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NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 0 JOEncarnacion Dec. 2007 Global Forum on Gender Statistics 10-12 December 2007 Measuring Women in Poverty.

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Presentation on theme: "NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 0 JOEncarnacion Dec. 2007 Global Forum on Gender Statistics 10-12 December 2007 Measuring Women in Poverty."— Presentation transcript:

1 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 0 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 Measuring Women in Poverty and Access to Resources – The Philippine Experience Presented by Jessamyn O. Encarnacion Global Forum on Gender Statistics Rome, Italy December 2007 National Statistical Coordination Board

2 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 1 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 Outline of Presentation I.Introduction II.Women in Poverty III.Womens Access to Resources IV.Other NSCB Initiatives V.Other Efforts of the PSS VI.Philippine Gross National Happiness Index (by sex)

3 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 2 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 I. Introduction From 2000 to 2003, women accounted for the second largest number of poor population (after the children) Gender differential still remains as an issue in economic participation Economic participation - 80% for men versus 50% for women in 2006 Employment rate - 74% for men versus 46% for women in 2005 Poses a challenge to the country in achieving Goal 3 of the MDGs! Magnitude of poor women Poverty Incidence (%) million million29.0

4 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 3 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 I. Introduction About the NSCB The Philippine Statistical System is a decentralized statistical system Many agencies of government generate statistics NSO Bureau of Agricultural Statistics Bureau of Labor & Employment Statistics BSP DENR, DOT, DepED, CHED, DOH, DOST, etc. Need for coordinating agency

5 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 4 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 I. Introduction About the NSCB Issued on January 30, 1987 Created the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) as the highest policy-making and coordinating body on statistical matters in the country Executive Order 121 Reorganizing the Philippine Statistical System and for Other Purposes

6 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 5 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 I. Introduction About the NSCB Compiles the National Accounts of the Philippines Estimates GDP, GNP Generates Official Poverty Statistics Poverty Threshold Poverty Incidence Philippine Statistical Yearbook Leading economic index, foreign direct investments, etc. Satellite accounts for tourism, health, education Other economic and social statistics Our Products

7 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 6 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 I. Introduction About the NSCB Coordination services Inter-agency concerns Survey review system Designation of statistics Subnational statistical system Online statistical service Technical services (including data requests and advocacy for statistical awareness) Administers the NATIONAL STATISTICAL INFORMATION CENTER Our Services

8 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 7 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 II. Women in Poverty Official Poverty Statistics Until 2007, official poverty estimates compiled by the NSCB are disaggregated by geographical location - National - Regional - Provincial Still, one of the demands is poverty statistics at lower levels and sectoral disaggregation

9 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 8 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 II. Women in Poverty Social Reform and Poverty Alleviation Act (RA 8425) Declared that the State should adopt an area- based sectoral and focused intervention to poverty alleviation Defined the basic sectors as the disadvantaged sectors of Philippine society

10 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 9 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 II. Women in Poverty 14 Basic Sectors 1.Farmer-peasant 2.Artisanal fisherfolk 3.Workers in the formal sector and migrant workers 4.WOMEN 5.Senior citizens 6.Youth and students 7.Children 8.Urban poor 9.Workers in the informal sectors 10.Indigenous peoples and cultural communities 11.Differently-abled persons 12.Victims of calamities and disasters 13.Cooperatives 14.Non-government organizations

11 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 10 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 II. Women in Poverty Poverty statistics for the basic sectors NSCB Resolution No. 11, Series of 2007, Approving the Methodology for the Generation of Poverty Statistics for the Basic Sectors As an off-shoot of the NSCB project funded by the UNDP on the Development of Poverty Statistics for the Basic Sectors Project

12 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 11 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 II. Women in Poverty Data sources 2000 and 2003 Family Income and Expenditures Survey (FIES) 4 th quarter 2000 and 2003 round of the Labor Force Survey (LFS) undertaken in January Census of Population and Housing (CPH) 2000 and 2003 Philippine Poverty Statistics

13 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 12 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 II. Women in Poverty VariableData source 1. IncomeFIES was used for classifying households as poor or non-poor 2. Sectoral characteristic of the population LFS was used to assign household members into sectors 3. Total populationEstimated total population of the sector based on the FIES and LFS. However, for years when the conduct of the CPH and FIES coincide, data from the CPH will be used (e.g., 2000) to estimate the total population for four sectors, namely, women, youth, children, and senior citizen. Otherwise, data from FIES will be used.

