Presentation on theme: "Tutorial on Multi Access OFDM (OFDMA) Technology"— Presentation transcript:
1 Tutorial on Multi Access OFDM (OFDMA) Technology IEEE P Wireless RANs Date:Authors:Notice: This document has been prepared to assist IEEE It is offered as a basis for discussion and is not binding on the contributing individual(s) or organization(s). The material in this document is subject to change in form and content after further study. The contributor(s) reserve(s) the right to add, amend or withdraw material contained herein.Release: The contributor grants a free, irrevocable license to the IEEE to incorporate material contained in this contribution, and any modifications thereof, in the creation of an IEEE Standards publication; to copyright in the IEEE’s name any IEEE Standards publication even though it may include portions of this contribution; and at the IEEE’s sole discretion to permit others to reproduce in whole or in part the resulting IEEE Standards publication. The contributor also acknowledges and accepts that this contribution may be made public by IEEEPatent Policy and Procedures: The contributor is familiar with the IEEE 802 Patent Policy and Procedures including the statement "IEEE standards may include the known use of patent(s), including patent applications, provided the IEEE receives assurance from the patent holder or applicant with respect to patents essential for compliance with both mandatory and optional portions of the standard." Early disclosure to the Working Group of patent information that might be relevant to the standard is essential to reduce the possibility for delays in the development process and increase the likelihood that the draft publication will be approved for publication. Please notify the ChairCarl R. Stevenson as early as possible, in written or electronic form, if patented technology (or technology under patent application) might be incorporated into a draft standard being developed within the IEEE Working Group. If you have questions, contact the IEEE Patent Committee Administrator at>
2 AbstractThe contribution presents a tutorial on Multi Access OFDM (OFDMA) technology which has been endorsed in leading standards such as- ETSI DVB-RCT and IEEE802.16a,d and 16e. Essential parameters of UpLink and DownLink and simulation results are presented. System capabilities and advantages are also discussed. The tutorial could offer an insight and understanding of OFDMA technology to be considered as a candidate for WRAN system
3 Tutorial on Multi Access OFDM (OFDMA) Technology Eli SoferRuncom Technologies Ltd
4 Contents OFDMA System Architecture Illustrated Example OFDMA System PropertiesCoverage and Capacity
6 Multiple Access Method Duplexing TechniqueFDD/TDDMultiple Access MethodTDMA/OFDMAOFDM Symbols allocated by TDMASub-Carriers within an OFDM Symbol allocated by OFDMADiversityFrequency, Time, Code (CPE and BS), Space Time Coding, Antenna Array
7 Duplexing - Principles FDD (Frequency Division Duplexing ) Uses One Frequency for the DownLink, and a Second Frequency for the UpLink.TDD (time Division Duplexing) Uses the same frequency for the Downlink and the Uplink.In any configuration the access method is OFDMA/TDMA .
8 OFDMA-TDMA Principles Using OFDMA/TDMA, Sub Channels are allocated in the Frequency Domain, and OFDM Symbols allocated in the Time Domain.
10 DownLink Specification Burst Structure is defined from one Sub-channel in the Frequency domain and n OFDMA time symbols in the time domain, each burst consists of N data modulated carriers.Adaptive Modulation and Coding per Sub-Channel in the Down-LinkForward APC controlling (+6dB) – (-6dB) digital gain on the transmitted Sub-ChannelSupporting optional Space Time Coding employing Alamouti STC.Supporting optional Adaptive Array.
11 Example- DownLink Specification FFT size : 2048Guard Intervals : ¼, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32Coding Mandatory: concatenated RS GF(256) and Convolutional coding (k=7,G1=171,G2=133, keeping overall coding rate to = ½, ¾Coding Optional: Convolutional Turbo Code (CTC), Turbo Product Code (TPC) with coding rates close to = ½, ¾QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM modulationModulo 4, Pilot based Symbol Structure.32 Sub-Channels of 48 data carriers each
12 Downlink Pilot and Data Carriers Allocation Scheme
13 Space Time Coding Tx diversity encoder IFFT DAC Filter RF Subcarrier modulationIFFT inputpackingRxFFTDiversity CombinerSub-channeldemod.Log-LikelihoodratiosDecoder
15 Example of UpLink Specification Burst Structure is defined from one Sub-channel in the Frequency domain and 3 OFDMA time symbols in the time domain, each burst consists of 144 data modulated carriers.Adaptive Modulation and Coding per User in the UpLinkUser Can be allocated 1 up to 32 Sub-Channels2 Sub-Channels are used as the Ranging Sub-Channels for User Ranging and fast Band-Width Request.
