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Mobilizing Finance Stable and Predictable Financing Mechanisms for water service providers at all levels Meera Mehta Water and Sanitation Program – Africa.

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Presentation on theme: "Mobilizing Finance Stable and Predictable Financing Mechanisms for water service providers at all levels Meera Mehta Water and Sanitation Program – Africa."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mobilizing Finance Stable and Predictable Financing Mechanisms for water service providers at all levels Meera Mehta Water and Sanitation Program – Africa New York, June 2006

2 2 Outline 1.Global trends – and the nature of financing challenge… 2.National level – Financing mechanisms and tools for improved sector governance – SWAps and Sector Programs 3.Municipal and local level – Financing mechanisms and tools to facilitate leveraging local resources

3 3 The Hope in 1990s… Source: Adapted from Ginneken M. 2003: Presentation at Pan African water Conference Public is dominant ~85% Domestic is dominant ~ 85% Financing flows into water in 2000 Total (international) private investment in infrastructure in sector and region Worldwide interest in cross border private sector infrastructure investments… So… the private sector will fill the gaps… And the Realities…

4 4 Finance Requirements and Gaps To meet the MDGs… To meet the MDGs… Varying estimates depending in assumptions related to status, service standards and existing financial flows Varying estimates depending in assumptions related to status, service standards and existing financial flows Rigorous estimates and scenarios lacking for urban water supply and sanitation Rigorous estimates and scenarios lacking for urban water supply and sanitation In general, many stakeholders argue the need to double the aid flows

5 5 In the new millennium – 2000s: A Plea for Aid Resources, and risk mitigation… Camdessus and Gurria Panel Reports Camdessus and Gurria Panel Reports There is widespread agreement that the flow of funds for water infrastructure has to roughly double… There is widespread agreement that the flow of funds for water infrastructure has to roughly double… Also places emphasis on risk mitigation measures for private sector investments Also places emphasis on risk mitigation measures for private sector investments Sachs Report - UN Millennium Project Sachs Report - UN Millennium Project The report says the MDGs can be achieved if total annual development assistance is doubled to $135 billionor 0.44 percent of donors GNPin 2006, and rises to 0.54 percent of donors GNP by (The Economist) The report says the MDGs can be achieved if total annual development assistance is doubled to $135 billionor 0.44 percent of donors GNPin 2006, and rises to 0.54 percent of donors GNP by (The Economist)

6 6 But, the MDGs are not simply about providing more WSS infrastructure…but about ensuring good services… Services that are reliable Services that are reliable Services that well targeted and are actually used Services that well targeted and are actually used Services that are sustainable – institutionally, financially and environmentally Services that are sustainable – institutionally, financially and environmentally

7 7 What then is the financing challenge ? Not only investments for more infrastructure But, also financing improved WSS services… Not only increased coverage But, also increased / affordable access for the poor… Not only doubling the aid But, also leveraging additional local resources…

8 8 And, to meet this challenge Stability and predictability in financing are essential for this…and can be achieved by Stability and predictability in financing are essential for this…and can be achieved by Improving effectiveness in the use of public (and aid) resources through improved water and sanitation sector governance Improving effectiveness in the use of public (and aid) resources through improved water and sanitation sector governance Leveraging additional local resources – for urban utilities and small community-managed water service providers – linked to improved and sustainable water and sanitation service delivery Leveraging additional local resources – for urban utilities and small community-managed water service providers – linked to improved and sustainable water and sanitation service delivery

9 9 Outline 1.Global trends – and the nature of financing challenge… 2.National level – Financing mechanisms and tools for improved sector governance – SWAps and Sector Programs 3.Municipal and local level – Financing mechanisms and tools to facilitate leveraging local resources

10 10 SWAp and PRSC in Uganda Poverty Reduction Strategy Credit used to fund the RWSS sector in Uganda through budget support Poverty Reduction Strategy Credit used to fund the RWSS sector in Uganda through budget support Under SWAp Rural Water Supply uses demand responsive approach (DRA) with decentralized implementation through district governments Under SWAp Rural Water Supply uses demand responsive approach (DRA) with decentralized implementation through district governments PRSC with decentralization and DRA has enabled: PRSC with decentralization and DRA has enabled: Increased participation in planning at lower levels of government Increased participation in planning at lower levels of government More cost effective technologies being selected (protected wells) More cost effective technologies being selected (protected wells) Increasing levels of district level disbursements Increasing levels of district level disbursements

11 11 Using SWIFT to Improve Sectoral Allocations Sectorwide Investment and Financing Tool (SWIFT) has been developed by WSP-Wf to assist countries to assess policy options for sector financial viability Sectorwide Investment and Financing Tool (SWIFT) has been developed by WSP-Wf to assist countries to assess policy options for sector financial viability Sector development costs Sector development costs New investments New investments Rehabilitation/ replacement of assets Rehabilitation/ replacement of assets Operations and Maintenance Operations and Maintenance Develop formula based allocations for rural water supply finance in Zambia and support analysis of SWAp in Mozambique Develop formula based allocations for rural water supply finance in Zambia and support analysis of SWAp in Mozambique Development of allocations mechanisms under emerging sector decentralization reforms in Kenya Development of allocations mechanisms under emerging sector decentralization reforms in Kenya

12 12 But, there may be considerable country level variation Expenditure to meet the MDG water target as a share of GDP – 2002 From Mehta, Fugelsnes and Virjee: Financing the MDGs on water and sanitation: what will it take? WSP-AF, Increasing GDP/capita Higher standards possible? Rethink service standards? Increasing GDP per capita Rethink allocation principles?

