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Towards an Efficient Water Management for a Sustainable Development of Water Resources in Egypt Arab Republic of Egypt (ARE) Ministry of Water Resources.

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Presentation on theme: "Towards an Efficient Water Management for a Sustainable Development of Water Resources in Egypt Arab Republic of Egypt (ARE) Ministry of Water Resources."— Presentation transcript:

1 Towards an Efficient Water Management for a Sustainable Development of Water Resources in Egypt Arab Republic of Egypt (ARE) Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation (MWRI) I ntegrated I rrigation I mprovement & M anagement: Procurement Specialist, PMU-IIIMP-MWRI Ph.D. Candidate, Civil Engineering, Irrigation & Hydraulics Eng. YOSRY KHAFAGY User-Producer Conference Water Accounting for Integrated Water Resource Management May 22 – 24, 2006 (Voorburg, the Netherlands)

2 Main Pillars and Deriving forces! Main Pillars and Deriving forces! Why IWRM?! Why IWRM?! Sectors competition; Increasing Sectors Demand (Irrigation, Drinking, Industry, …etc.) Food security; Rural Poor need to withstand the limited food availability which is mainly a water dependent issue Pollution & emission. Ever-increasing water and environment pollutants destroy the main elements in the food-chain Cost of new resources; Lack of available financial resources required for new resources investments. Population growth; Ever-increasing Population Led to Increasing Pressure on Water&Land Resources Water Scarcity; Limited Conventional Resources and Non- conventional Ones, while increasing Demand

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5 Current and Future Water Resources Availability Agriculture (84.5%)Dinking (6%)Industry (9.5%) Demand: Resources: Current (BCM) Future 2017 Rains and Floods 1.0 – 1.5 GW (Valley&Delta) GW (Valley&Delta) 6.5 – 8.0 GW (Deserts&Sinai) GW (Deserts&Sinai) 1.0 - 3.5 Agr. Dr. Reuse 5.0 - 8.5 Wastewater 0.7 - 2.0 Nile Water 55.5 57.5 - Crop Pattern&IIP 3.0 + 4.0

6 Major Country Strategy Tasks Major Country Strategy Tasks Regulatory&policy framework; Integrated Planning; Efficient Economic mechanisms; Introduction to PPP approach; Raising Awareness/Maintain convincing; Decentralization & Participation; and Bridging research and Practice. Regulatory&policy framework; Integrated Planning; Efficient Economic mechanisms; Introduction to PPP approach; Raising Awareness/Maintain convincing; Decentralization & Participation; and Bridging research and Practice. Opportunities and Major Tasks! Opportunities and Major Tasks! Availability; Technology; ± ve Impact on: - Natural resources; -Environment; and -Public health. Sustainability. Availability; Technology; ± ve Impact on: - Natural resources; -Environment; and -Public health. Sustainability. Opportunities Opportunities

7 At Abstraction At Abstraction Appropriate Technology Standards & Guidelines Accommodation!Requirements? Needs Assessments for Sustainable Use During Delivery During Delivery Operational Rules Monitoring & Evaluation Monitoring & Evaluation At End User At End User Awareness/ Convince Awareness/ Convince Law Enforcement

8 IWRM Action Plan IWRM Action Plan Empowering water users for participation in the planning and implementation process; Facilitating greater private sector investments in irrigation and drainage infrastructure; Redefining the role of public agencies through Integrated Irrigation Management. Tackling fragmented water service delivery concerns ;

9 Current Setting of MWRI Institutions (Fragmentized) BCs/Meskas Several BCs Main canal Nile F / WUs Regions Farmers / Water Users General Directorates Districts Inspectorates Central Directorates Other Min. Marwas/Plots Dist G.D C.D MED MWRI: EPAD ID Sectors Ins Top-down interactions Limited cross-sectoral coordination Limited integrated planning & management

10 Meska Several BCs Main canal BC Farmers /WUs BC WUAs WUAs Nile Empowerment Responsabilization Central Government Decentralization Delegation SUBSIDIARITY + PARTNERSHIPS = INTEGRATED PLANNING & MANAGEMENT Integrated WM Districts CDs/GDs Reg Mgt Com IWMD Adv. Com. Dist. WBOs Marwas/Plots Approached Setting of MWRI Institutions (Integrated) Top Down Up Bottom

