Presentation on theme: "From Eco-City to Eco-Civilization"— Presentation transcript:
1 From Eco-City to Eco-Civilization Sustainable Development Practice in ChinaFrom Eco-City to Eco-Civilization
2 Content: Introduction and ecocity concept China: from eco-city to eco-civilizationOverviewEco-demonstration under MoEPEcocity building by local governmentsShanghai case: Chongming Eco-Island developmentCalling for eco-civilization
3 Introduction and ecocity concept Ecocity, Ecological City or Ecopolis.Originated from the Man and Biosphere program (MAB) by UNESCO in 1970s.Richard Register: “An Ecocity is a human settlement that enables its residents to live a good quality of life while using minimal natural resources. ”Introduction and ecocity conceptUrbanization: urban sickness …social/environ. ..
4 What is an ecocity? Commercial and living; Stereo greening; New OrleansCommercial and living;Stereo greening;Trams, rarely cars;Renewable energy (solar/wind);Biodiversity;Environment & 3Rs …Concentrated, not sprawling. …San FranciscoCited from Richard Register
6 Ecocity World Summits 1990-2009 Berkeley, California 1990, … basic ideas of ecocity design/planningAdelaide, Australia,1992, … for cities for people instead of cars …Yoff, Senegal, 1996, … for underdeveloped countriesCuritiba, Brazil, 2000, … discussion on Curitiba itself …Shenzhen, China, 2002, … for fast developing countries, declarationBangalore, India, a window on the world like a magnifying glass …San Francisco, USA, … a declaration that laid out five requirements and ten actions for Ecocity developmentIstanbul, Turkey, … Tianjin eco-city reported their progress but was criticized about not enough ambitious on renewable energy portion (20%). Istanbul argued about population growth…Montreal, Canada, 2011, for the first time, it included a section on ecocity economics. However, the discussion was not deep enough, e.g., more input from revenue was suggested but no discussion on how to collect revenue…
7 The San Francisco Ecocity Declaration The 7th International Ecocity ConferenceApril 22-26, 2008An ecocity is an ecologically healthy city. Into the deep future, the cities in which we live must enable people to thrive in harmony with nature and achieve sustainable development. People oriented, ecocity development requires the comprehensive understanding of complex interactions between environmental, economic, political and socio-cultural factors based on ecological principles. Cities, towns and villages should be designed to enhance the health and quality of life of their inhabitants and maintain the ecosystems on which they depend.Five requirements:Ecological security - clean air, and safe, reliable water supplies, food, healthy housing and workplaces, municipal services and protection against disasters for all people.Ecological sanitation - efficient, cost-effective eco-engineering for treating and recycling human excreta, gray water, and all wastes.Ecological industrial metabolism - resource conservation and environmental protection through industrial transition, emphasizing materials re-use, life-cycle production, renewable energy, efficient transportation, and meeting human needs.Ecoscape (ecological-landscape) integrity - arrange built structures, open spaces such as parks and plazas, connectors such as streets and bridges, and natural features such as waterways and ridgelines, to maximize biodiversity and maximize accessibility of the city for all citizens while conserving energy and resources and alleviating such problems as automobile accidents, air pollution, hydrological deterioration, heat island effects and global warming.Ecological awareness - help people understand their place in nature, cultural identity, responsibility for the environment, and help them change their consumption behavior and enhance their ability to contribute to maintaining high quality urban ecosystems.
8 Ten key actions needed: Provide safe shelter, water, sanitation, security of tenure and food security for all citizens … priority to the poor …Build cities for people, not cars. …Identify ecologically sensitive areas, define the carrying capacity …Design cities for energy conservation, renewable energy uses and the reduction, re-use and recycling of materialsBuild cities for safe pedestrian and non-motorized transport use with efficient, convenient and low-cost public transportation. …Provide strong economic incentives to businesses for ecocity building and rebuilding …Provide … education and training programs, capacity building and local skills …Create a government agency at each level ….. to address global heating, the coming end of fossil fuels and global crisis of species extinctions.… international, inter-city and community-to-community cooperation to share experiences, lessons and resources ….