13 13 Using SWIFT to Improve Sectoral Allocations

14 14 What does it take to have successful SWAps and Sector Programs? A conducive environment for reform A conducive environment for reform Lead role by national ministries of planning and finance and good coordination by WSS linked ministries Lead role by national ministries of planning and finance and good coordination by WSS linked ministries Role of development partners Role of development partners Support, recognition and legitimacy to country- owned PRSP and MTEF processes Support, recognition and legitimacy to country- owned PRSP and MTEF processes Support capacity building and development of tools for sector programs Support capacity building and development of tools for sector programs

15 15 Outline 1.Global trends – and the nature of financing challenge… 2.National level – Financing mechanisms and tools for improved sector governance – SWAps and Sector Programs 3.Municipal and community level – Financing mechanisms and tools to facilitate leveraging of local resources

16 16 Potential Leveraging Opportunities To tap the domestic finance markets for additonality and improved effectiveness of investments To tap the domestic finance markets for additonality and improved effectiveness of investments Continued emphasis on cost recovery in the water supply sector makes this possible Continued emphasis on cost recovery in the water supply sector makes this possible Market rigour helps increase sustainability Market rigour helps increase sustainability Ensure that these approaches also contribute to further development of the financial sector itself Ensure that these approaches also contribute to further development of the financial sector itself For example, new business lines in water projects for micro-finance and domestic finance institutions For example, new business lines in water projects for micro-finance and domestic finance institutions

17 17 Two Market Segments Small water (and sanitation) service providers – community managed and small private local providers – funded through micro-finance by developing a business line in small water projects Small water (and sanitation) service providers – community managed and small private local providers – funded through micro-finance by developing a business line in small water projects Medium to large utilities – urban centers and small towns – possibility of funding though intermediation (domestic financing institutions) and direct market access (bonds or equity ) Medium to large utilities – urban centers and small towns – possibility of funding though intermediation (domestic financing institutions) and direct market access (bonds or equity )

18 18 Community-Managed Piped Water Projects (CWPs) in rural/peri-urban areas Community-Managed Piped Water Projects (CWPs) in rural/peri-urban areas Rehabilitation/augmentation of existing projects Rehabilitation/augmentation of existing projects New/greenfield projects New/greenfield projects Key Innovations Key Innovations Use of market based microfinance to pre-finance community-managed infrastructure Use of market based microfinance to pre-finance community-managed infrastructure Risk sharing by Community Water Projects and CWP employed Project Engineer Risk sharing by Community Water Projects and CWP employed Project Engineer Planned scaling up in Kenya and other countries Planned scaling up in Kenya and other countries Micro-finance and OBA Pilot Project in Kenya

19 19 Eligibility Assessment Loan Appraisal Implementation Post implementation Project construction assisted by construction project manager Business development services support project operations and strategic planning Community water project submits required documents to meet the eligibility requirements Finance institution appraises loan application; Athi WSB signs a Service Provision Agreement Independent assessment of project viability by support organization PROJECT STAGES Revised Community Project Cycle

20 20 Sector reforms to ensure Sector reforms to ensure Legitimacy for small water providers Legitimacy for small water providers Policy framework that provides financing space Policy framework that provides financing space Regulatory framework to ensure risk mitigation Regulatory framework to ensure risk mitigation Reasonably well-developed MFI sector – and a keycredible partner Reasonably well-developed MFI sector – and a keycredible partner Public resources to support initial high transaction costs, develop credit assessment tools and address affordability concerns due to financial market constraints Public resources to support initial high transaction costs, develop credit assessment tools and address affordability concerns due to financial market constraints What does it take to have microfinance lending for small water projects?

21 21 Linking Utility Creditworthiness with Reforms

22 22 Assessing country potential – An illustration Macro, financial sector development Viability of water utilities, municipalities, small service providers High High Adapted from IFC – Municipal Fund presentation to the SAR Decentralization, May 2005 India South Africa Senegal Philippines (Note: country positions on chart are illustrative only) Mexico

23 23 China urban South Africa Columbia Brazil Mozambique China Rural India Sri Lanka Senegal Tanzania Kenya Urban Zambia Bolivia Angola Cambodia Ghana Peru Ethiopia Russia Dialogue between bankers and utilities Capacity building – TA, performance management contracts Strengthening regulatory environment Pilot transactions – cherry picking new MDF models with private sector Maturity of sub-sovereign/ WSS utility borrowers LOWHIGH Maturity of the financial markets and the macro environment LOW HIGH LOW Capacity building – borrowers: business planning, tariff setting, TA Remove institutional local level Support development of market-based intermediaries Review policy constraints and launch/ support policy dialogue Support development of transparency, dialogue and democracy Increase pool of funds – long term bonds, guarantees (partial, total), pension funds Stimulate market growth – support transactions, develop a transactions advice market, domestic credit enhancement (guarantees) Reform non-market based instruments Continue to enhance utility performance Consumer voice and dialogue Policy reform/ institutional development Financial market enhancement Transaction support Capacity building – borrowers Reform/ institutional development (local) – ie use of SSIPs Development of financial intermediaries Transaction support Information sharing – benchmarking, credit assessment, WSICA

24 24 Facilitating domestic market borrowing Facilitating domestic market borrowing improving utility creditworthiness through improving internal management and external policy improving utility creditworthiness through improving internal management and external policy benchmarking utility performance and credit rating benchmarking utility performance and credit rating Credit enhancement mechanisms for risk mitigation Credit enhancement mechanisms for risk mitigation Greater interaction and common vocabulary among players in the water and financial sectors – commonly understood credit assessment tools Greater interaction and common vocabulary among players in the water and financial sectors – commonly understood credit assessment tools By addressing supply side constraints (development of bankable opportunities) By addressing supply side constraints (development of bankable opportunities) What is needed to leverage local resources?

25 25 Thank You


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