Presentation on theme: "IT 264 INDUSTRIAL FLUID POWER Chapter 1 Introduction to Fluid Power."— Presentation transcript:
IT 264 INDUSTRIAL FLUID POWER Chapter 1 Introduction to Fluid Power
What is fluid power? Fluid power is the technology deals with the generation, control and transmission of power, utilizing pressurized fluids. Fluid power systems are known as hydraulic systems when the fluid is a liquid and pneumatic systems when the fluid is a gas. There are actually two different types of fluid systems depending on application: Fluid Transport and Fluid Power
HISTORY OF FLUID POWER Ancient civilizations used fluid power to produce power by means of waterwheels, and air was used to turn windmills and propel ships. Fluid power technology as we understand it today began 1650 with the discovery of Pascal's law: Pressure is transmitted undiminished in a confined body of fluid. 1750, or newly developed his law conservation of energy for a fluid flowing through pipeline. Industrial Revolution of 1850 in Great Britain saw application of both Pascal and Bernoulli's laws applied to industry. 1870 fluid power was being used to drive hydraulic equipment such as cranes, presses, wenches, extruding machines, hydraulic jacks, shearing machines, and riveting machines.
HISTORY OF FLUID POWER CONTINUED The modern era fluid power is considered to have begun in 1906 when a hydraulic system was developed to replace the electoral systems for elevating and controlling guns on the battleship USS Virginia. 1926 the United States developed first unitized, packet hydraulic systems consisting of a pump, controls, and actuator. During World War II the aviation aerospace industry provided the impetus for many advances in fluid power technologies including hydraulic actuated landing gear, cargo doors, gun drives, and flight control devices. Following World War II fluid power applications began to be used extensively in practically every branch of industry.
ADVANTAGES OF FLUID POWER Ease of accuracy and control Multiplication of force. Constant force or torque. Simplicity, safety, economy. Additional benefits of fluid power include instantly reversible motion, automatic protection against overloads, and infinitely variable speed control. Fluid power systems also have the highest power to weight ratio of any known power source.
DRAWBACKS OF FLUID POWER Hydraulic components must be properly designed and installed to prevent oil leakage from the hydraulic system into the surroundings. Hydraulic pipe line converters due to excessive oil pressure if proper system design is not implemented. Pneumatic system components such as compressed air tanks and accumulators must be properly selected to handle the system maximum air pressure. In pneumatic systems proper measures must be taken to control the level of noise in the vicinity of those systems.
SIX BASIC COMPONENTS REQUIRED IN A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM A tank (reservoir) to hold the hydraulic fluid A pump to force the oil through the system. An electric motor or other power source to drive the pump. Valves to control oil direction, pressure, and flow rate. An actuator to convert the pressure of the oil into mechanical force or torque. Piping which carries the oil from one component to another.
SIX BASIC COMPONENTS REQUIRED IN A PNEUMATIC SYSTEM An air tank to store a given volume of compressed air. A compressor to compress the air that comes directly from the atmosphere. An electric motor or other prime mover to drive the compressor. Valves to control air direction, pressure and flow rate. Actuators, which are similar in operation hydraulic actuators. Piping to carry the pressurized air from one component to another.
SIZE AND SCOPE OF THE FLUID POWER INDUSTRY The fluid power industry is a huge and global industry. Statistics from the national fluid power Association show that the year 2006 sales figures for fluid power products to be $12.7 billion for US companies. This large annual sales figure is reflected in the fact that nearly all US manufacturing plants rely on fluid power in the production of goods. Over half of all US industrial product of fluid power systems or components as part of their basic design about 75% of all fluid power sales are hydraulic and about 25% are pneumatic Technical personnel who work in the fluid power field can generally placed into three categories. Fluid power mechanics, who are responsible for repair and maintenance of fluid power equipment Fluid power technicians, who usually assist engineers in areas such as design, troubleshooting, testing, maintenance, and installation of fluid power systems Fluid power engineers, perform design, development, and testing of new fluid power components or systems.