9 Ecocity 9, Montreal Canada, Aug 22-26, 2011 Interconnecting ThemesClimate Change and Urban PlanningEcomobility, Urban Planning, Public SpaceGovernance and Democracy in the EcocityEconomics of the EcocityHealth and the Built EnvironmentBiodiversity and Urban AgricultureYouth Leadership and Engagement in the Arts, Culture and EnvironmentAn Ecocity Project… on the Ground!
10 Ecological economyWhat is the purpose of the economy in an ecocity, and how do we define terms like “sustainable development,” “prosperity,” “well-being,” and “quality of life” in line with that purpose? Three key sub-themes build on this foundational question. First, how can we favour local economies? (怎样可以对当地经济发展有利？) Here, we will examine ways to keep wealth and prosperity within an ecocity as we consider how its inhabitants feed and entertain themselves. Important challenges must be addressed in regard to financing the economy, confronting the trend toward globalization, balancing public and private sector engagement and managing relations between the ecocity and its surrounding regions. The Transition Town and post-carbon city social movements may produce instructive new approaches. Second, how can we encourage decent work in an ecocity? (怎样增加就业机会？) Here, we will consider green jobs and possible new modes of work, such as work sharing and shorter work weeks, as well as sectors that are best suited to an ecocity. Third, how should we manage energy and materials needs of an ecocity? (怎样管理所需的能源和物料？)…How are economic and environmental prosperity maintained in an ecocity? (怎样维护经济和环境财产？)
11 Insights from the History of the International Ecocity Conferences (R Insights from the History of the International Ecocity Conferences (R. Register)When I convened the organizing of the First International Ecocity Conference my notion was to try to accelerate the efforts and successes of the previous 30 years of work on the idea of the ecologically healthy city. That means today some of us have been working “in the field” for more than 50 years.…Here at this conference you've seen some partial glimpses of what it can be, but we will have to go much, much farther down the road toward the ecocity if we are to rescue our descendants and most of the still remaining other species from our past mistakes. We certainly have all the tools and insights available to do it but we need to recognize that most people don't even want to cast their eyes in that direction, rightly suspecting that the obligation to do something difficult and different - the specter of fundamental change and all the hard, eventually glorious work it entails - lies down that road.
12 Remarks: Requirements Issues not resolved: Safe shelter, water, food, wealth …Green, environment & diversity …No cars; public transportation …Renewable energy and 3Rs, low carbon ...Governance …Education and training …Issues not resolved:How to achieve these requirements;Technical feasibility;Economic feasibility (input/output analysis)Local conditions: population & growth rate, built environment…
14 OverviewChina is making a miracle, however along with rapid economic development and urbanization:Environmental pollutionResource restrictionSocial problems in urban areasBiodiversity in urban areasClimate change impacts……
15 Eco-development programs in China Related programsScenery city 山水城市Green city 绿色城市Garden city 花园城市Eco – garden city 生态园林城市Environmental model city 环境模范城市Environmentally friendly city 环境友好城市Eco – City 生态示范城市Eco – civilization city 生态文明城市
16 The major programs Eco-Garden city program by MHURD From 1992, evaluation in every 2 years. Up to 2008, there were 10 batches of 125 cities officially nominated with state-level “Eco-Garden Cities”In 2004, “resource saving” principle was included in this program. In 2006, it was further emphasized for “Three-Savings: land, water, and funding”; Four-Reductions: urban heat island, air and water pollutions, energy consumption of buildings and infrastructure, and energy consumption in urban transportation.The objective is to develop green and economic societiesEco – demonstration program under MoEP19951996~2004, SEPA approved 9 batches of cities as “Ecological Development Demonstration pilot areas”Indicator system – version 1, 2003Indicator system – version 2, 2008To 2008, 6 cities, 3 counties, and 2 districts were officially nominated as “eco-” areasmore “Ecological Development Demonstration pilot areas”Eco – district building by local governmentsBeijing (Mengtougou), Tianjin(Binghaixinqu), Tangshan(Nanhu), …Shanghai(Chongming Island) …Eco-Civilization was called for by the 17th National Congress of CC Party (2007, 2008-)