14 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 13 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 II. Women in Poverty Both FIES and LFS follow the Integrated Survey of Households (ISH) sampling scheme, making the estimation of poverty incidence straightforward. For example, the poverty incidence for women is: Number of poor women Poverty incidence women = Total number of women

15 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 14 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 II. Women in Poverty Distribution of the basic sectors

16 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 15 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 II. Women in Poverty Poverty incidence among the eight sectors Highlights: The poverty incidence for all sectors decreased from 2000 to The Senior Citizens, Fishermen and Farmers sectors exhibited the largest decreases. In terms of magnitude of poor population, the Children, Women and Urban Sectors are the largest. Three sectors were worse off than the countrys poverty incidence among the population of These are the Children, Farmers and Fishermen sectors. Poverty Incidence among the Population (Phils. 2003) – 30.0

17 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 16 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 II. Women in Poverty Poverty incidence by sector and region, 2000 and 2003 Poverty Incidence among Women (Phils. 2003) – 29.0 Region VII exhibited the largest decrease in poverty incidence while Region IX showed the largest increase from 2000 to CAR, ARMM, CARAGA, Regions I, IV-B, V, VI, VIII, IX, X, XI and XII were worse off than the national poverty incidence for the women sector. Highlights: In terms of magnitude of poor women population, Regions IV-A, V and VI are the largest.

18 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 17 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 II. Women in Poverty Summary of findings 1 / Excludes NCR in 2000 due to high CV (with CV > 50 percent) 2/ Excludes CAR in 2000 due to high CV (with CV > 50 percent)

19 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 18 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 III. Womens Access to Resources Observed gender inequality in economic participation Hence, men have greater economic visibility and higher contribution to the economy, more participation in making economic decisions, and more access to credit Economic undercount of women thus puts them in a situation that can perpetuate, if not outright worsen the inequity between men and women Need for information on womens and mens contribution to the economy

20 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 19 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 III. Womens Access to Resources Efforts on the generation of satellite accounts: a. Measuring The Contribution of Women To The Philippine Economy by Romulo A. Virola and Sylvia M. de Perio (1998) b. Womens Contribution To The Economy by Romulo A. Virola (1999) c. Do Women Contribute Less Than Men to Nation Building by Romulo A. Virola, Jessamyn O. Encarnacion, Armyl G. Zaguirre, Raymond S. Perez (2007)

21 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 20 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 III. Womens Access to Resources Taking off from the methodology used by Virola and de Perio in 1998 Using updated parameters from the results of the 2000 TUS. a/ Used in the 1998 study of Virola and de Perio b/ Used in this study c/ Details of the original were: 1) rescaled to add up to 24 hours (1 day); and 2) weighted using urban (for Quezon City) and rural (for Batangas) population as weights.

22 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 21 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 III. Womens Access to Resources Unpaid work adds 66.2 percent to GDP!

23 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 22 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 III. Womens Access to Resources Womens share to GDP increased by 8 percentage points!

24 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 23 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 III. Womens Access to Resources Women account for 59.6 percent of the total hours of unpaid work!

25 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 24 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 III. Womens Access to Resources Women not in the labor force account for more than half of the total value of unpaid work of women!

26 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 25 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 III. Womens Access to Resources Other findings of the study: Women accounted for only 27.4 percent of the total Net Factor Income from Abroad (NFIA) Women contributed 46.2 percent of the adjusted Gross National Product (GNP) from 38.0 percent when unpaid work was not included

27 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 26 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 IV. Other NSCB Initiatives contains the key macroeconomic impact indicators needed to monitor and assess the state of gender and development in the country serves as reference for government and non-government organizations in the formulation of indicators for monitoring and assessment of outputs and impact of their GAD activities Core GAD Indicators Data Framework

28 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 27 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 IV. Other NSCB Initiatives the 20 core GAD indicators cover the PFA areas of concern: (1)education and training; (2)economy; (3)health; (4)poverty; (5)institutional mechanism; (6)media; (7)power and decision-making; (8)environment; (9)violence against women; (10)girl child; (11)armed conflict; and (12)human rights Core GAD Indicators Data Framework

29 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 28 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 IV. Other NSCB Initiatives compilation of latest available statistics highlighting the differences between women and men focuses on the situation of women relative to men in the ff areas: 8.Public Life 9.Migration 10.Peace and Human Rights 11.Violence Against Women and Children 12.Environment 13.Millennium Development Goal 1.Population and Families 2.Work 3.Economic Participation 4.Agriculture 5.Education 6.Health and Nutrition 7.Social Welfare The Philippine Statistical Handbook on Women and Men

30 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 29 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 IV. Other NSCB Initiatives creation of the Interagency Committee (IAC) on Gender Statistics to serve as a strategic mechanism to sustain the efforts and initiatives in the generation and improvement of gender statistics and institutionalize the implementation of the GAD Coordination mechanisms

31 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 30 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 V. Other Efforts of the PSS Conducted by the National Statistics Office (NSO) every five years Designed to provide information on population, family planning, and health to assist policymakers and program managers in evaluating and designing strategies for improving health and family planning services in the country National Demographic and Health Survey

