Presentation on theme: "EXPERT GROUP MEETING: Social Integration UN/DESA, 2-4 November 2009 EXPERT GROUP MEETING: Social Integration UN/DESA, 2-4 November 2009 Promotion of Inclusive."— Presentation transcript:
EXPERT GROUP MEETING: Social Integration UN/DESA, 2-4 November 2009 EXPERT GROUP MEETING: Social Integration UN/DESA, 2-4 November 2009 Promotion of Inclusive Poverty Eradication and Productive Employment and Decent Work Policies to advance Social Integration Presentation by Faith Innerarity
Outline of Presentation S ituational Analysis –Jamaica at a Glance –Poverty and Unemployment Policy Responses –Poverty Eradication –Employment Creation and Decent Work Agenda –Expanding Education, Training and Employment Opportunities for Young People –Community Development Initiatives Conclusion and Recommendations – Way Forward
TABLE 3: Unemployed By Major Demographic Groups 2006-2007 ('000) 20062007 ANNUAL AVERAGE RATE (%) ANNUAL AVERAGE TOTAL129.410.3124.5 Youth (14-24 yrs)49.923.651.3 Adults (25 yrs and over)79.57.673.2 MALE48.8743.1 Youth (14-24 yrs)20.717.420.3 Adults (25 yrs and over)28.14.922.7 FEMALE80.614.581.4 Youth (14-24 yrs)29.231.631.0 Adults (25 yrs and over)51.411.150.5
Poverty Eradication Programme Poverty Eradication Programme Reform of the Social Safety Net which commenced in 2001 represents central component of Poverty Eradication Programme Design of a conditional cash transfer programme to ensure: –Better targeting of the poor –Linking of benefits to human capital investment in education and health
PATH TARGET GROUPS and BENEFICIARIES Categories TargetedRegistered Beneficiaries NO.% % Children 0-17 years168,00071173,49575 Pregnant /Lactating Women 11,0005 783Negligible Elderly 33,00014 51,58321 Persons with Disabilities (18-59 yrs) 19,0008 5,0152 Destitute (18-59 years) 5,0002 4,4762 Total236,000100231,446100
Programme Outcome: Targeting Programme Outcome: Targeting From the standpoint of redistribution and coverage of the poorest and most vulnerable PATH has been fairly successful in terms of its targeting mechanism. However, concerns in terms of errors of inclusion and exclusion have had to be addressed.
Distribution of Households Receiving Benefits by Quintile ProgrammePoorestQuintile Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5 Food Stamp School Fee Assistance Public Assistance Poor Relief SESPJADEPPATH36%20%60%35%24%9%58%26%21%17%23%32%19%22%20%25%14%22%20%42%14%12%23%5%15%16%13%5%6%11%4%4%7%17%1%
PATH Beneficiaries by Quintiles and Area QuintileKMAOtherTownsRural All Island Cumulative 12345 Below Poverty Line76716107860221350655722155157582214515958799499100 n/a n/a
PATH Beneficiaries Household Characteristics Household Characteristic PATH Beneficiaries (PATH 2003) Poor Jamaicans (SLC 2002) AllJamaica (SLC 2002) Household Size 123-5 6 and over 9 735491313373623194118 Presence of children 85 67 6757 Presence of Elderly 413244 Head of Household worked previous 12 months 576472 Main material of outer walls Wood Block and steel Other463717414118295417 Has indoor tap/pipe 91438 Uses Pit toilet 807047 Has electricity Own:TV Washing Machine Car6455 1 167521285741013 Source: PATH Participant Survey 2003, JSLC 2002
Programme Outcome: Targeting Beneficiary Identification System (BIS) has had to be reviewed to address, among other issues, the disproportionate selection of households from urban centres including the Kingston Metropolitan area. This is linked to the complexity of having a single poverty measurement instrument that can adequately capture the distinguishing features of rural versus urban poverty.
Distribution of PATH Beneficiaries Compared with Distribution of Poor and Share in Total Population By Parish Percentage ParishPercentage PATH Beneficiaries in Parish Oct. 2006 Percentage Jamaicas Poor in Parish (SLC 2002) Parish Share in Total Population * Kingston & St. Andrew7.9720.924.8 St. Thomas5.065.13.5 Portland5.115.03.1 St. Mary7.395.94.3 St. Ann8.48126.4 Trelawny3.874.42.8 St. James5.544.56.8 Hanover220.127.116.11 Westmoreland7.635.15.4 St. Elizabeth10.545.85.6 Manchester18.104.22.168 Clarendon12.9712.69.2 St. Catherine11.135.818.4 Total100 *Based on Population Census 2001
Health and Education Outcome PATH has resulted in increased school attendance. There has been an increase in the use preventative health care services. Health care visits for children 0-6 years increased by 38%.
Supply Challenges Supply Challenges In respect of PATH compliance requirements a number of supply side difficulties have been encountered in relation to the physical and human capabilities of health facilities and schools. Specific concerns include the need to expand primary health care capacity at the community level and increase secondary school places for the 15-17 years age group for which a gap still exist.
Beneficiary Support Programmes In terms of the beneficiary households, the high cost of transportation, especially in rural areas has impacted negatively on affordability of schooling. Special measures are therefore required to address this issue. Availability of subsidised lunches found to be critical for attendance and in this regard, the School Feeding Programme needs to be strengthened.
