Presentation on theme: "Climate Change, Adaptation and Sustainable Development: Implications for the Least Developed Countries and Small Island Developing States Presentation."— Presentation transcript:
Climate Change, Adaptation and Sustainable Development: Implications for the Least Developed Countries and Small Island Developing States Presentation by Anastasia Calnick Ministry of Land and Environment Kingston, Jamaica
Sustainable Development … development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." Sustainable development implies economic growth together with the protection of environmental quality, each reinforcing the other. The World Commission on Environment and Development (1987).
Critical Facts The 2001 IPCC reaffirmed the fact that the SIDS account for less than 1% of GHG emissions but are among the most vulnerable to the potential adverse effects of climate change and sea level rise The region is already experiencing the impact of climate change, including extreme events and coral bleaching; SIDS have no control of mitigation at the global level and therefore must implement appropriate adaptation strategies.
Vulnerabilities of Small Island Developing States ECONOMIC o Isolation from markets & limited internal markets o Limited commodities & Dependence on imports o Vulnerability to external economic and financial shocks
Vulnerabilities of Small Island Developing States (contd ) SOCIAL o Migration (of high-skilled citizens) o Growth in Criminal Activities o Declining Public Health o Poor infrastructure (roads, public utilities)
Vulnerabilities of Small Island Developing States (Contd) ENVIRONMENTAL o Small Size o Geographic dispersion o Vulnerability to Natural Disasters (hurricanes, cyclones, droughts, landslides, flooding, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes) o Fragility of ecosystems (coral reefs, wetlands, fresh water, coasts, forests, soils) Limited natural resources & depletion of non-renewable resources
Observed Trends in Climate for SIDS High Temperatures (mean annual values of 20°and above) Annual average temperatures have increased by over O.5°over 1900-1995 Declining trend in average annual rainfall (250mm) Increasing numbers and intensity of tropical storms and cyclones (26 named storms in 2005) Sea-level rise ( 10 SIDs are approx. 1 metre above sea-level and sea level rise for the region is expected to be 30-50 cm over the next 50 years)
IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE for SIDS- Sectors Affected 1. Marine Ecosystems (coral reefs, mangroves, sea-grasses, 2. Terrestrial Ecosystems (forests) 3. Biodiversity (population size, species distribution, habitats and ecosystems) 4. Water Resources (change in soil moisture, siltation and contamination of water supplies) 5. Agriculture (reduction in soil moisture & decrease in crop yield, sea water intrusion for coastal soils) 6. Fisheries (habitat loss,)
IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE for SIDS- Sectors Affected (Co ntd) 7. Coastal Resources (coastal erosion, saline intrusion, flooding) 8. Infrastructure & Settlements (More than 50% of the pop. Live within 2Km of the coast- Over the last decade increasing density of populations living in coastal areas has made Caribbean SIDS more vulnerable to natural disaster 9. Tourism-(largest contribution to GDP & employment) 10. Human Health (heat strokes, vector–borne diseases-malaria, dengue, yellow fever)
IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE for SIDS …more than half of the worlds population currently live within 100 kilometres of the coast, and by2025 it is estimated that 6.3 billion persons, 75% of the worlds population will live in the coastal zone, in coastal mega cities, and many living in poverty… UNESCO - 2001
SELECTED HURRICANES IN THE CARIBBEAN AND THEIR IMPACT - 1988-2005 HurricaneYearCountryImpact (% GDP) Gilbert1988Jamaica65 Hugo1989Montserrat200 Debbie1994St. Lucia18 Luis & Marilyn1995Antigua65 Luis & Marilyn1995St. Kitts/Nevis85 Georges1998St. Kitts/Nevis50 (sugar harvest) Lenny1999Barbuda95 (primary sector) Michelle2001Jamaica1 Ivan2004Grenada200 Ivan2004Jamaica8.0 Dennis & Emily2005Jamaica1.0
International Recognition of Special Circumstances of SIDS Stockholm 1972 Rio 1992 Barbados 1994 Monterrey Johannesburg 2002 New York 2000 Doha 2001
Adaptation Strategies for SIDS To address the vulnerability of SIDS to climate change, there is a need to 1. Improve the capacities of SIDS to adapt to climate change. 2. Strengthen further research, with the participation of SIDS, on predicting climate change and variability and the impact of climate change on environmental and economic systems.
Adaptation Strategies for SIDS National level Mainstream Adaptation and risk reduction strategies into policy development in key sectors (agriculture, health, tourism, fisheries, water resources) Sustainable development planning should include, disaster prevention and management, integrated coastal management, and health care planning. Reducing dependence on Petroleum through the development of Renewable Energy (wind, solar, biomass, biogas) Develop new and review existing legislation, development standards and building codes Improve public education and awareness programmes
Adaptation Strategies for SIDS Improve early warning systems and disaster preparedness and risk reduction strategies Improve the scientific understanding of severe weather events, including their relation to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation phenomenon. Partnerships between SIDS and the Financial/Insurance sector to develop schemes to spread risks, reduce insurance premiums, expand insurance coverage and increase financing for post-disaster reconstruction and rehabilitation. Closer cooperation between SIDS and the private sector, particularly in developed countries. Cooperation among SIDS for dissemination of best practices and lessons learnt should also be strengthened.
Adaptation Strategies for SIDS REGIONAL LEVEL o Strengthening of regional networks for emergency preparedness -GIS Hazard Mapping -Early warning & emergency response systems o Regional approaches to disaster management -coordinated responses -emergency relief funds o Inter-regional information exchange
Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC) The CCCCC was established in 2002 in Belize as the executing agency for the MACC project. The Centre operates as a CARICOM agency with independent management and serves as a regional institutional to articulate, support and sustain the programme of action on climate change adaptation in the Caribbean.
Adaptation Strategies for SIDS INTERNATIONAL LEVEL o Encourage International Donor Assistance o Encourage International Ratification and Enforcement of Agreements aimed at reducing negative impact of climate change o Encourage the establishment of special fund to help finance disaster mitigation, preparedness and response activities
Adaptation Strategies - Jamaica PROJECTS o GEF/UNDP Project - Preparation of National Communication on Climate Change o GEF/UNDP Project -Caribbean Planning for Adaptation to Climate Change (CPACC (1998- 2001) o GEF Project- Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change (MACC)- (2003-2008) o The UNDP/GEF National Capacity Self Assessment Project (2004-2005) o Latin American Energy Organisation (OLADE) Regional climate change initiative o UNDP/GEF Jamaica Climate Change Enabling Activity (JCCEA)
Adaptation Strategies - Jamaica POLICIES & ACTION PLANS The Forest Policy and the National Forest Management and Conservation Plan The National Land Policy The Agriculture Policy National Irrigation Policy Water Sector Policy Draft Watersheds Policy National Energy Sector Policy National Biological Diversity Strategy and Action Plan Disaster Mitigation Policy
Adaptation Strategies - Jamaica Participation in the Clean Development Mechanism Establishment of the Interim DNA in 2002 Approval of the Wigton (20MW)Wind Wind Farm Project ( JAMAICA/THE NETHERLANDS) Development of a Draft CDM Portfolio of Projects Development of draft sustainable development criteria
Adaptation Strategies - Jamaica Other Initiatives Development of storm surge maps and multi-hazard assessment maps for Kingston Reliable Early Warning Systems for hurricanes and storm surges Technical Cooperation Agreement (JA/CUBA) for the Rehabilitation of the Palisadoes