32 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 31 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 V. Other Efforts of the PSS Household population and housing characteristics Characteristics of respondents and womens status Fertility Family planning Determinants of fertility Fertility preferences Infant and child Mortality Maternal and child health Infant feeding and supplementation HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections Tuberculosis General health Statistical Tables in the NDHS

33 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 32 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 V. Other Efforts of the PSS Distribution of women employed in the twelve months preceding the survey receiving cash earnings by person who decides how earnings are to be used by marital status, educational attainment, age group Distribution of women who say that they alone or jointly have the final say in specific decisions, by age group by number of living children Distribution of women by person who has the final say in making specific decisions, according to current marital status and type of decision Latest improvements in the 2003 NDHS

34 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 33 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 V. Other Efforts of the PSS Percentage of women who agree that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife and percentage of women who believe that a wife is justified in refusing sex with her husband for specific reasons Latest improvements in the 2003 NDHS

35 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 34 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 V. Other Efforts of the PSS Presents data on prenatal and postpartum care, protection at birth against neonatal tetanus, breastfeeding, and immunization conducted annually by the National Statistics Office (NSO) except when years when the NDHS is conducted It involved interviewing all female members aged 15 to 49 years in the sample households in the Labor Force Survey (LFS), who have surviving children below three years of age Maternal and Child Health Survey

36 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 35 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 V. Other Efforts of the PSS provides information on dating, marriage, and the onset of sexual activity in the Philippines conducted by the University of the Philippines Population Institute Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Survey

37 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 36 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 Measuring Progress of Philippine Society: Gross National Product or Gross National Happiness Presented during the 10th National Convention on Statistics EDSA Shangri-la Plaza Hotel, Mandaluyong City, Philippines 1-2 October 2007 by Romulo A. Virola and Jessamyn O. Encarnacion Digression VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index

38 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 37 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 WHY DO WE WORK? WOULD WE RATHER BE RICH OR WOULD WE RATHER BE HAPPY? WHAT DO WE REALLY WANT IN LIFE? HOW DO WE MEASURE PROGRESS? SHOULD MEASURES OF NATIONAL PROGRESS CAPTURE OUR OWN PERSONAL PROGRESS? Digression VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index

39 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 38 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 Philippine Gross National Happiness Index (PGNHI) Philippine Happiness Index (PHI) Philippine Economic Index (PEI) Phil. Gross National Happiness Index (PGNHI) Digression VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index

40 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 39 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December Conceptual Framework Community participation & volunteer work Cultural activities Education Family Friends Health Income and financial security Leisure and sports Love life Religion and spiritual work Work Technological know-how Government Politics Environment Economy Sex life Others HI 1 HI 2 HI n Philippine Happiness Index Note: From 14 (during the pilot) to 17 domains Digression VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index

41 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 40 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 Pilot survey ( nonrandom) Private company employees Government office employees Participants in the National Convention on Statistics Students in a private university Participants in the 48 th ASP Convention Digression VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index

42 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 41 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index · RESPONDENTS FIND FAMILY, HEALTH AND RELIGION AS MOST IMPORTANT DOMAINS OF HAPPINESS, POLITICS AS THE LEAST! Digression VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index

43 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 42 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 RESPONDENTS ARE HAPPIEST WITH FAMILY, FRIENDS, RELIGION, AND LOVE LIFE; LEAST HAPPY WITH POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND ECONOMY! LOVE IS AN IMPORTANT DIMENSION FOR PINOYS! The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index Digression VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index

44 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 43 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 · RESPONDENTS FIND INCOME VERY IMPORTANT BUT HAPPINESS DERIVED FROM IT IS LOW! The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index Digression VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index

45 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 44 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 · RESPONDENTS FIND SEX LIFE NOT IMPORTANT – BUT HAPPINESS DERIVED FROM IT IS HIGH! The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index Digression VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index

46 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 45 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index · BOTH MEN AND WOMEN FIND FAMILY AND FRIENDS AS MOST IMPORTANT DOMAINS AND SOURCES OF HAPPINESS, ENVIRONMENT, ECONOMY, GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS AS THE LEAST! Digression VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index

47 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 46 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index · WOMEN FIND LOVE IMPORTANT BUT NOT SEX WHILE MEN FIND BOTH LOVE & SEX IMPORTANT - THERE IS A MISMATCH ! Digression VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index

48 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 47 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index · WOMEN ARE HAPPIER WITH SEX THAN MEN! Digression VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index

49 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 48 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 Based on a single question, WOMEN ARE HAPPIER THAN MEN! women – % men – % Deriving index from all domains of happiness, MEN ARE JUST AS HAPPY AS WOMEN! women – % men – % The Philippine Gross National Happiness Index Digression VI. Philippine Gross National Happiness Index

50 NATIONAL STATISTICAL COORDINATION BOARD Slide No. 49 JOEncarnacion Dec Global Forum on Gender Statistics December 2007 visit: www. nscb.gov.ph Thank you!


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