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IEEE Wireless Local Area Networks Bruce Kraemer

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1 IEEE 802.11 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks Bruce Kraemer
Chair V09

2 3/27/2017 Disclaimer… “At lectures, symposia, seminars, or educational courses, an individual presenting information on IEEE standards shall make it clear that his or her views should be considered the personal views of that individual rather than the formal position, explanation, or interpretation of the IEEE.” IEEE-SA Standards Board Operation Manual (subclause 5.9.3) 2 27-Mar-17 2

3 Introduction and Agenda
3/27/2017 Introduction and Agenda Presentation Context History Market Science Challenges Standard Baseline Extensions Further Information Amendment Project details References 3 27-Mar-17 3

4 Workshop Presentations
March 2011 IEEE 802 Workshop Presentations 802.1 802.3 802.11 802.15 802.16 802.17 802.18 802.19 802.20 802.21 802.22 802.23 Overview of 802 rules

5 Context

6 Standards Activities Board Local and Metropolitan Area Networks
IEEE 802 Organization Standards Activities Board IEEE Standards Association 802.3 CSMA/CD Ethernet 802.5 Token Passing Ring 802.11 Wireless WLAN 802.15 Personal Area Networks 802.20 Mobile Broadband Access 802.19 Co-existence TAG Sponsor IEEE 802 Local and Metropolitan Area Networks (LMSC) 802.17 Resilient Packet 802.18 Radio Regulatory 802.16 802.21 Media Independent Handoff 802.1 Higher Layer LAN Protocols 802.22 Regional IEEE : ~500 Participants Voting Members ~300

7 History

8 Activity History 1997: IEEE 802.11 standard approved (2.4GHz – 1Mbps)
3/27/2017 Activity History Feb 14, 1876: Bell files telephone patent June 1897: Marconi work- “Signaling through Space without Wires” 1970: ALOHAnet operational (Abramson, 9600 baud) 1976: Metcalf & Boggs: “Ethernet: Distributed Packet-Switching for Local Computer Networks” 1980: Project 802 formed (1 Mbps initially, revised to 20 Mbps 1982) (Feb 1980 , 125+ attendees) 1980: Ethernet Bluebook published (September , Digital. Intel, Xerox) 1981: FCC issues NOI for unlicensed spectrum 1983: First version of Base5 spec completed 1985: FCC opens ISM Band- spread spectrum allowed 1985: First version of published (10 Mbps) 1987: Project 802.4L – Wireless Token Bus begins 1990: IEEE 802 drops 802.4L starts project 1990: BASE-T (802.3i) released 1997: IEEE standard approved (2.4GHz – 1Mbps) 1999: Apple IBook introduced with integrated (AirPort) 27-Mar-17 8

9 Activity History 1997: IEEE 802.11 standard approved (2.4GHz – 1Mbps)
3/27/2017 Activity History 1997: IEEE standard approved (2.4GHz – 1Mbps) 1998: UNII (Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure) Band - 5 GHz 1999: IEEE standard achieved ISO/IEC approval 1999: IEEE a (5GHz – 54Mbps) - approved IEEE b (2.4GHz- 11Mbps)- approved 1999: Formation of WECA (now Wi-Fi Alliance) 2001: IEEE d Regulatory Domains - approved 2003: IEEE g (Higher rate 2.4GHz PHY) – approved IEEE i (Security) - approved IEEE h (Spectrum Mgmt) - approved IEEE f (interaccess point protocol) – approved 2005: IEEE e (MAC enhancements – QoS) – approved 9

10 Market Acceptance

11 3/27/2017 Market Size and Trends 2 million Units per day Market size & segment diversity continues to increase 900 800 700 600 1 million Units per day 500 400 Devices (million) 300 200 Enterprise APs Home/SOHO 100 CE Phones PCs Source: In-Stat 2006 2010 11 27-Mar-17 11

