Presentation on theme: "Nationalist Movements Around the World"— Presentation transcript:
1 Nationalist Movements Around the World CHAPTER 294/22/2017CHAPTER 29Nationalist Movements Around the WorldSection 1: The British Empire in the Postwar EraSection 2: Turkey, Persia, and AfricaSection 3: Unrest in ChinaSection 4: Imperialism in JapanSection 5: Latin America Between the Wars
2 The British Empire in the Postwar Era Section 1:The British Empire in the Postwar EraObjectives:Identify what caused the end of British rule in Egypt and the Middle East.Describe how the people of India pursued independence.Explain the British response to calls for change in other parts of the empire.
3 Egypt and the Middle East Section 1:The British Empire in the Postwar EraEgypt and the Middle EastAfter WW1 many of Britain’s colonies started demanding independenceIndependence for Egypt – Anglo-Egyptian TreatyLead by the Wadf party…finally got independence in 1922 but left military forces thereTo guard Suez Canal and Egypt.
6 The Suez Canal is a man-made sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Opened in November 1869, it allows water transportation between Europe and Asia without navigating around Africa. It contains no locks; seawater flows freely through the canal into the Great Bitter Lake from both the Mediterranean Sea in the north and the Red Sea in the south, replacing evaporation.[
7 Anglo-Egyptian Treaty Finally due to other things going on England releases Egypt in 1936…. This is known as the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty
8 Middle EastBritain would let Transjordan and Iraq be free but keep a strong military presence in them.Since 1800 Jewish people had been establishing small colonies in Palestine. The idea of making Palestine the Jewish homeland known as ZIONISM… eventually BG would get behind this movement and this became known as the Balfour DeclarationThey also wanted to create an Arab state
9 Nazi’s growingHowever with the Nazi party growing the British saw more Jewish rushing to Palestine but had to limit them because they wanted it to be a Jewish/Arabian countryEventually BG saw this wasn’t working but had to stop focusing on this problem with the start of WW2 comming
10 Translation Do water and oil mix? Do cultures mix that well? Could the cast of Jersey shore be moved to Mexico, Ireland or even Ohio and function the same?
11 India GB’s largest colony… Some Indian’s wanted independece while some didn’t. and some of GB wanted independece for India… and some didn’t.
12 The Independence Movement in India Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, 1940sBorn2 October 1869) Porbandar, Kathiawar Agency, British IndiaDied30 January 1948 (aged 78) New Delhi, Union of IndiaMohandas Gandhi – spiritual and political leader, opposed violence, taught passive resistance
13 Mohandas GandhiPassive resistance = urged people to gain independence by nonviolently cooperate with the government.How?Boycotting British goods and refusing to pay taxes.Eventually in 1935 BG allowed India to gain representatives but still controlled all aspects of life.
15 The Commonwealth Expands Favorable trade agreements among Commonwealth member nations helped their economies even though countries such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa were now autonomous.Translation these colonies became responsible for their own foreign policies…basically like their own countries ad agreed to work with and trade with GB. Thus making the British empire as strong as ever.
16 SECTION 1 Passive Resistance British Reaction boycotts restricted civil libertiesnonpayment of taxesdisrupted political gatherings
17 SECTION 1Question:What was the British reaction to the Indian independence movement’s policies of passive resistance?
18 Turkey, Persia, and Africa Section 2:Turkey, Persia, and AfricaObjectives:Explain Turkey’s development into a modern republic.Identify the ideas regarding modern nationalism adopted by Persia.Describe the effect of World War I on African attitudes toward colonialism.
19 Turkey Under KamalAfter WW1 the Ottoman Empire was taken off the map. All that was left of this once mighty empire was the country of Turkey
20 Turkey Under KemalTook over the council of the country to become the leader of Turkey.He helped run Greeks in 1922Made the “Republic of Turkey” and became the first president of the single party country.He made people be western/modern. He prohibited traditional wardrobe and made people take surnames.Helped establish schools and replaced the Turkish alphabet with the Latin alphabet.Allowed woman to vote and take office.
