Presentation on theme: "Employment strategies for Urban Youth"— Presentation transcript:
1Employment strategies for Urban Youth Richard Curtain
2Outline of paper Why Invest in Young People PRSPs and Young People Programs for youthRole of labour market intermediariesYouth entrepreneurships – opportunities and limits
3Biographical noteCompleted PhD at The Australian National University in with a thesis on rural urban migration and urban unemployment in Papua New Guinea.Visited Kenya for three weeks in 1979.As a consultant since 1993 specialising in public policyreports on young people at risk in the labour marketIn 1998, he was part of a five member team that evaluated emergency job creation schemes in Indonesia.Since 2000, completed several reports for the UN on youth employment.
4Public policy approach a realistic discussion of opportunities must address not just the question of what should be done but also who should do it and why it is not already being done.
52. Why invest in young people? Seven reasons or arguments offeredGiving young people their fair share of resourcesMDGsYoung people as vulnerableEconomic benefits of investing in young peopleLong term benefits availableYoung people as a liability
6Young people and the Millennium Development Goals Five MDGs cover activities in which mostly young people are engaged.education attainment,gender balance in education,improved maternal health,combating HIV/AIDS and other diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis anddecent employment opportunities for young people.
7MDG 8 Just who is responsible for achieving this target is not clear. Youth employment is seen as a by-product of Goal 8 of developing a Global Partnership for Development to ‘develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youthJust who is responsible for achieving this target is not clear.
8Other arguments Economic benefits of investing in young people Young people as vulnerableLong term benefits availableDemographic bonus or dividend.
9Young people as a liability A greater chance of civil conflict for a poor country has also been linked to its young people’s lack of education and access to jobs.Countries whose young people have low levels of participation in education are more likely, other things being equal, to be engaged in civil strife.
10PRSPs and youth employment Cambodia’s PRSP (December 2002)Republic of Djibouti (May 2004)Cameroon’s PRSP (August 2003)Zambia’s PRSP (March 2002, p 64)The PRSP of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (March 2002)Republic of Senegal’s PRSP (May 2002)
114. Programs for urban youth Neglect of young people in the pastWorld Bank projects for urban youthProjects highlighted by the Economic Commission for Africa
12Information on cost effective initiatives is scarce In developing countries, there is very little evaluation of the effectiveness of existing youth programs. Where reliable estimates of effectiveness exist, the measurement is often over too short a period of time to be useful. In other cases, there is reliable information only on one or two effects of an investment ... Information on other effects, including many of those needed to obtain estimates of social benefits, is often lacking. This is clearly a major gap in the information base on investments in youth.Knowles James C and Behrman, Jere R; 2003, p23.
13Programs for young people that have a broader impact formal schooling where it is to improve the quality of schooling in general or through targeted scholarship programs aimed at individualsadult basic education and literacy targeted to adolescents,selected investments in school-based health services such as micronutrient supplements, andinvestments designed to reduce the use of tobacco products.
145. A range of policy options A youth friendly labour marketproviding ample opportunities for young people to be trained within enterprises under wage arrangements and employment contracts that encourage their recruitment and training;providing ample opportunities for young people to gain experience of paid work while they are students; andlimiting the restrictions that are attached to hiring them.
15Some key considerations related to a youth employment strategy Promote youth entrepreneurship as a viable optionLink efforts to promote youth employment to information and communication technologiesWork through private/public partnerships where possibleTarget the poorPut young people in charge.
16ICT as a job creatorThe potential of information and communication technologiesChallenges facing the use of ICT for young entrepreneurs
176. Use of labour market intermediaries or brokers Table 1: Proportion of employment gained through employment services agencies, EU 1999, USA, and Australia 1999
18Group training companies Primary employer of apprentices and trainees, and then arrange placements or rotations with ‘host’ employers.Host employers pay an all-up fee to the group training company for the ‘hire’ of the apprentice or traineeTheir other role is to organise complementary off-the- job, classroom-based training with registered training providers
19Employment and training outcomes Apprenticeship completion rates are high relative to other forms of education and training.Over 90 percent of group training apprentices and trainees who successfully completed their training achieved a successful employment outcome.This outcome consisted of either retention as an ongoing employee by their host employer or alternatively, finding work with a new employer in an unsubsidised job within three months after completing their apprenticeship or traineeship. .