12 Wi-Fi Alliance Founded 1999 400 member companies
The Wi-Fi Alliance provides: Interoperability certification programs Over 9000 products certified Market messaging

13 Wi-Fi Hotspot Public Access
517,242 hot spots in 144 countries Source: JiWire 87% of US hotels offer Wi-Fi Source: American Hotel & Lodging Assn

14 Science Challenge

15 Air is a Poor Substitute for Wire or Fiber
Large Scale fading Attenuation (distance, obstructions) Delay Small scale fading Multipath (Reflections) Doppler Frequency selective fading Regulated & Shared Regulatory considerations –by region Interference 15 27-Mar-17

16 Wireless Constraints Shannon-Hartley Friis path loss
BW= channel bandwidth (Hz) S = Signal N = Noise watts (not dB) C= channel capacity (bits/sec) C = BW x log2 1+S N Friis path loss GtxGrx c2 1 Prx = x Ptx (4pd)2 fc2 s Nf

17 Standard Baseline

18 The 802 LAN Architecture (Higher Layers) (Higher Layers) LLC LLC MAC
OSI reference model End station End station 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Application (Higher Layers) (Higher Layers) Presentation Session LLC sublayer Transport MAC Bridge Network MAC service user Link LLC LLC MAC MAC RELAY MAC MAC MAC service provider MAC sublayer Physical Phy Phy Phy Phy Physical layer LAN LAN Medium

19 Project Scope

20 Basic Access Method - Protocol Behavior
The family uses a MAC layer known as CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance) Ethernet uses CSMA/CD - collision detection). Concept Listen on the channel. If the channel is quiet (no active transmitters) - send a packet. If channel is occupied- wait longer (exponential backoff) 20 micro sec for DS systems. If the channel is still idle at the end of the CONTENTION period the node transmits its packet otherwise it repeats the waiting process

21 Distributed Control Function Interframe Space DIFS
DIFS = SIFS + (2 * Slot time) PHY Option Slot time (µs) DIFS (µs) 802.11b 20 50 802.11a 9 34 802.11g 9 or 20 28 or 50

22 Basic Service Protocol - Listen Before Talk 1Mbps example
1500 Byte User DATA PPDU 1500 Byte User DATA PPDU 12192 ms 12192 ms DIFS (listen) DIFS (listen) 50 ms 50 ms SIFS ACK PPDU SIFS ACK PPDU 10 ms 304 ms 10 ms 304 ms D = DCF Inter Frame Space (DIFS) S = Short Inter Frame Space (SIFS)

23 Standard Extensions (Amendments)

24 Technology Solutions PHY Bandwidth Modulation
Multiple Streams , Multiple Antennas Forward Error coding MAC Media access efficiency Quality of Service Network measurement & Management Security 24 27-Mar-17

25 Summary of Major PHY Projects
A - 20 MHz BW, 5GHz B - 20 MHz BW, 2.4 GHz G - 20 & 40 MHz BW, 2.4 GHz N - 20 & 40 MHz BW, 2.4 & 5GHz AC – 20 to 160 MHz BW, 5GHz AD – 2 GHz BW, 60 GHz AF – TV White Space Spectrum AH – Unlicensed spectrum below 1 Gz Completed Underway

26 PHY Project Sequence 100 Gbps 10 year yardstick 10 Gbps ad ac 1 Gbps
802.3 milestones n 100 Mbps a g 10 Mbps b 802.11 milestones Original 1 Mbps 100 Kbps 80 85 90 95 00 05 10 15

27 802.11 Architecture Overview
Multiple Over the Air PHY options One common MAC a b g n ac ad af ah MAC

28 Summary of Major MAC Projects
D – Country information E - QoS F – Inter AP communication H – DFS,TPC Spectrum sharing with radars in 5GHz J – Japan 4.9 GHz K – Radio Measurement P – Vehicular Environments R – Fast roaming S – MESH Networking U – Inter-Networking V – Network Management W – Secure Management Frames Z – Tunneled Direct Link AA – Video Transport AE – QoS for Management Frames AI – Fast Initial Link Setup

