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CHAPTER 17 The Hypothalamus: Vegetative and Endocrine Imbalance

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 17 The Hypothalamus: Vegetative and Endocrine Imbalance"— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 17 The Hypothalamus: Vegetative and Endocrine Imbalance

2 General Features of Hypothalamic Function
Controls visceral activity Output of emotions from limbic system Neural and endocrine functions exerted via axonal pathways and vascular system Functions include self-preservation (such as eating and drinking) and preservation of the species (reproduction) Involved in water balance, food intake, endocrine control, reproduction, sleep, behavior, output of endocrine system

3 Hypothalamus: Inferior and Midsagittal Views

4 Coronal Sections Through the Hypothalamus

5 Hypothalamus: General Anatomical Features
Very small area of brain, 4 g or about 0.3% of total Lamina terminalis rostral border; mamillary bodies at caudal border Divided into 3 regions in rostral caudal axis: anterior/supraoptic middle/tuberal posterior/mamillary Preoptic area rostral extends to septal region

6 Hypothalamus Has 3 Sagittal Zones
Lateral Zone lateral to fornix diffuse neurons medial forebrain bundle connecting HT, septum and brainstem MFB also functions in reward autonomic functions Medial and Periventricular Zones are divided up into several nuclei

7 Hypothalamic Nuclei By Region
Anterior region preoptic supraoptic paraventricular anterior suprachiasmatic Middle dorsomedial ventromedial arcuate/tuberal Posterior mamillary posterior

8 Neural Inputs to the Hypothalamus
Most neural inputs from limbic system: hippocampus via fornix amygdala via ventral amygdaloid path orbitofrontal cortex midline thalamic nuc retina medial forebrain bundle connects septal area, lateral HT and brainstem reticular formation sends sensory info

9 Humoral Inputs to the Hypothalamus
Humoral input via vasculature glucose, hormones blood osmolality and temperature Circumventricular organs detect changes in CSF and relay info to HT

10 Neural Outputs of the Hypothalamus
Mamillary bodies to anterior thalamic nucleus (hippocampus projects to mamillary bodies via fornix) Midbrain reticular formation from medial forebrain bundle and mamillotegmental tract Amygdaloid nuclei via ventral amygdaloid path Brainstem and spinal cord autonomic centers both directly and via reticular formation in the midbrain and rostral pons near periaqueductal gray and floor of 4th ventricle lateral part of the reticular formation through the pons and medulla

11 Humoral Outputs of the Hypothalamus
Direct secretion of hormones into the circulation Indirect by secretion of releasing factors into the hypophysial portal system that travel to the anterior pituitary

12 Direct Hormonal Secretion
Magnocellular neurons in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei Axons project to posterior pituitary Release vasopressin and oxytocin Vasopressin or anti-diuretic hormone acts on kidney to increase water resorption Oxytocin stimulates smooth muscle contraction in uterus and mammary gland Both also thought to be involved in other neural functions such as pair bonding, maternal & sexual behavior, and learning

13 Indirect Hormonal Secretion
Small neurons in mediobasal HT have axons projecting to median eminence Vessels in ME travel to anterior pituitary Hypothalamic regulatory hormones (releasing factors) are released into extravascular space, enter vessels and are carried to the anterior pituitary Control release of ant pit hormones including ACTH, growth hormone, FSH, LH, TSH, and prolactin

14 Hypothalamic Functions 1
Body temperature: heat loss center in anterior HT (preoptic area)stimulates sweating and peripheral vasodilation, lesions cause hyperthermia; heat gain center in posterior HT stimulates cutaneous vasoconstriction, piloerection, shivering; lesions cause poikilothermy Food intake: ventromedial and paraventricular nuclei are satiety centers, lesion causes obesity; lateral HT stimulates food and water intake

15 Hypothalamic Functions 2
Reproduction and sexual function: preoptic and ventromedial nuclei, estrogen and testosterone sensitive neurons control releasing factor neurons in mediobasal HT Tuberal and arcuate nuclei also involved in endocrine function Sleep/wake cycle: suprachiasmatic nuc is biological clock; preoptic nuc can initiate sleep; lat HT can change cortical arousal; post HT lesion can cause coma or impaired arousal

16 Hypothalamus Functions 3
Emotions and behavior: ventromedial lesions can cause viciousness/rage Posterior HT stimulates sympathetic functions Anterior HT stimulates parasympathetic functions Mamillary nuclei: recent memory


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