Presentation on theme: "Climate Change, Adaptation and Sustainable Development:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Climate Change, Adaptation and Sustainable Development: Implications for the Least Developed Countriesand Small Island Developing StatesPresentation by Anastasia CalnickMinistry of Land and EnvironmentKingston, Jamaica
2 Sustainable Development “… development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."Sustainable development implies economic growth together with the protection of environmental quality, each reinforcing the other.The World Commission on Environment and Development (1987).
3 Critical FactsThe 2001 IPCC reaffirmed the fact that the SIDS account for less than 1% of GHG emissions but are among the most vulnerable to the potential adverse effects of climate change and sea level riseThe region is already experiencing the impact of climate change, including extreme events and coral bleaching;SIDS have no control of mitigation at the global level and therefore must implement appropriate adaptation strategies.
4 Vulnerabilities of Small Island Developing States ECONOMICIsolation from markets & limited internal marketsLimited commodities & Dependence on importsVulnerability to external economic and financial shocks
5 Vulnerabilities of Small Island Developing States (cont’d) SOCIALMigration (of high-skilled citizens)Growth in Criminal ActivitiesDeclining Public HealthPoor infrastructure (roads, public utilities)
6 Vulnerabilities of Small Island Developing States (Cont’d) ENVIRONMENTALSmall SizeGeographic dispersionVulnerability to Natural Disasters (hurricanes, cyclones, droughts, landslides, flooding, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes)Fragility of ecosystems (coral reefs, wetlands, fresh water, coasts, forests, soils)Limited natural resources & depletion of non-renewable resources
7 Observed Trends in Climate for SIDS High Temperatures (mean annual values of 20°and above)Annual average temperatures have increased by over O.5°overDeclining trend in average annual rainfall (250mm)Increasing numbers and intensity of tropical storms and cyclones (26 named storms in 2005)Sea-level rise (10 SIDs are approx. 1 metre above sea-level and sea level rise for the region is expected to be cm over the next 50 years)
8 IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE for SIDS- Sectors Affected 1.Marine Ecosystems (coral reefs, mangroves, sea-grasses,2. Terrestrial Ecosystems (forests)3. Biodiversity (population size, species distribution, habitats and ecosystems)4. Water Resources (change in soil moisture, siltation and contamination of water supplies)5. Agriculture (reduction in soil moisture & decrease in crop yield, sea water intrusion for coastal soils)6. Fisheries (habitat loss,)Orchid Policy not yet signed off on by NRCA and transmitted formally to MLEDolphin Policy (Meetings convened and document reviewed and revised). Outstanding comments to be sent to NEPA by November, 2005Biosafety - - draft policy framework proposals to be reviewed by National Biosafety Committee-Meeting to be held November 2005
9 IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE for SIDS- Sectors Affected (Cont’d) 7. Coastal Resources (coastal erosion, saline intrusion, flooding)8. Infrastructure & Settlements (More than 50% of the pop. Live within 2Km of the coast- Over the last decade increasing density of populations living in coastal areas has made Caribbean SIDS more vulnerable to natural disaster9. Tourism-(largest contribution to GDP & employment)10. Human Health (heat strokes, vector–borne diseases-malaria, dengue, yellow fever)
10 IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE for SIDS “…more than half of the world’s population currently live within 100 kilometres of the coast, and by2025 it is estimated that 6.3 billion persons, 75% of the world’s population will live in the coastal zone, in coastal mega cities, and many living in poverty…”UNESCO
11 SELECTED HURRICANES IN THE CARIBBEAN AND THEIR IMPACT - 1988-2005 YearCountryImpact (% GDP)Gilbert1988Jamaica65Hugo1989Montserrat200Debbie1994St. Lucia18Luis & Marilyn1995AntiguaSt. Kitts/Nevis85Georges199850 (sugar harvest)Lenny1999Barbuda95 (primary sector)Michelle20011Ivan2004Grenada8.0Dennis & Emily20051.0
12 International Recognition of Special Circumstances of SIDS Stockholm1972Rio1992Barbados1994MonterreyJohannesburg2002New York2000Doha2001Natural Resources Conservation Authority (Amendment) Act – substantive amendments planned
13 Adaptation Strategies for SIDS To address the vulnerability of SIDS to climate change, there is a need toImprove the capacities of SIDS to adapt to climate change.Strengthen further research, with the participation of SIDS, on predicting climate change and variability and the impact of climate change on environmental and economic systems.
14 Adaptation Strategies for SIDS National levelMainstream Adaptation and risk reduction strategies into policy development in key sectors (agriculture, health, tourism, fisheries, water resources)Sustainable development planning should include, disaster prevention and management, integrated coastal management, and health care planning.Reducing dependence on Petroleum through the development of Renewable Energy (wind, solar, biomass, biogas)Develop new and review existing legislation, development standards and building codesImprove public education and awareness programmes
15 Adaptation Strategies for SIDS Improve early warning systems and disaster preparedness and risk reduction strategiesImprove the scientific understanding of severe weather events, including their relation to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation phenomenon.Partnerships between SIDS and the Financial/Insurance sector to develop schemes to spread risks, reduce insurance premiums, expand insurance coverage and increase financing for post-disaster reconstruction and rehabilitation.Closer cooperation between SIDS and the private sector, particularly in developed countries. Cooperation among SIDS for dissemination of best practices and lessons learnt should also be strengthened.
16 Adaptation Strategies for SIDS REGIONAL LEVELStrengthening of regional networks for emergency preparedness-GIS Hazard Mapping-Early warning & emergency response systemsRegional approaches to disaster management-coordinated responses-emergency relief fundsInter-regional information exchange
17 Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre (CCCCC) The CCCCC was established in 2002 in Belize as the executing agency for the MACC project. The Centre operates as a CARICOM agency with independent management and serves as a regional institutional to articulate, support and sustain the programme of action on climate change adaptation in the Caribbean.
18 Adaptation Strategies for SIDS INTERNATIONAL LEVELEncourage International Donor AssistanceEncourage International Ratification and Enforcement of Agreements aimed at reducing negative impact of climate changeEncourage the establishment of special fund to help finance disaster mitigation, preparedness and response activities
19 Adaptation Strategies - Jamaica PROJECTSGEF/UNDP Project - Preparation of National Communication on Climate ChangeGEF/UNDP Project -Caribbean Planning for Adaptation to Climate Change (CPACC ( )GEF Project- Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change (MACC)- ( )The UNDP/GEF National Capacity Self Assessment Project ( )Latin American Energy Organisation (OLADE) Regional climate change initiativeUNDP/GEF Jamaica Climate Change Enabling Activity (JCCEA)
20 Adaptation Strategies - Jamaica POLICIES & ACTION PLANSThe Forest Policy and the National Forest Management and Conservation PlanThe National Land PolicyThe Agriculture PolicyNational Irrigation PolicyWater Sector PolicyDraft Watersheds PolicyNational Energy Sector PolicyNational Biological Diversity Strategy and Action PlanDisaster Mitigation Policy
21 Adaptation Strategies - Jamaica Participation in the Clean Development MechanismEstablishment of the Interim DNA in 2002Approval of the Wigton (20MW)Wind Wind Farm Project (JAMAICA/THE NETHERLANDS)Development of a Draft CDM Portfolio of ProjectsDevelopment of draft sustainable development criteria
22 Adaptation Strategies - Jamaica Other InitiativesDevelopment of storm surge maps and multi-hazard assessment maps for KingstonReliable Early Warning Systems for hurricanes and storm surgesTechnical Cooperation Agreement (JA/CUBA) for the Rehabilitation of the Palisadoes