29 Overview of Project Objectives
PHY (.11, a, b, g, j, n, p, y, ac, ad, af, ah) Change data rate options Change spectrum MAC Security (i, w) Measurement and Management (k, v) Flow control and QoS (e, aa, ae) Time required to establish connection (p, r, ai) Spectral Efficiency Regulatory behavior (d, h) Radio node connection topology (s, z) Connection with other networks (u)

30 IEEE 802.11 Standards Pipeline
802.11z TDLS 802.11s Mesh MAC 802.11r Fast Roam e QoS 802.11u WIEN 802.11k RRM h DFS & TPC 802.11aa Video Transport 802.11V Network Management 802.11Y Contention Based Protocol 802.11ai FILS i Security Smart Grid f Inter AP 802.11ae QoS Mgmt Frm 802.11p WAVE 802.11mb Revision ah a 54 Mbps 5GHz 802.11n High Throughput (>100 Mbps) 802.11af TVWS g 54 Mbps 2.4GHz 802.11ac VHT 5GHz 802.11W Management Frame Security PHY 802.11ad VHT 60GHz 802.11b (’99) 11 Mbps 2.4GHz Published Amendment Discussion Topics Study groups TG without draft WG Letter Ballot Sponsor Ballot Published Standard

31 Standard Documents

32 Standard Revision Process
528 pages Amendments a b d e g h i j 1220 pages

33 Standard Revision Process - underway
1220 pages Amendments k (223 p) n (560 p) D11.0 p ( 45 p) D11.0 r (116 p) y ( 84 p) D11.0 w (114 p) D10.0 v (428 p) D16.0 revision D pages

34 Standard Revision Process - underway
D pages Amendments u (218 p) D13.0 s (361 p) D9.0 ~3000 pages

35 Standard Revision Process
~3000 pages Amendments aa (126 p) D3.0 ac (193 p) D0.1 ad (406 p) D1.1 ae ( 49 p) D2.0 af ( 159 p) D1.0 ah ( ??? p) D1.0 ai ( ??? p) D1.0 Publication ~ 4000

36 Unlicensed SPectrum

37 Unlicensed Frequency Bands
<700 MHz 900 MHz 2.4 GHz 5 Ghz 60 GHz

38 Spectrum for current PHY Amendments
6 GHz 802.11 b a g n j y 5 GHz 4 GHz 3 GHz 2 GHz 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Calendar Time

39 Spectrum – Forward Looking
100 GHz ad 10 GHz a n j y 1 GHz 802.11 b g n ah .1 GHz 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013

40 Further Information

41 Further Details Follow
802.11z TDLS 802.11s Mesh MAC 802.11r Fast Roam e QoS 802.11u WIEN 802.11k RRM h DFS & TPC 802.11aa Video Transport 802.11V Network Management 802.11Y Contention Based Protocol 802.11ai FILS i Security Smart Grid f Inter AP 802.11ae QoS Mgmt Frm 802.11p WAVE 802.11mb Revision ah a 54 Mbps 5GHz 802.11n High Throughput (>100 Mbps) 802.11af TVWS g 54 Mbps 2.4GHz 802.11ac VHT 5GHz 802.11W Management Frame Security PHY 802.11ad VHT 60GHz 802.11b (’99) 11 Mbps 2.4GHz Published Amendment Discussion Topics Study groups TG without draft WG Letter Ballot Sponsor Ballot Published Standard

42 802.11n - High Throughput Overall project goals Much higher data rates
20 & 40 MHz channel band widths 1 to 4 spatial streams 1 stream for Client (Mandatory) 2 stream for Access Point (Mandatory) ½ Guard Interval 56 tones (in 20MHz) 5/6 coding Green Field preamble Block aggregation Maximum PHY throughput of 600Mbps Better Range Beam Steering Status: Published 2009