20Employer satisfaction Table 2: Host employer levels of satisfaction with group training companies, Australia, 2001
21Group training – key lessons Like apprenticeship systems in general, group training companies are not necessarily easy to transplant to other countries.A range of supporting institutions and funding from governments neededThe idea is a valuable one, even if the implementation is more complex than the simple application of a template would suggest.
227. Entrepreneurship and urban employment generation Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) research 2002 and 200340 countries surveyedRepresentative national surveys
23Gap between potential and actual prevalence of entrepreneurship In South Africa, for example, just a quarter of the population (26 per cent) they had the ‘knowledge, skill and experience required to start a new business.’Adults who believed they had the requisite skills were eight times more likely to become involved in starting a businessAmong the young Black population in South Africa with upper secondary schooling completed, a quarter of those aged under 23 years believe they have the requisite enterprise start-up skills.
24South African resultsThe more formally educated the population, the more likely they are to see themselves as having the requisite skills to engage in entrepreneurial activity.Only 7 per cent of the population surveyed could be classified as entrepreneurs compared with just over a quarter of the population who said they had the ‘knowledge, skill and experience required to start a new business’.
25Two types of entrepreneurship Entrepreneurial activity in South Africa and UgandaInformal sector entrepreneurs in South Africa
26Conclusion from South Africa survey of informal sector To address the objective of maximising job creation, more resources should be targeted at formal entrepreneurs rather than informal entrepreneurs in the townships.The informal sector remains enormously important in generating self-employment income for a large number of low-income households but is not generally important in the creation of employment for others.
27Important Distinction A distinction needs to be made between self- employment or entrepreneurship by necessity and opportunity oriented entrepreneurship.The former activity, in common with most activities in the informal sector, is more likely to be focused on an individual and on his or her efforts to generate enough income to survive.This type of activity has only limited prospects of growing sufficiently in turnover to employ others.
28Important distinction Fostering entrepreneurship in the sense of starting a new business with the potential to grow compared with self employment requires a different starting points and set of supportive services.Running a business is much more complex an undertaking than being self employed.It involves not only making a product or providing a service.It also requires marketing to customers, dealing with suppliers, complying with regulations and supervising and paying employees.
29Conditions needed to foster entrepreneurship Self employedSelf financingDemonstrated capacity to saveLoan to match savingsLoans matter only when skills and savings are presentBusiness start upAccess to low cost loan for asset capital purchase only3 to 5 year repayment schedule, negotiable with debt manager18 month milestone for major repayment and release of next tranche of loan
30Pathway in two stepsNeed to view self employment as a stepping stone to the other two streams.Specific incentives could be devised to encourage young people to move from self employment to economic or social entrepreneurship.For example, a young person who has achieved certain savings benchmarks could be offered a loan related to an entrepreneurial activity on more favourable terms than other borrowers.
31Different profile & Training needs Need to devise a ‘risk profile’ to identifies what characteristics of young people are more likely to be associated with running a business.A ‘risk profile’ based on threshold education level (eg secondary school completed) and work experience, for example, could be developed.Training needs of self employed are different to the training needs of business start ups
32Micro creditTraining should be available in terms of content and timing on a ‘as needed basis’ as determined by the self employed person or new business.The management of loans and delivery of training need to done separately. Programs that mix loans and training are likely to find that good instructors are not always good lenders and vice versa. Borrowers are also likely to get mixed messages if the training is free but the loan has to be repaid with interest
338. Barriers to success Who among young people to target? Targeting young people who are poor is one option.
34Changes needed at 3 levels Micro = grassroots eg training for self employedMiddle level institutions and processes eg type of training provided and who provides itMacro – operating framework
35Need for supporting infrastructure Lack of access to credit is one likely barrier to self employment.Other major problems identified are lack of own transport, competition, theft, unavailability of electricity and lack of business skills.Lack of a means of communicating with suppliers or customers as well as transport may be important barriers to operating a business.Lack of knowledge about basic business practices may also be a major barrier to success.
36Need to change education Education systems at secondary and tertiary levels are too narrowly focussed on academic knowledge and skillsNeed to promote, within education, opportunities to develop entrepreneurial skillsPractice firms at secondary and tertiary levels are one option – students develop an enterpriseBusiness plan competitions are another way to promote an entrepreneurial culture
37ConclusionImportance of shift from a focus on supply side to demand siderole of intermediaries as risk deflectorsDistinction between self employment and business start upDifferent needs in terms of training and support services