11 MWRIs Endeavors Towards IWRM MWRIs Endeavors Towards IWRM Introduction of Irrigation Improvement Projects (IIPs); Introduction of National Drainage Projects (NDPs); Last, but not least introduction of a new approach to Integrated Irrigation Improvement and Management Project (IIIMP). Introduction of (PIM) approach: Water Boards Project (WBP), Introduction of Pump Stations Rehabilitation Projects (PSRPs); Endeavors Endeavors Introduction of Agricultural Policy Reform Project (APRP); Life Integrated Water Resources Management Project (LIFE)

12 IIIMP Phase I: (in Nile Delta) IIIMP Phase I: (in Nile Delta) Ensure sustainable optimum use of water and land resources throughout strengthening the decentralization of decision making and users participation in planning, operation and maintenance activities ; Increase the economic return in the project command areas by optimizing the use of available resources and improved infrastructures ; Objectives Objectives Broaden the saving in irrigation cost and controlling the water use for other purposes ; Increase the agriculture productivity, hence, increasing the farmers income and improving the quality of life in the rural communities ; Target groups Target groups MWRI Staff and Institutions, Rural poor in Nile Delta, other Stackholders

13 IIIMP Command Areas IIIMP Command Areas

14 Component 1:Improved and Integrated Water Management Ensure availability of proper technical structures and procedures to support a sustainable optimization of water resource use. Improve the water delivery to water users through Irrigation and drainage networks as well as pumping stations system upgrading and rehabilitation. Improve the operational and maintenance procedures as critical requirements to ensure the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of the investments.

15 Component 2: Institutional Development and Capacity Building This process combines empowerment and responsabilization of water users: they are no longer beneficiaries or recipients but actors within a process Empower water users through organizations that allow them to solve their internal disputes, assess their needs and priorities and consolidate them so that they can more easily be taken into Simultaneously, a transfer of responsibilities can be considered so as to let water users deal with local issues and let managers focus on higher scale issues.

16 Component 3: Project Management, Coordination and Integration Cross-sectoral coordination : ensures appropriate technical, social, environmental, and economic conditions, Limits duplication and contradiction among various agencies. Decentralization : proper regulatory and policy framework in order to guide local decision-makers at most lowest appropriate level. Participation : involvement of water users whose needs and priorities have to be properly identified and addressed for effective results. can significantly improve management practices and reduce costs. Regulatory Framework : Integrated cooperative managerial schemes to be set up among MWRI entities and other pertinent agencies.

17 Component 4: Environmental Mainstreaming Looks into the environmental impacts of the project. The objective is to identify and mitigate those while also looking at how the project can contribute to improving environmental conditions in general (and notably water quality issues). The overall environmental impact of the IIIMP is expected to be positive, leading to improved land and water management. environmental management plan (EMP) to be addressed main environmental issues and significant impacts: i. the uncontrolled discharge of sewage into irrigation and drainage systems, with corresponding impacts on public health, ii. the improper disposal of solid wastes into irrigation and drainage canals.

18 Objective: Improved Water Use Consideration is to be given to development & implementation of comprehensive pilot on-farm integrated water management and agricultural programs, aimed at providing farmers with relevant and practical demonstrations of better practices to maximize benefits resulting from introduction of improved operational flow regimes and other system improvements Component 5: On-Farm Water Management

19 I.Technology Transfer: Introduction of improved irrigation and agronomic technologies to farmers aiming at reducing water losses, irrigating more uniformly, thus increasing yields & returns II.Marketing: Provision of market information to farmers to maximize returns (e.g. more informed crop selection, shift to higher value crops) III.Contribution to adoption of irrigation improvement: Assisting in implementation of irrigation improvement program by contributing to farmers awareness about benefits of irrigation improvement Proposed techniques of on-farm development