43 TGn Throughput

44 802.11P Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE)
Defines enhancements to support data exchange between high-speed vehicles and between these vehicles and the roadside infrastructure in the licensed ITS band of 5.9 GHz. Applications planned within the ITS domain (ITS services), including: collision avoidance traveller information toll collection commercial vehicle operations transit operations traffic management connecting the vehicle to the Internet. Status: Published 2010

45 802.11s MESH An amendment to create a Wireless Distribution System with automatic topology learning and dynamic wireless path configuration. Target number of packet forwarding nodes: ~32 Support unicast and broadcast/multicast traffic Use i security or an extension thereof Extensible routing to allow for alternative forwarding path selection metrics and/or protocols Use the four-address frame format or an extension Interface with higher layers and connect with other networks using higher layer protocols Status: Produced draft 4.0 – preparing to go to Sponsor Ballot Publication expected fall 2011

46 Classic 802.11 Wireless LAN Wired Infrastructure
AP AP AP STA BSS = Basic Service Set STA STA AP STA STA STA STA STA ESS = Extended Service Set ≈ SSID = radio link Wireless Paradox: WLAN Access Points are Typically Wired

47 Unwire the WLAN with Mesh
Wired Infrastructure Mesh AP Mesh AP Mesh Point Mesh AP STA STA STA Mesh AP STA STA STA STA STA ESS = Extended Service Set ≈ SSID = mesh radio link

48 MESH Tutorial Title: IEEE 802.11 MESH Date: Monday 14 March 2011
Time: 19:30-21:00 Location: Marina Bay Sands, Sands Ballroom Registration fee: None

49 Tgu – Wireless Interworking
Background As IEEE hotspot deployment has become more widespread throughout the world. The growth of hotspots has resulted in more users becoming frustrated with the non uniformity of interworking systems (e.g. poor service definition, disparate registration procedures, non-ubiquitous roaming). Generically these issues have been referred to as interworking, which refers to the functionality and interface between an IEEE access network and any external network.

50 Tgu – Wireless Interworking
Objectives The primary objective of IEEE u, is to create an amendment to address interworking issues between an IEEE access network and any external network to which it is connected. Interworking, is actually a collection of different functionalities: Online Enrolment Network Selection Security Authorization from Subscriber Network Media Independent Handover Support Status: Last Draft balloted was D 13.0 – Published Feb 2011

51 802.11V Network Management Explosive growth of wireless LANs emphasized the need to Maintain network quality and security Manage the RF environment largely driven by interference from neighbouring wireless networks Secure the network to maintain privacy and prevent unauthorized use. Optimize the Network improve the ability to shape the network Status: Last Draft balloted was D 16.0 – Published Feb 2011

52 TGv Content – Increased Station Power Saving
Traffic Filtering Service Enables the AP to filter traffic for the station, and deliver only frames of a specified type. WNM-Sleep Mode Provides an additional, extended power save mode. When used with the Traffic Filtering Service, can provide significant station power savings, and provide a “Wake on WLAN” service. Flexible Broadcast/Multicast service Enables multicast frames to be sent at longer delivery intervals and higher data rates, improving performance of multicast applications, and reducing station “awake time” Proxy ARP Enables stations to remain in power save mode longer TIM Broadcast – Enables stations to check for queued traffic without receiving a full Beacon frame.

53 Example TGv Based Applications
“Wake on WLAN” Service– Stations sleep and are “awakened” when specific frames are received Example application: User leaves corporate desktop in “sleep mode”, goes home, uses VPN from home to corporate LAN, wakes up and uses desktop remotely Reduces power consumption of end devices, even stationary ones Improved client power saving Proxy ARP, TIM Broadcast, FBMS, Sleep Mode, Traffic Filtering “Wireless Speakers” – Use Location services timing measurements to support audio synchronization Improved Multicast Performance Network Diagnostic Analysis/Troubleshooting Co-located Interference Reporting, Diagnostic Reporting, Event Reporting, Multicast Diagnostics Reporting

