Presentation on theme: "International Narcotics Control Board Briefing for Permanent Missions to the United Nations (New York) Professor Hamid Ghodse President International Narcotics."— Presentation transcript:
International Narcotics Control Board Briefing for Permanent Missions to the United Nations (New York) Professor Hamid Ghodse President International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)
Historical overview 1909 Shanghai Conference 1912 Convention 1925 Agreement; 1925 Convention: Permanent Central Board established 1931 Convention: Drug Supervisory Body established, 1931 Agreement 1936 Convention
Historical overview (contd.) 1948 Protocol 1953 Protocol 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs: International Narcotics Control Board established 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1988 Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances
Role of INCB Overall treaty function: To monitor and promote treaty compliance Quasi judicial function SINGLE CONVENTION on NARCOTIC DRUGS, 1961 UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES 1971 UNITED NATIONS UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST ILLICIT TRAFFIC IN NARCOTIC DRUGS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES 1988 UNITED NATIONS To encourage dialogue with Governments
Role of INCB Work focuses on six main aspects : ensure that cultivation, production, manufacture and utilization of drugs are limited to medical and scientific purposes ensure availability of drugs for medical and scientific purposes identify weaknesses in the implementation of the international drug control conventions and suggest remedial action prevent illicit cultivation, production, manufacture, trafficking and use of drugs evaluate and recommend chemicals for possible international control monitor chemicals and prevent their diversion into illicit channels
Composition of the Board 13 members - 3 nominated by WHO - 10 nominated by Governments elected by ECOSOC for a period of 5 years serve in their personal capacity not as government representatives
Qualifications of INCB members Article 9, paragraph 2, 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs – Members of the Board shall be persons who, by their competence, impartiality and disinterestedness, will command general confidence.
Impartiality of INCB members Impartiality -central principle –During their term of office they shall not hold any position or engage in any activity which would be liable to impair their impartiality in the exercise of their functions. Article 9, paragraph 2, 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs
Impartiality of INCB members ECOSOC/Governments should ensure that principle of impartiality is adhered to at the time of election INCB has established internal procedure to ensure impartiality during term of office of Board member
Incompatibilities Member of Government Representation of Government at international forums on drug-related issues any private or public activity impairing impartiality
Status of adherence to the international drug control treaties (as at 1 January 2005) SINGLE CONVENTION on NARCOTIC DRUGS, 1961 UNITED NATIONS 180 parties CONVENTION ON PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES 1971 UNITED NATIONS 175 parties UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST ILLICIT TRAFFIC IN NARCOTIC DRUGS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES 1988 UNITED NATIONS 170 parties
INCB secretariat Located in Vienna within UNODC Responsible only to the Board on matters of substance Acts on behalf of the Board
INCB missions 2004 Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Denmark Indonesia Israel Madagascar Mauritania Pakistan Portugal South Africa Sweden Thailand Timor Leste
Dialogue with Governments Correspondence Meetings Country missions Technical visits
INCB reports Annual Report of the Board Technical reports Narcotic DrugsPsychotropic SubstancesPrecursors
INCB reports The annual report Analyses global drug control situation Draws attention of Governments to any weaknesses in national drug control and treaty compliance Suggests possible improvements at both national and international levels.
INCB Annual Report Three chapters: Chapter I: Review of topical issue Chapter II: Operation of the international drug control system Chapter III: Analysis of the world situation
Chapter I Integration of supply and demand reduction strategies: Moving beyond the balanced approach
Availability (supply) influences demand for illicit drugs Price Social and economic factors Prevention and education efforts Illicit drug markets
Central national authority with balanced representation of supply and demand reduction agencies Training Research and analysis Compile effective experiences of supply and demand strategies Recommendations
Focus interdiction efforts Alternative development Combine street-level law enforcement activities with other demand reduction activities Provide alternatives to incarceration for non-violent drug abusers Sustained education programmes Recommendations (contd.)
Chapter II Implementation of the international drug control treaties
Public incitement to drug abuse Article 3, paragraph 1 c (iii) of 1988 Convention requires parties to establish as criminal offences: publicly inciting or inducing others, by any means, to commit any of the offences established in accordance with this article or to use narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances illicitly;
Afghanistan Overall drug situation in Afghanistan appears to have deteriorated; Illicit drug crop cultivation and related activities at an unprecedented levels; Control of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances for medical and scientific purposes remains inadequate; Article 14, 1961 Conventions remains invoked until the situation improves.
Dutch policy on cannabis Crucial and significant change in Dutch cannabis policy; Recognition that coffee shops are not blameless in the maintenance of the illicit drug trade and are not satisfactory in terms of suppressing drug-related crime. Important step in the right direction Recognition of health and social problems associated with cannabis abuse, cultivation and trafficking is important for the Netherlands, Europe and beyond.
Other important issues Control of cannabis used for medical or scientific purposes Provisions regarding travellers under treatment involving the use of medical preparations containing controlled substances Use of narcotic drugs manufactured from seized materials Medical prescription of heroin
Chapter III Analysis of the World Situation
Analysis of the world situation (1) AFRICA Abuse of cannabis remains an issue of concern but trafficking and abuse of cocaine, heroin and amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) also continue to rise; Uncontrolled sale of medications containing internationally controlled substances persists in many African countries; Most African countries have no adequate legislative framework or administrative mechanisms to address the drug problem.
Analysis of the world situation (2) AMERICAS North America remains the worlds largest drug market but drug abuse has declined significantly in the United States; Eight major international drug trafficking organizations were dismantled in 2004 and the operations of 7 others were weakened; In Central America, youth gangs are involved in violent crime and drug trafficking; In South America, the total area under illicit coca bush cultivation has declined for the third consecutive year.
Analysis of the world situation (3) ASIA Illicit drug production and related activities have reached unprecedented levels in Afghanistan and threaten the stability of the country; Illicit opium production continues to decrease in Myanmar and Lao Peoples Democratic Republic; Significant increase in seizures of MDMA (Ecstasy) in East and South-East Asia.
Analysis of the world situation (4) EUROPE Cannabis abuse has shown an upward trend in almost all countries in Europe over the past decade; After three successive years of bumper harvests of opium poppy in Afghanistan, heroin trafficking has regained some momentum in Europe; Abuse of cocaine has increased over the past five years, with a tendency towards stabilization; Availability of treatment for drug addicts has increased steadily over the past few years.
Analysis of the world situation (5) OCEANIA In Australia, heroin abuse has significantly declined; Considerable increase in the illicit manufacture and abuse of ATS in Australia and New Zealand; Pacific island countries continue to be vulnerable to drug transit trafficking and the abuse of ATS.
Report of the International Narcotics Control Board for 2004 End of presentation