16 Example of UpLink Specification FFT size : 2048Guard Intervals : ¼, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32Coding Mandatory: concatenated RS GF(256) and Convolutional coding (k=7,G1=171,G2=133, keeping overall coding rate to = ½, ¾Coding Optional: Convolutional Turbo Code (CTC), Turbo Product Code (TPC) with coding rates close to = ½, ¾QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM modulationModulo 13, Pilot based Sub-Channel Structure.32 Sub-Channels of 53 carriers each, 5 carriers used as pilots, 48 carriers used for data
17 Example for UpLink Sub-Channel Pilot and Data Carriers Allocation Scheme
18 Using Special Permutations for carrier allocation All usable carriers are divided into 32 carrier groups named basic group, each main group contains 53 basic groups.
19 Using Special Permutations for carrier allocation Carriers are allocated by a basic series and it’s cyclic permutations for example:Basic Series:0,5,2,10,4,20,8,17,16,11,9,22,18,21,13,19,3,15,6,7,12,14,1After two cyclic permutations we get:2,10,4,20,8,17,16,11,9,22,18,21,13,19,3,15,6,7,12,14,1,0,5
20 Using Special Permutations for carrier allocation The Carriers of each Sub-Channel are spread all over the usable frequency for best frequency diversityThe allocation by permutation gives an excellent Reuse factor - almost 1.The allocation by permutation give an excellent interference spreading and averaging.
21 Using CDMA like modulation for Ranging The CDMA like synchronization is achieved by allocating several of the usable Sub-Channels for the Ranging process, the logic unit they consist is called a Ranging Sub-Channel.Onto the Ranging Sub-Channel users modulate a Pseudo Noise (PN) sequence using BPSK modulationThe Base Station detects the different sequences and uses the CIR that he derives from the sequences for:Time and power synchronizationDecide on the user modulation and coding
22 DVB-RCT MAC Performance Aloha vs. CDMA BW request (32 codes)CDMA efficiency is better by a factor of sixCDMA latency is better by a factor of four
24 Example Subscriber Units at the Current OFDMA Symbol = 3 Sub-Channels Allocated to Subscriber-Unit #1 = 12Sub-Channels Allocated to Subscriber-Unit #2 = 9Sub-Channels Allocated to Subscriber-Unit #3 = 6Number Of New Subscriber-Units Requesting Services = 3All Subscriber-Units Suffer Different Multi-Paths and different Attenuation's
25 Constellation at the Base Station ExampleConstellation at the Base Station
36 Group DelayIn OFDM, channel impairment are solved in the same way Group Delays are solved, by Channel estimation
37 Phase Noise Effect on OFDM Phase Noise EffectsPhase Noise Effect on OFDMPhase Noise Effect onS.C
38 Frequency Sensitivity Timing SensitivityLow timing sensitivity is needed, and simple phase and channel estimators solve timing problems.Frequency Sensitivitysolved by locking onto the Base-Station transmission and deriving the Subscriber Unit’s clocks from it.EqualizationNo Equalizers are needed, channel impairment and timing problems are both solved with simple phase and channel estimators
40 Using Reuse Factor of 1By allocating different Sub-Channels to different sectors we can reach reuse factor of 1 with up to 12 sectors (changing the polarity enhances the performance)
41 CapacityUse modulations with various Bit/Hz capabilities as Adaptive N-QAM.Use Adaptive FEC (Convolutional & Reed-Solomon or Turbo code)Maximal frequency reuse between cells/sectors (close to 1).Maximum sectors allocation.The use of statistical Multiplexing and concentration.Adaptive Carrier Allocations.Adaptive Power Control
46 OFDMA Advantages- Summary (1) Averaging interference's from neighboring cells, by using different basic carrier permutations between users in different cells.Interference’s within the cell are averaged by using allocation with cyclic permutations.Enables orthogonality in the uplink by synchronizing users in time and frequency.Enables Multipath mitigation without using Equalizers and training sequences.Enables Single Frequency Network coverage, where coverage problem exists and gives excellent coverage.
47 OFDMA Advantages - Summary (2) Enables spatial diversity by using antenna diversity at the Base Station and possible at the Subscriber Unit.Enables adaptive modulation for every user QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM and 256QAM.Enables adaptive carrier allocation in multiplication of 23 carriers = nX23 carriers up to 1587 carriers (all data carriers).Offers Frequency diversity by spreading the carriers all over the used spectrum.Offers Time diversity by optional interleaving of carrier groups in time.
48 OFDMA Advantages - Summary (3) Using the cell capacity to the utmost by adaptively using the highest modulation a user can use, this is allowed by the gain added when less carriers are allocated (up to 18dB gain for 23 carrier allocation instead of 1587 carriers), therefore gaining in overall cell capacity.The power gain can be translated to distance - 3 times the distance for R4 and 8 time for R2 for LOS conditions.Enabling the usage of Indoor Omni Directional antennas for the users.MAC complexity is the same as for TDMA systems.
49 OFDMA Advantages - Summary (4) Allocating carrier by OFDMA/TDMA strategy.Minimal delay per OFDMA symbol of 300sec.Using Small burst per user of about 100 symbols for better statistical multiplexing and smaller jitter.User symbol is several times longer then for TDMA systems.Using the FEC to the outmost by error detection of disturbed frequencies.