21 Modernizing Persia Section 2: Persia was never under control of the Ottoman Empire but instead the Qajar dynasty.200 years later by 1900 BG & Russia started to have a strong say over the country.
22 Reza KhanIn 1921 Reza Khan was an officer in the Persian army with strong nationalist feeling. After some time he was able to take control of the government and would take the title….Reza Shah Phlavi…. Basically making him into the king
23 Overall he wanted to modernize the country and set it free from its past traditions. He built roads and hospitals and established university. He also focused on improving means of communication and introducing new industry to the country. In 1935 the area formally known as Persia would be reintroduced
24 So let me take a minute to reintroduce myself…. My name is Only in Iran…. Now you’re in Iran, These streets will make you feel brand new, The lights will inspire you, Lets here it for Iran, Iran, Iran
25 IranIran called itself a limited monarchy but Reza Shah held most of the power. He controlled the press and suppressed political parties.He was able to balance his relationship between GB and Russia. Thus making his new SECRET BFF Germany.This alliance would eventually become his downfall.
26 Africans call for change Many Africans had been used to fight in wars that weren't theirs. However this experience wasn’t all bad. They were able to see the world for the firs time many leaving their villages for the first time. And thus when they returned home from fighting for BG or the French they expected to be rewarded…. And they weren't.
28 Africans call for change When they returned home they came with new ideas about nationalism and freedom. In additional missionaries had been teaching them about ways of the west and the joys of equality. They soon found themselves looking at a large contradiction on how they were told to be living their lives and how they should.
29 Time to change the gameBy the 1930’s the majority of Africans were demanding their independence rather than just reform in the country. The problem had been ignored too long and their feelings continued to grow.
30 Taking changeA young group of young educated men would soon take change and help move from the anti-colonial movement. They followed Gandhi's example of non violence against their colonial rules.Once again the idea of peaceful protest was able to render them support from around the world.
31 SECTION 2 Turkey, Persia, and Africa Experience Result World War I ideas about freedom and nationalismcolonial educationideas about equality and self-ruleracism and political repressionwork toward reform and independence
32 SECTION 2Turkey, Persia, and AfricaQuestion:What were some changes in African attitudes towards colonialism?
33 Unrest in China Objectives of the day: Section 3: Describe how resentment of foreign interests led to the downfall of the Qing dynasty.Identify the ways the nationalist movement in China changed under the leadership of Sun Yixian and Chiang Kai-shek.Explain the development of communism in China.
34 The End of the Qing Dynasty Unrest in ChinaThe End of the Qing DynastyIn 1900 France, Germany, GB Japan & Russia had spheres of influence in China. As a response to this the US suggested the OPEN DOOR POLICY The OPD suggested all nations have equal rights to trade in China.
35 China moving west? Then back Qing was the emperor of China. He hoped to reduce foreign influence by revitalizing his government and modernizing China. The country’s conservative leaders were offended by these cultural changes and thus his aunt Empress Dowager Tz’u-his. The emperor was imprisoned and she ruled for 10 years.Tz’u-his = Tootsie
36 Boxer RebellionThe Boxer Rebellion, was an anti-imperialism, anti-Christian movement by the “Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists" in China between 1898 and The uprising took place in response to imperialist expansion, growth of international influences, and missionary evangelism. In 1898 localorganizations emerged in Shandongas the result of the imperialist expansion aswell as other internal issues such as thestate fiscal crisis and natural disasters.Later, the Qing Dynasty attempted toexpel Western influence from China.Under the slogan "Support the Qing,destroy the foreign“. They attackedforeigners throughout China
37 Boxers destroyed everything…churches, railways…basically anything western. Thus the boxers chased immigrants all the way to Beijing. Things got so bad GB, France, Germany, Russia, Japan, & the US sent in troops to put in down in 1900.
