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Haroon Bhorat Development Policy Research Unit, University of Cape Town website: Youth.

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Presentation on theme: "Haroon Bhorat Development Policy Research Unit, University of Cape Town website: Youth."— Presentation transcript:

1 Haroon Bhorat Development Policy Research Unit, University of Cape Town e-mail: website: Youth Employment Issues in Post- apartheid South Africa

2 Population of Working Age, 16-64: Labour Market Status by Age Cohort

3 Ratio of Number of Unemployed to Employed, By Age

4 Unemployment Rates, by Race, Gender and Location

5 Youth Unemployment Rates by Education Level

6 Proportion of Unemployed Who have or Have Not Worked Before, By Age Category

7 Youth Employment Interventions in South Africa In SA Context: Youth employment strategy is national employment strategy. Large quantum of policy interventions aimed at youth employment Demand- and supply-side coupled with short- versus long-run.

8 Skills Development National Skills Development Strategy (NSDS) Key Players: NSA; SETAs; NSF Learnerships are medium for training Yue Unit cost of training Learnerships small proportion of total training expenditure through NSDS NSDS not centrally focused on the unemployed Impact on employment creation arguably fairly low.

9 Effect of SDA on Employment

10 ePWPs Continuation of PWPs under the RDP Expansion with aim of 1 million jobs over next five years Link into the National Youth Service Initiative Governments most high profile response to unemployment crisis Provision of public assets and services to poor Suffers the standard difficulties of PWPs: high unit cost of job ratios; minimal skills transfer; low long-run employment multipliers

11 Labour Market Information DoL has Labour Centres designed to narrow mismatch Info asymmetry not efficiently solved by state: hence substitute providers Example: SAGDA Community Centres to access youth Centres only as good as the quality of labour supply

12 SMME Support Extends from entrepreneurship training to provision of finance Key player here: Umsombovu Youth Fund (UYF) Formal banking system not responsive, hence a substitute market created by state intervention 90% repayment rate 10-20 000 loans provided thus far

13 Education for Employment Improvement of Schooling system in terms of resource access AND quality of outputs: Systemic Evaluation Results not encouraging Higher Education: not encouraging on number of employability criteria FETs need to improve as exit options for early leavers.

14 Standardised Grade 3 School Tests, By Province: 2003

15 Importance of Outside Training Sources

16 Youth and Indirect Access to Social Security

17 Lessons and Impressions Exhaustive on institutions, frameworks: less so on implementation Risk of institutional overlap Emphasis on horizontal spread in policy? High probability of not getting at most vulnerable of the youth Importance of social security system as indirect source for poverty alleviation amongst youth Limited resources: Limit the Policy Focus Mismatch between labour demand trends and ss charac. of youth Elements of a national public service as part solution for graduate unemployed are apparent Ultimately, the long-run solution is all- inclusive and higher growth levels

18 Constraints on Growth Labour Market Constraints High concentration ratios (notably in financial and banking services) High Incidence of Violent Crime Challenge of Income Inequality (social instability) User cost of capital high relative to other LDCs

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