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0 Jessamyn O. Encarnacion Measuring Women in Poverty and Access to Resources – The Philippine ExperiencePresented byJessamyn O. EncarnacionNational Statistical Coordination BoardGlobal Forum on Gender StatisticsRome, Italy10-12 December 2007
1 Outline of Presentation IntroductionWomen in PovertyWomen’s Access to ResourcesOther NSCB InitiativesOther Efforts of the PSSPhilippine Gross National Happiness Index (by sex)
2 I. IntroductionFrom 2000 to 2003, women accounted for the second largest number of poor population (after the children)Magnitude of poor womenPoverty Incidence (%)200012.2 million32.3200311.6 million29.0Gender differential still remains as an issue in economic participationEconomic participation - 80% for men versus 50% for women in 2006Employment rate - 74% for men versus 46% for women in 2005Poses a challenge to the country in achieving Goal 3 of the MDGs!
3 I. Introduction About the NSCB The Philippine Statistical System is a decentralized statistical systemMany agencies of government generate statisticsNSOBureau of Agricultural StatisticsBureau of Labor & Employment StatisticsBSPDENR, DOT, DepED, CHED, DOH, DOST, etc.Need for coordinating agency
4 Reorganizing the Philippine Statistical System and for Other Purposes I. IntroductionAbout the NSCBExecutive Order 121Reorganizing the Philippine Statistical System and for Other PurposesIssued on January 30, 1987Created the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) as the highest policy-making and coordinating body on statistical matters in the country
5 I. Introduction About the NSCB Our Products Compiles the National Accounts of the PhilippinesEstimates GDP, GNPGenerates Official Poverty StatisticsPoverty ThresholdPoverty IncidencePhilippine Statistical YearbookLeading economic index, foreign direct investments, etc.Satellite accounts for tourism, health, educationOther economic and social statistics
6 I. Introduction About the NSCB Our Services Coordination services Inter-agency concernsSurvey review systemDesignation of statisticsSubnational statistical systemOnline statistical serviceTechnical services (including data requests and advocacy for statistical awareness)Administers the NATIONAL STATISTICAL INFORMATION CENTER
7 Official Poverty Statistics II. Women in PovertyOfficial Poverty StatisticsUntil 2007, official poverty estimates compiled by the NSCB are disaggregated by geographical location- National- Regional- ProvincialStill, one of the demands is poverty statistics at lower levels and sectoral disaggregation
8 Social Reform and Poverty Alleviation Act (RA 8425) II. Women in PovertySocial Reform and Poverty Alleviation Act (RA 8425)Declared that the State should adopt an area-based sectoral and focused intervention to poverty alleviationDefined the basic sectors as the disadvantaged sectors of Philippine society
9 II. Women in Poverty 14 Basic Sectors WOMEN Farmer-peasant Artisanal fisherfolkWorkers in the formal sector and migrant workersWOMENSenior citizensYouth and studentsChildrenUrban poorWorkers in the informal sectorsIndigenous peoples and cultural communitiesDifferently-abled personsVictims of calamities and disastersCooperativesNon-government organizations
10 Poverty statistics for the basic sectors II. Women in PovertyPoverty statistics for the basic sectorsNSCB Resolution No. 11, Series of 2007, “Approving the Methodology for the Generation of Poverty Statistics for the Basic Sectors”As an off-shoot of the NSCB project funded by the UNDP on the “Development of Poverty Statistics for the Basic Sectors Project”
11 Data sources II. Women in Poverty 2000 and 2003 Family Income and Expenditures Survey (FIES)4th quarter 2000 and 2003 round of the Labor Force Survey (LFS) undertaken in January 20042000 Census of Population and Housing (CPH)2000 and 2003 Philippine Poverty Statistics
12 II. Women in Poverty Variable Data source 1. Income FIES was used for classifying households as poor or non-poor2. Sectoral characteristic of the populationLFS was used to assign household members into sectors3. Total populationEstimated total population of the sector based on the FIES and LFS.However, for years when the conduct of the CPH and FIES coincide, data from the CPH will be used (e.g., 2000) to estimate the total population for four sectors, namely, women, youth, children, and senior citizen. Otherwise, data from FIES will be used.
13 Number of poor women II. Women in Poverty Both FIES and LFS follow the Integrated Survey of Households (ISH) sampling scheme, making the estimation of poverty incidence straightforward. For example, the poverty incidence for women is:Number of poor womenPoverty incidence women = Total number of women
14 II. Women in PovertyDistribution of the basic sectors
15 Poverty Incidence among the Population (Phils. 2003) – 30.0 II. Women in PovertyPoverty incidence among the eight sectorsPoverty Incidence among the Population (Phils. 2003) – 30.0Highlights:The poverty incidence for all sectors decreased from 2000 to The Senior Citizens, Fishermen and Farmers sectors exhibited the largest decreases.Three sectors were worse off than the country’s poverty incidence among the population of These are the Children, Farmers and Fishermen sectors.In terms of magnitude of poor population, the Children, Women and Urban Sectors are the largest.