38 Overthrow of the dynasty Chinese Nationalist Party led by Sun Yixian wanted constitutional government, civil liberties, modernizationThe boxer rebellion failed to get rid of the foreigners. Yet did create a nationalist attitude to the Chinese people- especially the young and educated. Thus ironically the only way to do this was with western ideas. People would soon be happier with civil liberties protected by a bill of rights.After ruling 268 years the Quing dynasty came to an abrupt end.
39 In 1912 China becomes a republic Forming the Chinese RepublicIn 1912 China becomes a republicFocused on 3 “principals of the people”1. political unification and an end to foreign influence2.a gradual change to democratic government with full personal liberties and rights for all Chinese people3.econimic improvements that included industrialization and a more equal distribution of land.
40 The Growth of Chinese Communism Unrest in ChinaThe Growth of Chinese CommunismIn 1921 a group of intellectuals met and founded the Chinese communist party.
41 Read last paragraph on 576.The Long March began the ascent to power of Mao Zedong, whose leadership during the retreat gained him the support of the members of the party. The bitter struggles of the Long March, which was completed by only one-tenth of the force that left Jiangxi, would come to represent a significant episode in the history of the Communist Party of China, and would seal the personal prestige of Mao and his supporters as the new leaders of the party in the following decades.
42 The Growth of Chinese Communism Section 3:Unrest in ChinaThe Growth of Chinese CommunismThe Long March – Communists marched on foot to set up new government in YenanMao Zedong – led peasants in Communist army (Red Army)
43 SECTION 3 Unrest in China imperialist powers trade in China Qing downfallimperialist powers trade in ChinaQing emperor imprisonedTz’u-hsi supports Boxer RebellionKuomintang formedforeigners put down rebellion; take more control in Chinarevolts lead to end of Qing
44 Imperialism in Japan Objectives: Section 4: Explain the Japanese pursuit of expansion that began in the late 1800s.Describe the changes in Japanese life during rapid modernization.Identify the effects of the military on Japan during the 1920s and the 1930s.
45 Imperialism in Japan Japan Japan had become a modern industrial and military power. Japan was now able to start a policy of expansion in the late 1800’s.They wanted to extend their influence for 2 reasonsJapan wanted newterritory for rawmaterials and marketswanted to show theirprogress offJapan
46 Korea free in 1885Korea had just won its independence in 1895 yet Japan still dominated the Korean government.The Russo-Japanese War – Russia and Japan fought over Manchuria and Korea
47 1902 Anglo-Japanese Alliance Fearing was with Russia with imminent GB & Japan made an alliance to protect the best interests of China. At the time this was a huge honor for Japan because GB was still seen as the world power
48 Oh no they didn’t…. Yes they did Without declaring war Japan attacked and badly damaged the Russian fleet at Port Author in Manchuria.Soon after Japan would take over Korea.In response to this the battle of Mukden took place. 330,000 Russians vs. 270,000 Japanese. In a stunning victory Japan shocked and continued their assault by engaging in a naval battle. The Japanese stunned the world destroying the Russian Baltic fleet.
49 Treaty of PortsmouthThe Japanese were now winning the Russo-Japanese War but the cost of the war in addition to the huge loss of lives was becoming too much. Thus they asked US President Teddy Roosevelt to help mediate an end to the conflict.Thus late in 1905 both sides signed the treaty and the war ended.As a result Japan annexed Korea in 1910 and no world power protested.
50 Japanese Expansion How Why Alliance with GB Support against Russia War with RussiaTake Russian control of KoreaTreaty of PortsmouthEnd of war, gave Japan control in China & KoreaThe Treaty of Portsmouth –ended Russo-Japanese War; forced respect for Japan’s strength
51 Problems of Modernization Situation Alert!Caution Big Player!Problems of ModernizationWithin 50 years Japan had changed from a agricultural nation to one of the biggest international players on the planet.