17 Eco - demonstration program under MoEP Objectives:Based on the principles of sustainable development and ecological economy, to promote regional harmonic development of economy and society with environmental protection, to establish appropriate cyclic system for the development of economy, society and integrated natural system, to ensure adequate utilization of natural resource and improvement of ecological environment, while economic and social development meet the demand by the people.Sustainable development is emphasizedRegional development / Bottom Up approachEco-ProvinceEco-CitiesEco-CountiesEco-DistrictsEco-Towns/VillagesTop down promotion /
18 Nomination procedure for eco-city/county/district Step1: Apply to MoEP for an eco - demonstration unitTo 2008, after the first screening, 389 out of 528 cities/counties/districts were accepted as pilot/experimenting unitsStep2: Conduct an ecocity plan, an outlineSet up ecocity objectivesSurvey on current situationComprehensive analysis on existing master plan and sectoral plansAnalysis and adjustmentRecommendations, with proposals for construction projectsStep3: Implement the ecocity planEstablishing administrative leading groupAssign tasksHighlight projects (e.g., eco-community, eco-industrial park…)All-round promotion, public participationLegal actionsStep4: Official nominationMonitoring and self-evaluationApplying for reviewing from MoEP, from province to MoEPNomination by MoEP as state-level Eco-district/county/cityStep5: Maintenance and managementManagement officeCoordination timely among governmental departmentsAnnual reports
19 Miyun & Yanqing Counties of Beijing The 6 cities, 3 counties and 2 urban districts, officially nominated by MoEP as eco-areas, Aug 20084 cities: Zhangjiagang, Changshu, Kunshan, and Taicang under SuzhouJiangyin CityMinghang District of ShanghaiYantian District of ShenzhenRongcheng CityAnji County of ZhejiangObservation: the location of the nominates eco-city/county/district and the provinces aiming to eco-development …CityCountyUrban DistrictZhangjiagangAnji (Zhejiang)Minghang (Shanghai)ChangshuMiyun (Beijing)Yantian (Shenzhen)KunshanYanqing (Beijing)TaicangJiangyinRongchengProvinces for EBD
20 The 2003 evaluation 28 indices for ecocity Forest coverageUrbanization levelGas utilization ratePublic satisfaction rate to environmentDrinking water Sewage treatmentIndustrial wastewater reuseProportion of protected areaAir quality (S,N)Urban green area per capitaWater quality: urban & coastalNoise levelSolid waste DisposalIndustrial waste reuse rateEnvir. Quality of tourism areasEnergy consump. per unit GDPClean production enterprises rate, ISO14000Percentage of third industryPer capita GDPRate of centralized heatingUrban lifeline systemEngel coefficientHigher edu. rateGini coefficientEnvir. Edu. rateDegraded land rehabilitation rateSO2, COD emissionPer capita financial incomePeasants income per personWater consump. per unit GDPUrban citizen income per personEconomic indicesEnv & Resc. indicesSocial indices
21 The 2008 evaluation 19 indices for ecocity Forest coverageUrbanization levelCoverage of centralized heat-supplyPublic satisfaction rate to environmentDrinking water qualityProportion of protected areaRatio of urban sewage treatmentAir qualityUrban green area per capitaWater qualityNoise levelCOD & SO2 emission intensityDisposal rate ofSolid wasteInvestment ratio for environmentFresh water consumption per capita IAVEnergy consumption per unit GDPCorporation qualified in CPAPercentage share of third industryRural per capita incomeEconomic indicesEnv & Resc. indicesSocial indicesCPA: cleaner production auditIAV: industrial added value
23 Eco-city managementApprove the eco-plan and go through a legal procedureEstablish an office to coordinate various sectors, functions:Under the municipal government or local EPBEdit and publish eco-development news bulletinsCoordinate monitoring and feedbacksTimely meetingsReport progresses to the municipal government and to the publicImplement policies/measures/projects by corresponding departments, e.g. “cell projects”Annual assessment and report to MoEPProblems:Local EPB or the coordinating office does not have the authority…Often lack of long-term functioning of the officeIf other activities seem more important …
24 EcoCity program is continuing.. 14 were announced in Oct 2010; Miyun & Yanqing Counties of BeijingEcoCity program is continuing..14 were announced in Oct 2010;14 were announced in April 2011.4 cities: Zhangjiagang, Changshu, Kunshan, and Taicang under SuzhouJiangyin CityMinghang District of ShanghaiYantian District of ShenzhenRongcheng CityAnji County of Zhejiang
28 Shanghai case: Chongming Eco-Island Development 28
29 Chongming Island is part of Shanghai The 3 islands, Chongming, Changxing, and HengshaThis is DongtanTunnel/bridgeChongming eco-island development is an important part of Shanghai sustainable development strategyEXPO concept is to be implemented in ChongmingChallenge: the impact of the completion of cross Yangtze tunnel/bridge