Coverage Gaps Incidence of poverty 14.8% in 2005 Poverty Line 2005 –Individual J$63,717 –Family of five J$240,816 Estimated 394,000 persons are below the poverty line PATH covers 236,000 Approximately 158,000 persons below the poverty line are not covered by PATH These are mainly the working poor These are mainly the working poor
Working Poor The working poor are individuals engage in either paid or self employment who belong to households with an adult equivalent per capita household expenditure (or income) that falls below a specified poverty line (Labour Market and Poverty Studies Unit, University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago) The working poor are individuals engage in either paid or self employment who belong to households with an adult equivalent per capita household expenditure (or income) that falls below a specified poverty line (Labour Market and Poverty Studies Unit, University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago)
Working Poor: Results of ILO Study Males dominate the working poor The working poor are clustered in the 25 to 44 age group The working poor have lower levels of education The working poor are employed in a variety of sectors, but most are found in agriculture, community and social services, construction and wholesale/retail sales. The working poor work fewer hours than their non-poor counterparts In Jamaica 34% of the working poor are in agriculture.
Distribution of NIS Pensioners (March 2007) Population cohort Total in Population Number NIS Pensioner s Percentage NIS Pensioners 60-6471,3009,48213.3 65-6962,20014,49523.3 70-7450,90017,14633.7 75and over 94,60037,06539.2 Total279,00078,18828.0
Coverage Gap: Elderly Population 60 and above (2005) 279,000 No. NIS Pensioners 78,188 No. PATH Beneficiaries age 60 and above 51,583 Number Elderly not covered by NIS or PATH 129,771* % Elderly Population not Covered by NIS or PATH 53.5 * These persons are distributed across various social groups * These persons are distributed across various social groups
DECENT WORK AGENDA Principles and Rights at Work Equality of Opportunity for Women and Men Enhancing Social Protection Tripartism and Social Dialogue
Policy Responses Ratification of ILO Conventions on core labour standards including Minimum Age of Employment and the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour. CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) and focus on the establishment of a social floor Introduction of CARICOM Reciprocal Social Security agreement Strong commitment to tripartism
Challenges: Productive Employment and Decent Work Agenda Increasing size and complexity of the informal sector, including a-typical and non-standard forms of employment relationships in formal establishment High levels of youth unemployment Gender inequalities in the labour market Need for active labour market policies Need for active labour market policies Discrimination against persons with disabilities Complex range of labour migration issues Complex range of labour migration issues
Options for Expanded Opportunities for Vulnerable Options for Expanded Opportunities for Vulnerable Welfare to work initiative focusing on persons in the economically active age- group in PATH beneficiary and other poor households. Young school leavers – focus on school to work transition process with link to Jamaica Youth Employment Network (JYEN) and other initiatives. Social pension
Welfare to Work Training and job placement for members of beneficiary household in economically active age groups Promotion of entrepreneurial activities through revamped rehabilitation grant programme Community based interventions Provision of range of referral services
School to Work Transition Support for PATH beneficiaries beyond age 17 (8,000- 10,000 PATH School Leavers annually) Assistance for further education (Government guarantee of Students Loans) Assistance for further education (Government guarantee of Students Loans) Stipend for skills training/apprenticeship Stipend for skills training/apprenticeship Provision of Job placement services Provision of Job placement services Promotion of Entrepreneurship (grants or soft loans for income generating projects) Promotion of Entrepreneurship (grants or soft loans for income generating projects) Training centre for Young persons with disabilities in Western Jamaica Training centre for Young persons with disabilities in Western Jamaica
School to Work Transition At risk youth targeted: Youths in rural areas and inner-city communities Youths in rural areas and inner-city communities Youths with disabilities Youths with disabilities HIV/AIDS victims HIV/AIDS victims
Community Development Initiatives Human and Social Capital Investment Human and Social Capital Investment Economic Enablement Economic Enablement Provision of Basic Social Services Provision of Basic Social Services Lorenzo Smith, a youth of the Grants Pen Inner-city Community now has a better chance in life. He worked temporarily at the Mega Mart Super Store and is now involved in a Human Employment and Resource Training (HEART ) programme
Community Development Economic Enablement Security and Justice Andre Fairclough is now seen as a positive role model in his family and community as he engages in the working world. Police and residents join forces to fight crime
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Prime Minister the Hon. Bruce Golding delivers the keynote address at the launch of the National Integrity Action Forum. Seated are Dr. Karen Hilliard, USAID/Jamaica Mission Director, and Prof. Trevor Munroe of the Centre for Leadership and Governance at UWI, Mona
Integration of economic and social policies, Enterprise development taking into account the rural sector Training and skills enhancement, Expanding coverage and effectiveness of social protection systems Expanding coverage and effectiveness of social protection systems Strengthening of the institutional capacity to promote social dialogue and the regulatory framework for enforcement of core labour standards. Strengthened partnerships and collaboration at the international level WAY FORWARD
Way Forward Direct and special focus on the causes of youth unemployment and best practices to eliminate this problem Direct and special focus on the causes of youth unemployment and best practices to eliminate this problem Mainstreaming of gender, age (life cycle vulnerability) and disability in all employment policies and poverty eradication strategies Geographically differentiated strategies for rural and urban areas. Geographically differentiated strategies for rural and urban areas.