20 Water allocation Mechanisms and Methodologies Water allocation Mechanisms and Methodologies Water Allocation Procedures at National Level Water Allocation Procedures at National Level Along Nile Valley and Main Canals System; Information needs assessments: - Cropping Pattern in different areas; - Climatic conditions; and - Expected water demands. August Hydrological yearly allocation plan August Hydrological yearly allocation plan August-September Planned releases from HAD to reach Delta (10 days), when filled with yearly floods August-September Planned releases from HAD to reach Delta (10 days), when filled with yearly floods September-October National yearly allocation Plan September-October National yearly allocation Plan National yearly allocation Plan to be adjusted during implementation through information (crop Pattern&demand/15 days)

21 Allocation to each main canal (mostly allocates a proportional distribution to each main command area). Considering: - Climate; - Secondary sources 1- drainage re-use 2- GW Winter Quota/CA 10 m 3 /fed/day Winter Quota/CA 10 m 3 /fed/day Summer Quota/CA 40 m 3 /fed/day Summer Quota/CA 40 m 3 /fed/day Yearly average quota 30 m 3 /fed/day Yearly average quota 30 m 3 /fed/day Modernization of the National Allocation yearly plan through Computerized system = Matching Supply and Demand Program The so called, (MISD) Two seasons in the cropping cycle: Summer season: May to August-September Winter season: September-October to April Modernization of the National Allocation yearly plan through Computerized system = Matching Supply and Demand Program The so called, (MISD) Two seasons in the cropping cycle: Summer season: May to August-September Winter season: September-October to April

22 M&E Model of IWMD M&E Model of IWMD Two-category Indicators Implementation IndicatorsOutcome Indicators IWMD Established Data-based Management BCWUAs Participating Quality of Irrigation Service Equity of Water Distribution Value of Agricultural output

23 1:Quality of Irrigation Service Baseline values will assess future changes in pilot IWMD Baseline values will assess future changes in pilot IWMD 1.1Number of Complaints Project-wide baseline values are a data availability dependent Project-wide baseline values are a data availability dependent

24 1.2:Actual and Target District Inflows District Target Water Allocation is provided each 15-daily period during the irrigation year (semi-monthly). District Target Water Allocation is provided each 15-daily period during the irrigation year (semi-monthly). Inflow and outflow structures are to be calibrated for computing the actual flow delivered to the district Inflow and outflow structures are to be calibrated for computing the actual flow delivered to the district Ratio of actual and target allocation values are to be determined in both summer and winter seasons. Ratio of actual and target allocation values are to be determined in both summer and winter seasons. Share of No. of 15-daily periods for which supply matched target within ±10% is to be computed. Share of No. of 15-daily periods for which supply matched target within ±10% is to be computed.

25 1.3:Farmers Satisfaction Client satisfaction surveys should provide information on farmer satisfaction in both summer and winter seasons. (survey shows that 72 and 94% of farmers are satisfied in Summer and Winter respectively, hence, efficient water management. Client satisfaction surveys should provide information on farmer satisfaction in both summer and winter seasons. (survey shows that 72 and 94% of farmers are satisfied in Summer and Winter respectively, hence, efficient water management.

26 1.4:Rotations Rotating irrigation service among branch canals is one of the most important tools managers have, of allocating available water. Rotating irrigation service among branch canals is one of the most important tools managers have, of allocating available water. Rotating irrigation service should be officially set up. Rotating irrigation service should be officially set up. the Main concern of IWMDs is to adjust and customize rotations as they attempt to save water and improve the quality of irrigation service to farmer. the Main concern of IWMDs is to adjust and customize rotations as they attempt to save water and improve the quality of irrigation service to farmer. Degree of correspondence between planned and actual rotation patterns require better data before they can be computed. Degree of correspondence between planned and actual rotation patterns require better data before they can be computed.

27 2:Equity of Water Distribution Equity among Branch Canals (Equity Index) Relative Water Supply among IWMDS Equity along Branch Canals (ESI) Not responding, due to the unavailability of data Group 1: Easy to supply with water Group 2: Moderate to supply with Water Group 3: Difficult to supply with water 3 Equal groups ESI = Satisfaction in head (upper-third)/satisfaction in tail (lower-third) BCWUAs assume increased responsibility for WD

