Presentation on theme: "Measurement of Gender Dimensions of Persons with Disabilities-Bangladesh Experience Country paper "Global Forum on Gender Statistics" October 11-13, 2010."— Presentation transcript:
Measurement of Gender Dimensions of Persons with Disabilities-Bangladesh Experience Country paper "Global Forum on Gender Statistics" October 11-13, 2010 Manila, Philippines Md. Aynul Kabir, Joint Director Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Bangladesh ESA/STAT/AC.219/24
Outline Measurement of gender perspective of disability in Bangladesh; Concepts and methods are in practice; Review of results obtained from different gender sensitive disability Censuses and Surveys; Good practices and Success Stories; Concluding Remarks.
Background (1) Government has limited program interventions in addressing the issues related to disabilities and the disabled; Women with disabilities constitute a large proportion of our population, but very little is known about their characteristics, the constraints they face in daily life and the quality of life they enjoy ; This is equally true for men and children as well; In recent years some NGOs have come up with programs and projects for the benefits of the disabled.
Background (2) Gender dimensions of official statistics as obtained from the national censuses and sample surveys are very low as compared to assessed rate of WHO and other agencies which might be partly due to lack of elaborate studies and research on disabilities and partly due to conceptual definition; Women/Men with disability have limited power in decision making process and social life; Disabled are not aware about government policies and legal provisions on disability.
Concepts and methods are in practice Disability is defined on the basis of International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (WHO 1991) Impairment is any loss or abnormality of psycho-logical, physiological or an anatomical structure or function. Impairment includes-Intellectual, Psychological, Language, Aural, Ocular, Visceral, Skeletal, Disfiguring and Sensory and Other impairment. Disability is any restriction or lack of ability to function any activity considered normal for a human. Disability includes- Behavior, Communication, Personal care, Loco motor, Body disposition, Dexterity, Situational, Particular skill, other restriction. Handicap is a disadvantage resulting from impairment or disability. in survey operation, it is either an impairment or disability.
Classification of Disability-Practice in Bangladesh Decrepit- A person who is deprived of the power of movement because of old age; Deaf and dumb- A person who can not hear or utter word meaningfully; Crippled- A person who is incapable to use one or both hands or legs is called crippled; Mentally retarded-Backwardness in physical or mental development or mentally out of balance. Stammer- A person who speaks haltingly; Blind- Who has no visual capacity due to loss of eye- sight. Night Blind- Unable to see at night only.
Bangladesh Government Policy and Legal framework for Disability(1) Constitution guaranteed equal rights for all; In 1993 GoB adopted the UN Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for persons with disabilities; In 1995 National Policy for Disabled was approved by Government; In 2001 The Bangladesh Persons with Disability Act was approved by the parliament; The act lists 10 priority areas: Disability prevention, Identification, Curative treatment, Education, Health care, Rehabilitation and employment, transport and communication, culture, social security, self-help organization.
Bangladesh Government Policy and Legal Framework For Disability (2) Government has established a National Foundation for the Development of the Disables to provide funding support to NGOs and Social organizations for undertaking different programs and projects; An action plan was developed to implement the Disability Welfare Act. It focuses on self-help organization, women with disability, early detection intervention etc ; The district level action plans are facilitated by The National Forum of Organizations Working with the Disabled [NFOWD]; Government has introduced 10 percent quota for the disable in employment.
Quantitative National Data Data on Disability are not collected in Bangladesh on regular basis, however such data have been collected through Census and Surveys since 1986 along with other issues. Type of Disability 2004 1991 1986 MaleFemaleMaleFemaleMaleFemale Night Blind0.400.3NA Blind1.501.30.90.71.61.2 Deaf and Dumb22.214.171.124.9 0.7 Lack of Intelligence0.00.5NA Mentally Retarded0.60.40.90.60.70.5 Leprosy0.10.00.1 0.20.1 Crippled126.96.36.199.62.00.9 Old Age0.9 NA Stammering0.60.3NA All type188.8.131.52.96.24.1
Prevalence of disability at household and individual Level, Census-2001 Disability Type Prevalence of disability in Household level Prevalence of disability at individual level All21.74.87 Blind4.41.01 Deaf and Dumb 4.61.06 Crippled7.41.60 Mentally Retarded 5.31.19 Source: Population Census 2001
Type of DisabilityBaseline Survey [ 4 locations with 46874 people] Baseline Survey [ 5 locations with 94260 people] Micro study of disables in disaster prone and iodine deficient- Jamalpur district[11782 people] Loco motor 4.9%4.2%11.9% Visual 53.548.834.2 Hearing and speech 24.525.435.0 Cognitive/mental retardation 184.108.40.206 Epilepsy/Other 220.127.116.11 Multiple 11.015.712.2 Any type 14.4%13.3%8.78% Prevalence of Disability Source: Action Aid and a Micro Study of Disability in Jamalpur during 1995-1997
Operational Definition of Disability in Bangladesh In survey operation, data on the following classes- Stammer, Night blind, Blind, Deaf/ Dumb, Mentally Retarded, Leper, Decrepit., Cripple, etc were collected and the prevalence of disability is available in Bangladesh; From 2001 International Classification of Functioning [ICF] Disability and Health was adapted Bangladesh. The major classes are – Speech, Vision, Hearing, Physical, Mental, Autistic, intellectual and Other disability. It takes into account human functioning as at activities/ participation level and at a body functions/ body structure level rather than in physical loss or abnormality of individuals. Now Bangladesh is following ICF for covering on disability.