52 Affect of becoming a player New medicine, cities got bigger… eventually all land that could be cultivated would be cultivated….Sounds simple only if you know what the word cultivated means….
53 Japan grew too fast too quick Japan grew up way too fast. They ran out of food and other supplies and life was becoming hard on people…thus many Japanese moved to Korea, China and even Hawaii. Thousands even came to the USAThe people who stayed behind did not know their identity. Some wanted to be farmers while others new to be an industrial country people had to work in factories
54 Problems of Modernization Section 4:Imperialism in JapanProblems of ModernizationIncreasing population – higher standards of living, medical care; emigrationEconomic trouble – industrialization forced Japan to import raw materials to compete, faced high tariffs on international tradeSocial tensions – labor unions, new ideas and arts, work roles shifted
55 Growing Influence of the Military Section 4:Imperialism in JapanGrowing Influence of the MilitaryMilitarism – military needs, values, and goals shape nation’s policies and lifestylesEventually grew to have such a strong military and Navy they were able to create a Monroe Doctrine of the East
56 SECTION 4 Imperialism in Japan Japanese Expansion How Why support against Russiaalliance with Great Britaintake Russian control in Koreawar with Russiaend of war, gave Japan control in China and KoreaTreaty of Portsmouth
57 SECTION 4Imperialism in JapanQuestion:What were some of the methods and reasons for Japanese expansion?
58 Latin America Between the Wars Section 5:Latin America Between the WarsObjectives:Describe the significant changes in Latin American nations after World War I.Explain why authoritarian regimes gained power in many Latin American nations.Describe the relationship between Latin America and the United States.
59 Economic, Social, and Political Developments Latin America Between the WarsEconomic, Social, and Political DevelopmentsEconomic changes – industrializationPreviously main exports consisted of wheat, sugar, coffee, and fruits.Oil would be foundand become veryimportant to Mexico,Venezuela, Peru,Bolivia & ColumbiaMost wereowned byAmericancompanies
60 Social changes – encouraged immigration from Europe since 1800’s With the new middle class so came the ideas for labor unions. Strikes were common and crippling to many business.In some areas strikes and labor unionswere outlawed.
61 Political changes – political parties backed by middle class
62 Economic Crisis and Authoritarianism Section 5:Latin America Between the WarsEconomic Crisis and AuthoritarianismThe effects of the Great Depression – economies faltered, unemployment spreadSince people in the USA couldn’t buy products such as coffee and sugar other areas around the world would soon suffer too.Authoritarian regimes – military rulers suppressed dissent, granted favors to loyal supporters
63 Relations with the United States Section 5:Latin America Between the WarsRelations with the United StatesThe Cuban test – Good Neighbor Policy stressed cooperation and noninterference in Latin American affairs. This would be tested by overthrow of Cuban dictatorInsert Castro Falls
64 At the Pan American Conference the US pledged not to interfere in the internal or external affairs of LA nations. It even recalled army units that had occupied Haiti since 1915Cuba had several incidents but finally had a leader which the US trusted and thus canceled the Platt amendment in 1934.
65 Economic nationalism – Mexico nationalized oil industry to settle dispute between workers and oil companies…. As a result Mexico would nationalize (gov took over oil companies). This made the US & GB madAs a result President Cardenas came to a compromise with the two counties on March 13th 1938This date is seen as the date of Mexican economic dependence….. So 60plus years ago…..
66 authoritarian regimes SECTION 5Latin America Between the Warseconomic crisismilitary coup d’ étatsauthoritarian regimespolitical crisis
67 SECTION 5Latin America Between the WarsQuestion:What major factors led to the rise of authoritarian regimes in Latin America?
68 Chapter Wrap-Up CHAPTER 29 1. How did the military affect Japan’s government?2. How did cultural issues affect nationalistic movements in Africa?3. How did economic issues influence political events in Latin America?