28 3:Value of Agricultural Output Output per Unit Land Output per Unit Water It is subjected to many influences beyond the quality of irrigation service They may not be very sensitive to changes in quality of irrigation service. They should be examined at a large scale. Outcomes of the Investments In Summer = LE 4.441 / Fed In Winter = LE 3.803 / Fed In Summer = LE 0.57 – 3.34 / CM In Winter = LE 0.25 – 2.76 / CM

29 Rationalization IWMD Model can achieve! Subsidiarity: (vertical integration) decision-taking at lowest possible level - framework, procedures & enforcing them - expertise/technical support/implementation capacity Geographic integration: (horizontal integration) hydrological boundaries O&M integration: regrouping of all I&D and WRM responsibilities Planning & implementation integration: IWMD = focal point/partner for all P&I activities

30 Achievements AchievementsBENEFICIARYOUTCOMES Irrigation Sector Water saving of about 830 MCM/Year. Water saving of about 830 MCM/Year. Possibility of using the saved water with a value of 5500 CM/fed/year for cultivating about 145000 fed of high-cash crops. Possibility of using the saved water with a value of 5500 CM/fed/year for cultivating about 145000 fed of high-cash crops.

31 BENEFICIARYOUTCOMES Irrigation Improvement and Agriculture Sector Operation cost will be reduced to about 50% together with improving the water management at secondary, tertiary, and quaternary levels as a result of pump electrification. Operation cost will be reduced to about 50% together with improving the water management at secondary, tertiary, and quaternary levels as a result of pump electrification. Increase the efficiency of field irrigation from 45% to 60% which means saving in irrigation water (500 MCM/year). Increase the efficiency of field irrigation from 45% to 60% which means saving in irrigation water (500 MCM/year). Add new agriculture land as a result of changing from open meska system improvement to a buried pipeline ones (achieve an annual return of about (US$1350/fed/year). Add new agriculture land as a result of changing from open meska system improvement to a buried pipeline ones (achieve an annual return of about (US$1350/fed/year). Increase the main conventional summer and winter crops by about 12% as a result of the continuous flow application which insures a daily continual water demand per fed of about 30 CM/fed/day. Increase the main conventional summer and winter crops by about 12% as a result of the continuous flow application which insures a daily continual water demand per fed of about 30 CM/fed/day.

32 BENEFICIARYOUTCOMES Drainage Sector Improve the drainage conditions as a result of introducing modified drainage system at field level. This will improve the crop pattern other than rice which are cultivated beside rice (expected increase in cotton price = US$110/fed) achieving an incremental of the annual return of about MUS$ 8). Improve the drainage conditions as a result of introducing modified drainage system at field level. This will improve the crop pattern other than rice which are cultivated beside rice (expected increase in cotton price = US$110/fed) achieving an incremental of the annual return of about MUS$ 8). Saving a water volume of about 2500CM/fed/season in case of cultivating the short-period life-time span rice. (in case of cultivating 50% of the improved 103,000 fed with this kind of rice, the water saving will be 125 to 130 MCM/rice season. Saving a water volume of about 2500CM/fed/season in case of cultivating the short-period life-time span rice. (in case of cultivating 50% of the improved 103,000 fed with this kind of rice, the water saving will be 125 to 130 MCM/rice season.

33 BENEFICIARYOUTCOMES Users Organization Undertaking the responsibilities of O&M at tertiary level by WUAs will result in saving their cost which was evaluated as US$ 2.5/fed. Expected saving /year = MUS$0.5/year). Undertaking the responsibilities of O&M at tertiary level by WUAs will result in saving their cost which was evaluated as US$ 2.5/fed. Expected saving /year = MUS$0.5/year). Reduce the violations of rice cultivation. Reduce the violations of rice cultivation. Environment sector Reduction in the deteriorated value of agriculture land (form US$90 to US$45/fed/year) as a result of water quality improvement to be maintained with the project implementation. Reduction in the deteriorated value of agriculture land (form US$90 to US$45/fed/year) as a result of water quality improvement to be maintained with the project implementation. World Bank 2004, (agriculture land degradation due to –ve environmental impact resulting from deteriorated water quality is count to 1% of the overall GDP). World Bank 2004, (agriculture land degradation due to –ve environmental impact resulting from deteriorated water quality is count to 1% of the overall GDP).

34 Thank You and Wish You a Fruitful Conference


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