Presentation on theme: "Male Reproductive System Pathology By Sh.M.D.. The markedly enlarged prostate seen here has not only large lateral lobes, but a very large median lobe."— Presentation transcript:
The markedly enlarged prostate seen here has not only large lateral lobes, but a very large median lobe as well that obstructs the prostatic urethra and led to chronic urinary tract obstruction. As a result, the bladder became both enlarged and hypertrophied as it had to work against the obstruction with every episode of urination. That is why the surface of the bladder appears trabeculated and the bladder wall is thickened. Note also that a yellowish-brown calculus formed in the bladder.
Obstruction from nodular prostatic hyperplasia has led to prominent trabeculation seen on the mucosal surface of this bladder with hypertrophy. The stasis from obstruction predisposes to infection. The obstruction can also lead to bilateral hydroureter and hydronephrosis.
A normal prostate gland is about 3 to 4 cm in diameter. This prostate is enlarged due to prostatic hyperplasia, which appears nodular. Thus, this condition is termed either BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia) or nodular prostatic hyperplasia.
Here is another example of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Nodules appear mainly in the lateral lobes. Such an enlarged prostate can obstruct urinary outflow from the bladder and lead to an obstructive uropathy.
Microscopically, benign prostatic hyperplasia can involve both glands and stroma, though the former is usually more prominent. Here, a large hyperplastic nodule of glands is seen.
At higher magnification, the enlarged prostate has glandular hyperplasia. The glands are well-differentiated and still have some intervening stroma. The small laminated pink concretions within the glandular lumens are known as corpora amylacea.
At the right are normal prostatic glands containing scattered corpora amylacea. At the left is prostatic adenocarcinoma. Note how the glands of the carcinoma are small and crowded. Prostatic adenocarcinomas are given a histologic grade (Gleason's grading system is used most often, and includes a score of 1 to 5 for the most prominent component added to a score of 1 to 5 for the next most common pattern). For example, this adenocarcinoma could be given a Gleason grade of 3/3.
At high magnification, the neoplastic glands of prostatic adenocarcinoma are still recognizable as glands, but there is no intervening stroma and the nuclei are hyperchromatic.
The normal histologic appearance of prostate glands and surrounding fibromuscular stroma is shown here at high magnification. A small pink concretion (typical of the corpora amylacea seen in benign prostatic glands) appears in the gland just to the left of center. Note the well-differentiated glands with tall columnar epithelial lining cells. These cells do not have prominent nucleoli.
This is chronic prostatitis. Numerous small dark blue lymphocytes are seen in the stroma between the glands. There may be a bacterial agent accompanying this inflammation, and cystitis or urethritis may also be present. However, more commonly, chronic prostatitis is abacterial and there is no history of urinary tract infection. The serum prostate specific antigen may be slightly elevated.
Prominent nucleoli are seen in the nuclei of this prostatic adenocarcinoma, which is a characteristic feature.
A frequently performed operation for symptomatic nodular prostatic hyperplasia is a transurethral resection, which yields the small "chips" of rubbery prostatic tissue seen here.