54 802.11w – Protected Management Frames
One of the frame types defined in is “Action” sub-type “Management” Management frames were previously less well protected than data frames. The objective of this was to improve the security by providing data confidentiality of action management frames, deauthentication and disassociation frames This standard protects networks from attack by malicious systems that forge disassociation requests that appear to be sent by valid equipment Status: Last Draft balloted was D 10.0 – Published 2009

55 802.11z Tunneled Direct Link The purposes of this amendment are to create a new DLS mechanism which: a) Does not require access point upgrades (i.e. supports DLS operation with the non-DLS capable access points), b) Which supports power save mode (when associated with either DLS or non-DLS capable access points), and c) Continues to allow operation of DLS in the presence of existing DLS capable access points Status: Last Draft balloted was D 13.0 – Published 2010

56 P802.11z example Access Point maintains control over network connection air times However, device pairs can optimize their conversation and use modes not supported by the access point

57 802.11 AA Video Transport Stream
Provides a set of enhancements to MAC to significantly improve video streaming performance while maintaining data and voice performance by improving Multicast/Broadcast video streams for link reliability with low delay and jitter. Enhancements to the MAC for robust video streaming offer: Interworking with relevant mechanisms including, but not limited to, 802.1Qat, 802.1Qav and 802.1AS Graceful degradation of video streams when there is insufficient channel capacity. Increasing robustness in overlapping BSS environments, without the requirement for a centralised management entity. Modifying EDCA timing and parameter selection for video transport Status: Just completed WG balloting of draft 3.0 – preparing to go to Sponsor Ballot

58 802.11AC Very High Throughput <6GHz
Goal: A multi-user BSS peak aggregated throughput of at least 1Gbps as measured at the MAC data service access point (SAP) [new term MU-MIMO, multi-user MIMO] Robust and flexible bandwidth management: native support for simultaneous multiple bandwidth operation (within a given frequency band) Add optional outdoor compatible delay spread resistance Below 6GHz carrier frequency operation excluding 2.4GHz operation and ensuring backward compatibility with legacy IEEE802.11a/n devices in the 5GHz unlicensed band. Status: 0.1 draft out for review – planning to begin balloting on D1.0 in March 2011

59 802.11AC Very High Throughput <6GHz
5 GHz PHY 20, 40, 80, 160 MHz & channel bandwidth Up to 8 spatial streams Up to 4 simultaneous users per transmitter Modulation options: BPSK, QPSK, 16 QAM, 64 QAM, 256 QAM Code rates: ½, 2/3, ¾, 5/6 280 Data rates from 6.5Mbps [1SS, ½ rate , 20MHz, BPSK, 800ns GI] to Mbps [8SS, 5/6 rate , 160MHz, 256QAM, 400ns GI]

60 802.11AD Very High Throughput
Market drivers for Very High Throughput wireless LAN, include: Never ending quest for higher performance computing drives higher processing power. Media appliances are moving to HD content, driving 10X storage capacity and bandwidth requirements. Mainstream Wired LAN products have shifted to Gigabit per second speeds. The trend for a purely wireless campus drives the need for wired equivalent multi-Gigabit per second wireless solutions. Aggregate capacity increase using reduced cell sizes. Status: Completed preparation of draft 1.0 – balloted in WG October Preparing comment resolutions for next draft revision and ballot.

61 802.11AD Very High Throughput
60 GHz PHY 1.88 GHz channel bandwidth 3 channels available in US, Europe, Japan Transmit power limits: US: 40 dBm Europe: 57 dBm Japan: 10dBm Modulation options: SQPSK, QPSK, 16 QAM, 64 QAM Code rates: ½, 5/8, ¾, 13/16 Data rates from 693 to Mbps

62 802.11ae QoS for Management Frames
This project will consider the classification and prioritization of management frames All IEEE MAC management frames are transmitted at the highest priority. Previous amendments ‘k’, ‘y’, ‘w’, ‘v’, and ‘u’ have introduced features that rely on management frames, which are essential for network operation. In some cases, the management traffic will contend with network data traffic and reduce the performance of certain WLAN applications. Providing a mechanism to prioritize management frames will enable improved performance of IEEE networks This project will consider management frames that are used in both pre- and post- association. Management frames of subtype Action will be considered. Other management frame types may be considered. Status: Just completed ballot on 2nd draft.