30 Events and progresses2001, State Council approved “Shanghai City Development Master Plan ( )” which put forth Chongming eco-island development;2005, Shanghai approved “Chongming Three-Island Development Master Plan ( )” which design Chongming as a Comprehensive Eco-Island;Jan 2010, Shanghai Municipal Government promulgated “Outline of Chongming Eco-Island Development ( )”Mar 2010, MoST approved Chongming as a national experimenting county for sustainable development (In 2009, MoST initiated key projects for low carbon development in Chongming and key technologies application and demonstration; also other important technical projects)July 2010, Shanghai Chongming Eco-Island International ForumInternational cooperation: UNEP, Hawaii State of US, Japan Association on Environmental Art and CultureTo build 5 demonstration zones: low carbon consumption, low carbon industry garden, low carbon agricultural garden, natural carbon increasing, and low carbon ecological tourism etc.
31 Chongming Global Level Eco-Island Planning Hengsha:eco-leisure islandChangxing:marine equip-islandChongming:comprehensive eco-island
32 Chongming Eco-Island Development Outline ( ), Shanghai Municipal Development and Reform Commission, Jan 20, 2010Strategy:Combination of national strategy, Shanghai responsibility and Chongming Island desire.Low carbon, ecological and modernized developmentProtect the Yangtze River mouth environment and ecologyFocus:Promote harmonic development of resource, environment, industry, infrastructure, and social service etc.Perfect functional allocation of the islandEstablish eco-island assessment indicator systemEmphasize sustainability of natural resource, renewable energy, circular economy; improve water and air quality, noise level, solid waste management; promote energy saving and pollutant emission reduction; optimize industrial structure; note social service and infrastructure; enhance public participation in governance etc.
33 Chongming eco-island assessment main indicators (2010) NoIndexUnit20201Construction land use%13.12Number of water bird species (≥ 1% of that in the world)-≥103Forestry coverage284Green field area per capitam2155Eco-protection land area83.16Natural wetland437Domestic waste reuse808Livestock soil utilization>959Agricultural straw utilization10Capacity of renewable power generation104 kW20～3011Energy consumption per unit GDPton coal /104RMB0.6
34 Chongming eco-island assessment main indicators (2010) NoIndexUnit202012Core river water quality attains Category III standard%9513Centralized treatment of municipal wastewater9014Days per year of air quality API attains excellentday>14515Attainment of regional ambient noise10016Weight of environmental part in achievement evaluation2517Public satisfaction on environment>9518Harmless authentication of major agricultural products (green food, organic food)90 (30)19Chemical fertilizer application strengthkg/ha25020Nemerow index of agricultural soil-≤0.721Portion in GDP of tertiary industry added value>6022Financial output per capita for social development104RMB1.5
35 Dongtan eco- planning 2005/2007 Part of Chongming:Dongtan eco- planning 2005/2007Area: total 215 ha, urban 73 ha, ecological park 142 ha;Green area per capita: 27 m2Housing: low rise & high density – 3 to 8 storey / 1.45 average plot ratio / 75 dwelling per ha / 80,000 peopleTransport accessibility: 3 minutes walking, 240 m
37 Call for eco-civilization The need:Unhealthy development still happens;Unlawful/unreasonable activities;Change in behavior, life style …Launched in Oct at the 17th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, written in the report; It represents an ethical, cultural, and institutional enhancement on ecological developmentMore recently, at the 18th NC of CCP, a special chapter,
38 Importance of eco-civilization A high sense of responsibility to ecological development and global ecologic systemLong term importance of China’s development, also of the world’s ecological securityGreat significance to develop eco-civilization in China:Huge populationLarge territoryGlorious historyProfound cultureUnique languageSpecial institutional system (strong and highly efficient governance)Distinctive society, andRapid economic development
39 Importance of eco-civilization Eco-Civilization refers to the culture and ethics with which human society development in harmony with nature and the consideration of future generations.Eco-civilization emphasizes human consciousness and self-regulation, mutual dependence, promotion, and symbiosis with nature, and harmony among human.Eco-civilization is the result of the profound rethinking on the traditional industrial civilization, so that an important progress of the ethics, approach and mode of human development.
