect on the development of their children.These networks greatly influence the social environment.
51 Parenting: Meaning of Childhood The Meaning of ChildhoodThe number of children surviving childhood and becoming adults increased dramatically in the nineteenth century and into the twentieth century.As a result of this (and other factors), parents started having fewer children.The usefulness of child labor also started to decrease at the same time that child workplace safety concerns were being raised.The shift away from child labor combined with fewer children per family had several implications for how individuals thought of children and the meaning of childhood.Children were becoming more precious to their parents and were beginning to be valued more for their emotional worth than their economic worth (Zelizer, 1985).
52 Parenting: Competition and Insecurity The Meaning of ChildhoodCompetition and InsecurityModern parenting in the United States is increasingly reflecting competition and insecurity.Because modern parents have fewer children, they invest more per child than in the past .Children are increasingly becoming valued for their emotional value and less for their economic value.Parents have increasing anxiety about the job they are doing and the quality of their parenting.This anxiety is exacerbated by the growing perception of economic insecurity and the increased necessity of higher education (Waldfogel, 2006).
53 Parenting: Intensive Motherhood The Meaning of ChildhoodCompetition and InsecurityIntensive MotherhoodSociologist Sharon Hays (1996) identifies an ideology she terms intensive motherhood.She explains it in her book, The Cultural Contradictions of Motherhood.
54 Parenting: Intensive Motherhood Definition The Meaning of ChildhoodCompetition and InsecurityIntensive MotherhoodCultural pressure on women to devote more time, energy, and money to raising their childrenFor Hays, there is a cultural pressure on women to devote more resources (time, energy, and money) to raising children.Hays also points out that this cultural pressure increased as the employment rates for women increased.Hays is primarily concerned with the effects that this pressure has on women and how this affects gender inequality.But the term intensive parenting is now being used to refer to pressure on parents in general (Cha, 2010).Research has found that many women’s priorities have changed in response to this pressure and the time spent with their children actually did increase (Bianchi, 2000).There are now changes in parental expectations to go along with the changes in attitudes toward parenting.Not all parents are able to live up to these cultural expectations.
55 Parenting: SpankingThis figure shows the percentage of adults who agree or disagree with the statement, “It is sometimes necessary to discipline a child with a good, hard spanking.”Source: General Social Surveys, 1972–2012 (2014).
56 Class Activity1. “It is sometimes necessary to discipline a child with a good, hard spanking.”agree completelyagree somewhatneutral/unsuredisagree somewhatdisagree completelyThis workshop can be done as a peer instruction (PI) exercise or without preparation.Have students answer the following question using clickers or colored cardsDisplay aggregate results to the classStudents may break into pairs or small groups to discuss their answer with each other (preferably with those who had different answers) or the instructor may assign groups.The topic may then be shared or discussed as a class.The instructor may choose to ask this question again, after there has been group or class discussion (optional).
57 Parenting: Gay and Lesbian Parents The Meaning of ChildhoodCompetition and InsecurityGay and Lesbian ParentsA very small number (less than 1 percent) of children are actually a part of same-sex couple families (Gates et al., 2007.)Even though this percentage is small, it has actually increased rapidly in the past few years.This can be (partly) attributed to changes in laws and attitudes toward same-sex partnerships, which in turn increases family and child-rearing options for same-sex couples.Same-sex couples are increasingly pursuing adoption, fostering, and assisted reproduction, and so on.There is limited research covering the practices of child-rearing for same-sex couples.
58 Parenting: Fatherhood The Meaning of ChildhoodCompetition and InsecurityGay and Lesbian ParentsFatherhoodWith parenting research mostly focused on mothers, research on fathers and fatherhood has been limited and only grown within the last few decades (Marsiglio et al., 2000).Sociologists now acknowledge that fathers have an important impact on the lives of their children, and the research is beginning to reflect this.The study of fatherhood has shown that there has been a major shift in the attitudes of what individuals feel makes a “good father.”This attitude has shifted from the ideal of the father as a male provider to the ideal of the father as an involved father.