16 Poverty Incidence among Women (Phils. 2003) – 29.0 II. Women in PovertyPoverty incidence by sector and region, 2000 and 2003Poverty Incidence among Women (Phils. 2003) – 29.0Highlights:Region VII exhibited the largest decrease in poverty incidence while Region IX showed the largest increase from 2000 to 2003.CAR, ARMM, CARAGA, Regions I, IV-B, V, VI, VIII, IX, X, XI and XII were worse off than the national poverty incidence for the women sector.In terms of magnitude of poor women population, Regions IV-A, V and VI are the largest.
17 II. Women in Poverty Summary of findings 1 / Excludes NCR in 2000 due to high CV (with CV > 50 percent) 2/ Excludes CAR in 2000 due to high CV (with CV > 50 percent)
18 III. Women’s Access to Resources Observed gender inequality in economic participationHence, men have greater economic “visibility” and higher contribution to the economy, more participation in making economic decisions, and more access to creditEconomic undercount of women thus puts them in a situation that can perpetuate, if not outright worsen the inequity between men and womenNeed for information on women’s and men’s contribution to the economy
19 III. Women’s Access to Resources Efforts on the generation of satellite accounts:a. “Measuring The Contribution of Women To ThePhilippine Economy” by Romulo A. Virola and Sylvia M. de Perio (1998)b. “ Women’s Contribution To The Economy” by RomuloA. Virola (1999)c. “Do Women Contribute Less Than Men to Nation Building” by Romulo A. Virola, Jessamyn O Encarnacion, Armyl G. Zaguirre, Raymond S. Perez (2007)
20 III. Women’s Access to Resources Taking off from the methodology used by Virola and de Perio in 1998Using updated parameters from the results of the 2000 TUS.a/ Used in the 1998 study of Virola and de Periob/ Used in this studyc/ Details of the “original” were: 1) rescaled to add up to 24 hours (1 day); and 2) weighted using urban (for Quezon City) and rural (for Batangas) population as weights.
21 III. Women’s Access to Resources Unpaid work adds 66.2 percent to GDP!
22 III. Women’s Access to Resources Women’s share to GDP increased by 8 percentage points!
23 III. Women’s Access to Resources Women account for 59.6 percent of the total hours of unpaid work!
24 III. Women’s Access to Resources Women not in the labor force account for more than half of the total value of unpaid work of women!
25 III. Women’s Access to Resources Other findings of the study:Women accounted for only 27.4 percent of the total Net Factor Income from Abroad (NFIA)Women contributed 46.2 percent of the adjusted Gross National Product (GNP) from 38.0 percent when unpaid work was not included
26 IV. Other NSCB Initiatives Core GAD Indicators Data Framework contains the key macroeconomic impact indicators needed to monitor and assess the state of gender and development in the country serves as reference for government and non-government organizations in the formulation of indicators for monitoring and assessment of outputs and impact of their GAD activities
27 IV. Other NSCB Initiatives Core GAD Indicators Data Frameworkthe 20 core GAD indicators cover the PFA areas of concern:education and training;economy;health;poverty;institutional mechanism;media;power and decision-making;environment;violence against women;girl child;armed conflict; andhuman rights
28 IV. Other NSCB Initiatives The Philippine Statistical Handbook on Women and Mencompilation of latest available statistics highlighting the differences between women and menfocuses on the situation of women relative to men in the ff areas:Population and FamiliesWorkEconomic ParticipationAgricultureEducationHealth and NutritionSocial Welfare8. Public Life9. Migration10. Peace and Human RightsViolence Against Women and ChildrenEnvironmentMillennium Development Goal
29 Coordination mechanisms IV. Other NSCB InitiativesCoordination mechanisms creation of the Interagency Committee (IAC) on Gender Statistics to serve as a strategic mechanism to sustain the efforts and initiatives in the generation and improvement of gender statistics and institutionalize the implementation of the GAD
30 National Demographic and Health Survey V. Other Efforts of the PSSNational Demographic and Health SurveyConducted by the National Statistics Office (NSO) every five yearsDesigned to provide information on population, family planning, and health to assist policymakers and program managers in evaluating and designing strategies for improving health and family planning services in the country
31 Statistical Tables in the NDHS V. Other Efforts of the PSSStatistical Tables in the NDHSHousehold population and housing characteristicsCharacteristics of respondents and women’s statusFertilityFamily planningDeterminants of fertilityFertility preferencesInfant and child MortalityMaternal and child healthInfant feeding and supplementationHIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infectionsTuberculosisGeneral health