40 Eco-CivilizationEco-civilization concept was put forth in the report of the 17th National Congress; In the 18th, it is a separate chapter in parallel with the developments of economy, politics, culture, and society.Concept, objectives, 虽然十七大报告就提出了生态文明的理念，但在十八大报告中把生态文明独立成篇，作为单独的一个部分，和经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设并列，这是一个亮点。这个亮点就体现在，它完整、系统阐述了未来五年我们生态文明建设的理念是什么、方针是什么、途径是什么、具体的目标是什么。十八大报告提出‘努力建设美丽中国’
41 Eco-civilization at the 18th National Congress of CCP Challenges of resource restriction, heavy environmental pollution, and ecological deterioration; respect nature, follow nature, protect nature; integrate eco-civilization with all aspects of economic, politic, cultural, and social development; to build a beautiful China for sustainable development.Insist in “resource saving and environment protection” as a basic state policy, resource saving, protection, remediation; green/circular/low carbon development, …
42 Measures to take:Optimize spatial development setup (planning); for a harmonic development among population/resource/environment and economy/society/ecology …Promote resource saving; energy, water, and land; reduce their consuming rate; raise efficiency; support low carbon industry and renewable energy, …Enhance protection for natural eco-system and environment; …water, air, and land, … reduce GHG emissions, climate change response …Strengthen institutional development; economic/social development evaluation system, indicator systems, … 加强生态文明制度建设。保护生态环境必须依靠制度。要把资源消耗、环境损害、生态效益纳入经济社会发展评价体系，建立体现生态文明要求的目标体系、考核办法、奖惩机制。建立国土空间开发保护制度，完善最严格的耕地保护制度、水资源管理制度、环境保护制度。深化资源性产品价格和税费改革，建立反映市场供求和资源稀缺程度、体现生态价值和代际补偿的资源有偿使用制度和生态补偿制度。积极开展节能量、碳排放权、排污权、水权交易试点。加强环境监管，健全生态环境保护责任追究制度和环境损害赔偿制度。加强生态文明宣传教育，增强全民节约意识、环保意识、生态意识，形成合理消费的社会风尚，营造爱护生态环境的良好风气。
44 The characteristics of eco-development in China： Regional development is emphasized, with sustainable development as the objective；Not only the harmonic relationship between human society and nature, but also the relationship with economic development；Large population, severe pollution, restricted resource, large gaps between poor/rich, urban/rural, eastern/western etc. ；Rapid economic development and urbanization (dynamic) …Powerful governance, numerous people (and officers) are involved, so that with great significance.Although the management of the ecocity demonstration program is by MoEP and local EPBs, and the management is relatively weak, the ecocity concept is integrated with many aspects of governmental daily work. For example, the compulsory requirement of “energy saving and (key pollutants) emission reduction”.
45 Problems: Conclusion: MoEP is a sectoral ministry. …Current ecocity planning team is mostly of environmental and/or ecological profession …Difficulties in planning and implementation because of growing urban population, existing severe pollution, and cross-boundary pollutant transport …Eco-city management is rather weak. In most cases, there is an office at local EPB for coordination and annual assessment and report;For projects of local governments, input/output analysis is not provided;The sustainability of eco-cities themselves is not sufficiently discussed.Conclusion:Due to imbalance development, ecocity in China should have local characteristics;Nation-wide programs are specifically important in the sense of ESD and SD practice;Ecocity concept needs to be developed for self-sustainability;Eco-demonstration and eco-civilization development has long term significance both to China and the world.