59 Parenting: Male Provider Ideal The Meaning of ChildhoodCompetition and InsecurityGay and Lesbian ParentsFatherhoodMale Provider IdealThe male provider ideal began with the period of separate spheres and dominated social attitudes until the 1960s.While vestiges of this attitude still exist today, it is not as predominant as it used to be.
60 Parenting: Male Provider Ideal Definition The Meaning of ChildhoodCompetition and InsecurityGay and Lesbian ParentsFatherhoodMale Provider IdealThe father as an economic provider and authority figure for his childrenThe male provider ideal posits the father as the economic provider and the authority figure for his children.This ideal is based on the assumption that the father is successfully employed and is able to take care of his family (wife and children) economically.The career of the father is the priority in the family, and it is the success of his career that makes him a good father.Several historical changes contributed to this shift from this ideal to the involved father ideal.First, the increase in women’s paid employment outside of the home undermined the importance of the male as sole breadwinner and provider.The family role differences between men and women were starting to blur and become challenged.Second, as more families strayed from the male breadwinner and female stay-at-home model, the idea of that type of family as normal and natural began to decline.Third, the emotional development of children was becoming more important and the roles of both parents were beginning to reflect this.Mothers – and fathers – were becoming to be seen as increasingly necessary to the socialization and development of their children.
61 Parenting: Involved Father Ideal The Meaning of ChildhoodCompetition and InsecurityGay and Lesbian ParentsFatherhoodInvolved Father IdealAll of these factors gradually led to the development of the involved father ideal.
62 Parenting: Involved Father Ideal Definition The Meaning of ChildhoodCompetition and InsecurityGay and Lesbian ParentsFatherhoodInvolved Father IdealThe father as an emotional, nurturing companion who bonds with his children as well as providing for themThe involved father idea viewed the father as an emotional nurturing companion as opposed to just an authority figure who solely provided economic support for the family.This ideal is now almost universally accepted, with most (modern) fathers embracing this new role of the father and rejecting the previous male provider ideal (Lewis, 2012).Research has also shown that both wealthy and poor fathers value this new ideal (Edin & Nelson, 2013).
63 FatherhoodThis figure shows fathers’ attitudes of what they consider to be the most important things to do as a (modern) father.The overwhelming percentage (64 percent) responded with the answer, “Showing the child love and affection.”Only 6 percent responded with, “Taking care of the child financially.”Source: Avenilla, Rosenthal & Tice (2006).
64 The Story behind the Numbers 1. How much does it cost for a low-income family (<$57,000/yr.) and a high-income family (>$98,000/yr.) to raise a child through age 17?$135,000; $295,000$160,000; $370,000$210,000; $425,000$300,000; $560,000Have students answer the question using clickers or colored cardsDisplay aggregate results to the class and discuss the answer to the question using the next five slidesAnswer: BDiscussion: Rich parents spend more (on clothing, houses, yards, food, health care, child care, and education) than parents who are less well off. This means rich children are more expensive and also benefit in many ways by their parents’ income.The following five “Story behind the Numbers” slides may be used at the discretion of the instructor to elucidate the differences in raising children between low- and high-income families.
65 The High, and Highly Unequal, Cost of Raising Children: Housing This figure shows the difference between what a family with high income (>$98,000/yr.) spends on housing and what a family with low income (<$57,000/yr.) spends on housing.Source: Lino (2010).
66 The High, and Highly Unequal, Cost of Raising Children: Food This figure shows the difference between what a family with high income (>$98,000/yr.) spends on food and what a family with low income (<$57,000/yr.) spends on food.Source: Lino (2010).
67 The High, and Highly Unequal, Cost of Raising Children: Health Care This figure shows the difference between what a family with high income (>$98,000/yr.) spends on health care and what a family with low income (<$57,000/yr.) spends on health care.Source: Lino (2010).