63 802.11af - Operation in the TV White Spaces
This project will make the necessary MAC and PHY changes to enable products to take advantage of this additional spectrum available due to the global transition to Digital TV (DTV) and lightly used sub-Gigahertz RF spectrum now becoming available, much of it for unlicensed, license exempt and/or lightly licensed use. Example, On November 4, 2008, the United States FCC approved Report & Order , allowing unlicensed use of TV band spectrum, in accordance with Part 15. Subpart H of FCC rules. Ofcom (UK) is in the process of making this Digital Dividend band available, and the EU has conducted a consultation on the band. Other regulatory domains are expected to follow. Status: Produced draft 1.0 – just completed first ballot in February 2011

64 TGah – Sub 1 GHz Project proposes to use spectrum below 1 GHz.
Lower frequency will increase range Channel bandwidths have typically been 20 MHz or more, lower channel bandwidth will be required. Status: New Task group November 2011– working on Use Cases and will begin to develop first draft

65 TG ai (FILS) Fast Initial Link Setup goal is to reduce initial association time to allow fast connection and data transfer in situations where users are very dense and highly mobile. Goal definition: Build a secure, fast initial authentication that a) is suitable for users experiencing a small dwell time in a cell (due to high mobility or small cell sizes users) b) scales for large number of simultaneously occurring initial authentications Status: New Task Group January 2011– describing Use Cases – will begin to develop first draft

66 Future Projects Security Low power consumption Longer range
Spectral efficiency Dynamic Spectrum Sharing Geolocation

67 802.11 Links References Get 802 http://standards.ieee.org/about/get/
Home page for Documents https://mentor.ieee.org/802.11/documents Timelines & Project History Engineering articles: Search 2,879,214 documents Search for “802.11” returns 6382 hits Get 802

68 Articles about 802.11 IEEE Wireless Communications IEEE Network
IEEE Communications Magazine IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications IEEE Spectrum Proceedings of the IEEE IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing

69 Recently Published Papers re 802.11
Selfishness in Mesh Networks MAC Layer Misbehavior in Wireless Networks: Challenges and Solutions Designing VoIP Session Management over Interworked WLAN-3G Networks The need for Access Point Power Saving in Solar Powered WLAN MESH Networks Interworking of WLAN-UMTS Networks A Scalable Monitoring System for Wireless Networks Toward Dependable Networking: Secure Location and Privacy at the Link Layer Handover Management in Integrated WLAN and Mobile WiMAX Networks Minimum Interference Channel Assignment in Multiradio Mesh Networks An Equal-Spacing-Based Design for QoS Guarantee in e HCCA Wireless Networks New MAC Scheme Supporting Voice/Data Traffic in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Improving Security of Real-Time Wireless Networks Through Packet Scheduling A Cross-Layer Approach for Per-Station Fairness in TCP over WLANs Revisiting the Hidden terminal Problem in a CSMA/CA Wireless Network

70 The IEEE Shop

71 Get 802 – examples IEEE ™: WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORKS (LANs) IEEE IEEE Standard for Information technology — Telecommunications and information exchange between systems — Local and metropolitan area networks — Specific requirements — Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications An interpretation is available. IEEE k IEEE Standard for Information technology — Telecommunications and information exchange between systems — Local and metropolitan area networks — Specific requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC)and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications Amendment 1: Radio Resource Measurement of Wireless LANs IEEE n IEEE Standard for Information technology--Telecommunications and information exchange between systems--Local and metropolitan area networks--Specific requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications Amendment 5: Enhancements for Higher Throughput


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