32 Latest improvements in the 2003 NDHS V. Other Efforts of the PSSLatest improvements in the 2003 NDHSDistribution of women employed in the twelve months preceding the survey receiving cash earnings by person who decides how earnings are to be used by marital status, educational attainment, age groupDistribution of women who say that they alone or jointly have the final say in specific decisions, by age group by number of living childrenDistribution of women by person who has the final say in making specific decisions, according to current marital status and type of decision
33 Latest improvements in the 2003 NDHS V. Other Efforts of the PSSLatest improvements in the 2003 NDHSPercentage of women who agree that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife and percentage of women who believe that a wife is justified in refusing sex with her husband for specific reasons
34 Maternal and Child Health Survey V. Other Efforts of the PSSMaternal and Child Health SurveyPresents data on prenatal and postpartum care, protection at birth against neonatal tetanus, breastfeeding, and immunizationconducted annually by the National Statistics Office (NSO) except when years when the NDHS is conductedIt involved interviewing all female members aged 15 to 49 years in the sample households in the Labor Force Survey (LFS), who have surviving children below three years of age
35 Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Survey V. Other Efforts of the PSSYoung Adult Fertility and Sexuality Surveyprovides information on dating, marriage, and the onset of sexual activity in the Philippinesconducted by the University of the Philippines Population Institute
36 VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index DigressionMeasuring Progress of Philippine Society: Gross National Product or Gross National HappinessbyRomulo A. Virolaand Jessamyn O. EncarnacionPresented during the 10th National Convention on StatisticsEDSA Shangri-la Plaza Hotel, Mandaluyong City, Philippines1-2 October 2007
37 VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index DigressionWHY DO WE WORK?WOULD WE RATHER BE RICH OR WOULD WE RATHER BE HAPPY?WHAT DO WE REALLY WANT IN LIFE?HOW DO WE MEASURE PROGRESS?SHOULD MEASURES OF NATIONAL PROGRESS CAPTURE OUR OWN “PERSONAL” PROGRESS?
38 Phil. Gross National Happiness Index (PGNHI) VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness IndexDigressionPhil. Gross National Happiness Index (PGNHI)Philippine Gross National Happiness Index(PGNHI)Philippine Happiness Index(PHI)Philippine Economic Index(PEI)
39 1. Conceptual Framework VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index DigressionCommunity participation & volunteer work1. Conceptual FrameworkReligion and spiritual workCultural activitiesSex lifeHI1EducationTechnological know-howHI2FamilyWorkFriendsPhilippine Happiness IndexEconomyHealthEnvironmentIncome and financial securityGovernmentHI nLeisure and sportsPoliticsNote: From 14 (during the pilot) to 17 domainsOthersLove life
40 VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index DigressionPilot survey ( nonrandom)Private company employeesGovernment office employeesParticipants in the National Convention on StatisticsStudents in a private universityParticipants in the 48th ASP Convention
41 The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness IndexDigressionThe Philippine Gross National Happiness Index· RESPONDENTS FIND FAMILY, HEALTH AND RELIGION AS MOST IMPORTANT DOMAINS OF HAPPINESS, POLITICS AS THE LEAST!
42 The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness IndexDigressionThe Philippine Gross National Happiness IndexRESPONDENTS ARE HAPPIEST WITH FAMILY, FRIENDS, RELIGION, AND LOVE LIFE; LEAST HAPPY WITH POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ECONOMY!LOVE IS AN IMPORTANT DIMENSION FOR PINOYS!
43 The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness IndexDigressionThe Philippine Gross National Happiness Index· RESPONDENTS FIND INCOME VERY IMPORTANT BUT HAPPINESS DERIVED FROM IT IS LOW!
44 The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness IndexDigressionThe Philippine Gross National Happiness Index· RESPONDENTS FIND SEX LIFE NOT IMPORTANT – BUT HAPPINESS DERIVED FROM IT IS HIGH!
45 The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness IndexDigressionThe Philippine Gross National Happiness Index· BOTH MEN AND WOMEN FIND FAMILY AND FRIENDS AS MOST IMPORTANT DOMAINS AND SOURCES OF HAPPINESS, ENVIRONMENT, ECONOMY, GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS AS THE LEAST!
46 The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness IndexDigressionThe Philippine Gross National Happiness Index· WOMEN FIND LOVE IMPORTANT BUT NOT SEX WHILE MEN FIND BOTH LOVE & SEX IMPORTANT - THERE IS A MISMATCH !
47 The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness IndexDigressionThe Philippine Gross National Happiness Index· WOMEN ARE HAPPIER WITH SEX THAN MEN!
48 The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness IndexDigressionThe Philippine Gross National Happiness IndexBased on a single question, WOMEN ARE HAPPIER THAN MEN!women – %men – %Deriving index from all domains of happiness, MEN ARE JUST AS HAPPY AS WOMEN!women – %men – %