68 The High, and Highly Unequal, Cost of Raising Children: Child Care and Education This figure shows the difference between what a family with high income (>$98,000/yr.) spends on child care and education and what a family with low income (<$57,000/yr.) spends on child care and education.Source: Lino (2010).
69 The High, and Highly Unequal, Cost of Raising Children: Clothing This figure shows the difference between what a family with high income (>$98,000/yr.) spends on clothing and what a family with low income (<$57,000/yr.) spends on clothing.Source: Lino (2010).
70 Review Question 11. One skill or resource that parents provide (or try to provide) for their children is ______, which helps prepare them for future social situations so that they will feel less confusion and stress.the social bondsocializationintensive motherhoodsocial networkingAnswer: BDiscussion: Socialization is a type of resource that parents provide for their children that allows them to internalize elements of the social structure into their own personality. This then helps children prepare for future social situations so they will feel less stress and confusion.
71 Review Question 2 male provider; involved father 2. The increase in women’s employment and the increased diversity of family structure changed the cultural view of fathers from the ______ to the ______ ideal, which emphasizes providing both material support and emotional bonding.male provider; involved fatherworking father; intensive fatherhoodabsent father; involved fathersingle father; involved fatherAnswer: ADiscussion: The dominance of the male provider view, which was characterized by the father as an economic provider and authority figure for children, started shifting in the 1960s, when a number of historical events began to undermine this ideal, such as the increase of women’s employment and the increased diversity of family structures. The new ideal, the involved father, characterizes fathers as emotional and nurturing to their children.
72 Review Question 33. Public opinion regarding spanking children can be understood as being shaped by both traditional beliefs and by ______, which are influenced by the advice of experts such as doctors, teachers, and social scientists.opportunity costscontemporary attitudesreligious beliefsstigmasAnswer: BDiscussion: Changes in public opinion on issues like spanking can be understood as a reflection of traditional beliefs as well as changes in contemporary attitudes. These contemporary attitudes are partly influenced by the advice and information provided by experts such as doctors, teachers, social workers, and social scientists.
73 Review Question 44. Kayla decides to leave her lucrative job as a financial analyst in order to have and raise a second child. The income she will be giving up in order to raise her child can be referred to asthe motherhood penalty.an opportunity cost.the parenting cost.the fertility cost.Answer: BDiscussion: An opportunity cost is the price a person pays for choosing the less lucrative of available options. In this example, Kayla pays an opportunity cost by leaving behind the more lucrative option of continuing work in order to raise her second child.
74 Review Question 55. If a country has a total fertility rate of more than 2.1, the population will usually ______ , but if the total fertility rate is lower than 2.1, the population will instead ______.shrink; growgrow; stay the samegrow; shrinkstay the same; shrinkAnswer: CDiscussion: The total fertility rate refers to the number of children born to the average woman in her lifetime. If a country has a total fertility rate of less than 2.1, the population will eventually start to shrink. This is because not everyone survives to have a child or wants to have a child, so an average rate of at least 2.1 is needed to replace each woman and her partner. The 2.1 fertility rate is also referred to as replacement fertility.
75 Review Question 66. As described by sociologist Viviana Zelizer, the transformation of American childhood during modern times can be understood as children loosing their ______ value and instead achieving a newfound ______ value.material; laboremotional; economiclabor; materialeconomic; emotionalAnswer: DDiscussion: The new industrial workplace and child labor laws resulted in the meaning of American childhood going through a transformation. Children no longer worked for their keep and therefore lost their economic value, instead achieving a newfound emotional value that was considered priceless.
76 Review Question 77. Reed and May are both young children who live with their mother. Recently, due to the financial strain of single parenthood, all three of them moved in with a grandparent. This change is referred to asa family transition.a social change.intensive motherhood.an opportunity cost.Answer: ADiscussion: When children experience the social changes of our era inside their own families, these are referred to as family transitions. Some of these, as in the example, involve a change from a worse condition to a better one, such as moving in with a grandparent to help alleviate financial stress. Most transitions, though, still cause stress for developing children and can have long-lasting effects.