47 “Xiao Kang” in Chinese culture The term “Xiao Kang” firstly appeared in Chinese literature some 500 years BC“Xiao” means small or moderate, “Kang” means working hard and living comfort in comparison to poverty, but not rich;“Xiaokang Society” refers to moderate development, or the midway of development destination;“Xiaokang” is important because it is of Chinese characteristics of development, and it implies sustainable development (behavior and life expectation) based on China’s situation.
48 “2 mus of land and a cow; wife, kids and a warm bed(kang)” Example: the early understanding of “Xiao Kang” in countryside1 mu =666.7 m2, or 1 m2 = mu.Here “kang” is a kind of bed in northern China, made of soil with ducts connected to stove / furnace“2 mus of land and a cow; wife, kids and a warm bed(kang)”
49 “Xiao Kang” in modern China Officially appeared when DENG Xiaoping was meeting the then Japan Premier Mr. Ohira Masayoshi on Dec. 6, “The Four Modernizations that we are aiming for are of Chinese sense. Our concept of modernization is not the same as that of you people, but ‘Xiao Kang’ family. To the end of this century, even if China would have obtained some achievements in modernization, the GDP per capita would still be fairly low. To reach a level that is relatively high in developing countries, say GDP per capita as USD 1000, a lot of efforts must be made. And it is still backward comparing with the developed world. Therefore, I would rather say, China then would still be in a status of ‘Xiao Kang’.” Deng re-stated “Xiao Kang” in 1980, 1982, 1984 and 1986 … Since then, “Xiao Kang Society” has been referred to as the development target of China.The China of 2020 envisioned by China's Communist leaders was first introduced to the world as a "well-off society" in a Party report in 2002 at the Party's 16th National Congress and changed to a "moderately prosperous society" in an annual government work report two years later.
50 Example: the modern understanding of “Xiao Kang Society”.
51 Observation:China is a special country. Its development cannot be thought to follow the experience of developed countries;“Xiao Kang” society is now the development target of China;There now appear a number of indicator systems to monitor the development of “Xiao Kang”;However, there are also grass route understanding, such as: “tall buildings and public parks instead of houses and private gardens, orbital transportation and two-wheels instead of driving cars…”. This idea matches the concept of sustainable development;It is also a feature in Chinese culture.
52 Conclusion Many difficulties and opportunities Population control Economy restructuringAlternative and renewable energiesLow carbon developmentLiving standardEcological civilizationSustainable development
53 “XiaoKang” Society at the 18th National Congress of CCP ObjectivesHealthy economic development: 转变经济发展方式取得重大进展，在发展平衡性、协调性、可持续性明显增强的基础上，实现国内生产总值和城乡居民人均收入比二0一0年翻一番。科技进步对经济增长的贡献率大幅上升，进入创新型国家行列。工业化基本实现，信息化水平大幅提升，城镇化质量明显提高，农业现代化和社会主义新农村建设成效显著，区域协调发展机制基本形成。对外开放水平进一步提高，国际竞争力明显增强。Democracy ——人民民主不断扩大。民主制度更加完善，民主形式更加丰富，人民积极性、主动性、创造性进一步发挥。依法治国基本方略全面落实，法治政府基本建成，司法公信力不断提高，人权得到切实尊重和保障。Cultural 文化软实力显著增强。社会主义核心价值体系深入人心，公民文明素质和社会文明程度明显提高。文化产品更加丰富，公共文化服务体系基本建成，文化产业成为国民经济支柱性产业，中华文化走出去迈出更大步伐，社会主义文化强国建设基础更加坚实。Living standard: 人民生活水平全面提高。基本公共服务均等化总体实现，全民受教育程度和创新人才培养水平明显提高，进入人才强国和人力资源强国行列，教育现代化基本实现。就业更加充分。收入分配差距缩小，中等收入群体持续扩大，扶贫对象大幅减少。社会保障全民覆盖，人人享有基本医疗卫生服务，住房保障体系基本形成，社会和谐稳定。Resource saving and environmental friendly 资源节约型、环境友好型社会建设取得重大进展。主体功能区布局基本形成，资源循环利用体系初步建立。单位国内生产总值能源消耗和二氧化碳排放大幅下降，主要污染物排放总量显著减少。森林覆盖率提高，生态系统稳定性增强，人居环境明显改善。
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