Some observation of Jamalpur study Overall prevalence of disability was 8.78 %; Prevalence of disability among children <18yrs. was 6.2 Prevalence of disability among people> 50yrs was 30.3% Prevalence among women covering 48% was 53.0%. Female overrepresentation was found among visual and multiple impairments ; Male over representation was found among hearing, speech, loco motor, intellectual other disabilities. Indicate that 50% are due to disease and malnutrition, over 17% due to birth defects, 15% due to accidents and 8% due to old age and 9% are no response.
Prevalence of Disability by Type ( per'000' ) Type of Disability Prevalence of Disability HDS,2005 Prevalence of Disability,2008 Both SexMaleFemale Any type10.628.969.987.94 Blind2.818.448.018.99 Night BlindNA5.224.735.83 Dumb/Deaf3.4516.7916.1217.65 Mental Retarded 0.5012.7613.3213.33 Kushtah0.121.001.150.80 Lame1.1722.5426.2617.79 Othorbo1.42 5.585.715.40 DhabalNA1.891.522.36 Memory loss0.2310.059.6010.62 Goitre0.451.400.812.15 others16.0214.3413.7815.08 Source: Sample Vital Registration System, 2008. BBS
Age Specific disability rate per 1000 by sex, 2008, Bangladesh Age GroupBoth SexMaleFemale 00-042.022.061.97 05-094.965.614.29 10-145.746.035.42 15-597.839.306.39 60+46.5445.8947.25 All Age8.969.987.94 Source: Sample Vital Registration System, BBS
Age-Specific disability rate per 1000 by sex and locali ty,2007 Age Group (Year) NationalRuralUrban WomenMenWomenMenWomenMen 00-042.172.572.212.671.982.22 05-094.425.814.756.153.354.67 10-145.396.425.546.404.906.49 15-596.759.567.2110.735.796.27 60+46.4046.0548.9249.6136.3631.91 Total8.0410.168.6318.104.22.168 Source: SVRS, BBS, 2007
Disability in Bangladesh; Current Situation (1) Poverty Creates disability and disability creates poverty. People with disability belongs to the poorest of the poor section of the society; Disability prevalence rate as assessed by WHO and World Bank is 10% seems to be high but it is not realistic, it may be the situation of disaster prone area but not the national;
Disability in Bangladesh; Current Situation (2) In most cases people with disabilities live in the rural areas. They and sometimes their families suffer a lot in the society. Prevention of disability, and rehabilitation of the disabled are included in the Poverty Reduction Strategy paper Social Program and National Action Plan in Bangladesh.
Measuring Disability Main problems in measuring disabilities and comparing findings are; – Difference in criteria for identification of types of disabilities; – Classification of diversity of disabilities; – Methods of data collection; – Difference between measuring impairments and degrees of functional disabilities; – Disability is not included in any routine data collection surveillance nutrition and in the health sector.
Actions /Success Stories for the disabled (1) Reported that in the major success stories of disables and their achievements are reported in lesser number as compared to negative aspects; Women/Men with disability have limited access to education and employment: – 10% posts have been fixed for the disabled; – It is proposed that the age limit for disabled will have be increased from 30 yrs. to 40 for Govt. service.
Actions/Success Stories taken for the disabled (2) Established Jatio Protobondhi Foundation (National Foundation for the disabled); Bangladesh National Federation of the Deaf dumb; Bangladesh National Society for the Blind; Bangladesh National Protibondhi Kallan Samity (Disabled Welfare Society).
Actions/Success Stories taken for the disabled (3) Special module for disabled statistics has been introduced for Household Income & Expenditure Survey (HIES) 2010; Special emphasis has given for disability statistics in upcoming Population Census 2011.
Conclusion and Remarks (1) In Bangladesh special survey are required for real Disable Statistics; Properly follow the ICF classification for disabled statistics; New approach of classification of disability in adapted ; Government along with the National and International Agencies and NGOs initiative is required;
Conclusion and Remarks (2) Mobilize resources for the rehabilitation of disabled and curing the disabled through treatment; Build up awareness to the Disabled about Govt. policies and legal provisions; Share with disabled in policy and decision making; Come forward and employed the in economic activities.