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Assessing Female Ownership of Fixed Assets in Nepal: A new Feature of the Population Census 2001 Ganga Devi Dabadi Director Government of Nepal Central.

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Presentation on theme: "Assessing Female Ownership of Fixed Assets in Nepal: A new Feature of the Population Census 2001 Ganga Devi Dabadi Director Government of Nepal Central."— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessing Female Ownership of Fixed Assets in Nepal: A new Feature of the Population Census 2001 Ganga Devi Dabadi Director Government of Nepal Central Bureau of Statistics

2 Structure of the presentation Population Census in Nepal Population Census in Nepal Main Departure in 2001 census from Previous censuses Main Departure in 2001 census from Previous censuses Objectives of engendering of 2001 census Objectives of engendering of 2001 census Ownership of property by the household Ownership of property by the household in census Why assets ownership data at sex disaggregated level Why assets ownership data at sex disaggregated level Involvement of UNIFEM Involvement of UNIFEM & UNDP Main actions undertaken in order to come to a reliable dataset Main actions undertaken in order to come to a reliable dataset Some Summary Results Some Summary Results

3 Population Census in Nepal The Census of 2001 isthe tenth in a series of the population enumeration The Census of 2001 is the tenth in a series of the population enumeration First census done in 1911 The Census is done in two phases – the Household Listing operation followed by the Census Enumeration. The main data source that provides population database at all levels. Population composition, distribution, growth and change at various points of time are only provided by the census The census data are used as benchmark, for fixing the target as well as for evaluation of the Government Plans and Programs. The census data are used as benchmark, for fixing the target as well as for evaluation of the Government Plans and Programs.

4 The census questionnaire of 2001 for the first time, especially asked the question on whose name (male or female member of the household) the property ownership was recorded The census questionnaire of 2001 for the first time, especially asked the question on whose name (male or female member of the household) the property ownership was recorded Noticeable differences in the questionnaire as well as the methodology of data collection in the 2001 census Noticeable differences in the questionnaire as well as the methodology of data collection in the 2001 census In the 2001 census, special attention was given to the issues related to gender, women, children and the disabled In the 2001 census, special attention was given to the issues related to gender, women, children and the disabled Economic aspects, the household work and the extended economic activity were redefined (to include work mainly carried out by women) Economic aspects, the household work and the extended economic activity were redefined (to include work mainly carried out by women) Efforts to overcome the under reporting and under coverage of especially female participation in the national economy Efforts to overcome the under reporting and under coverage of especially female participation in the national economy Main Departure in 2001 census from Previous censuses

5 Make the census most appropriate source of gender sensitive data Make the census most appropriate source of gender sensitive data Help to evaluate womens status in the society Help to evaluate womens status in the society Assess womens contribution to the economy Assess womens contribution to the economy Help the policymakers identify and formulate appropriate policies for the empowerment of Nepali women. Help the policymakers identify and formulate appropriate policies for the empowerment of Nepali women. So it was decided to engender the whole process of the 2001 census to provide sex disaggregated data for the gender sensitive policies and programs. Objectives of engendering of 2001 census

6 Ownership of property by the household The earlier censuses too collected most of the data at a sex disaggregated level. The earlier censuses too collected most of the data at a sex disaggregated level. But in case of the ownership of property by the household the data was collected without disaggregating the ownership of the property on the basis of gender (or no question was asked on whose name the property was registered provided it was in the name of one of the members of the household). But in case of the ownership of property by the household the data was collected without disaggregating the ownership of the property on the basis of gender (or no question was asked on whose name the property was registered provided it was in the name of one of the members of the household). The census questionnaire especially asked on whose name (male or female member of the household) the property ownership was in the 2001 census. The census questionnaire especially asked on whose name (male or female member of the household) the property ownership was in the 2001 census.

7 Why assets ownership data at sex disaggregated level? Fixed property like land and buildings generally owned by male members of the household Fixed property like land and buildings generally owned by male members of the household Daughters had right on parental property on limited cases (eg, no sons, unmarried till advance age etc) Daughters had right on parental property on limited cases (eg, no sons, unmarried till advance age etc) Property ownership closely linked with empowerment and independence and also with female entrepreneurship Property ownership closely linked with empowerment and independence and also with female entrepreneurship Government was considering policies to increase female ownership of property Government was considering policies to increase female ownership of property Women empowerment has come into fore during the last few years Women empowerment has come into fore during the last few years

8 UNIFEM UNIFEM & UNDP involvement UNIFEM involved through a special project Interventions to engender the Nepal 2001 census operations UNIFEM involved through a special project Interventions to engender the Nepal 2001 census operations Inclusion of gender specialists in various consultation processes and technical committee entrusted with the planning and execution of the census Inclusion of gender specialists in various consultation processes and technical committee entrusted with the planning and execution of the census "Mainstreaming Gender Equity Programme (MGEP)" a UNDP supported project on "Mainstreaming Gender Considerations into National Development" also helped the census process. "Mainstreaming Gender Equity Programme (MGEP)" a UNDP supported project on "Mainstreaming Gender Considerations into National Development" also helped the census process.

9 Actions Undertaken in engendering census of 2001 Gender sensitization workshopsGender sensitization workshops Brainstorming sessions for media campaigningBrainstorming sessions for media campaigning National workshop on mediaNational workshop on media Material development & publicity with focus on gender sensitivityMaterial development & publicity with focus on gender sensitivity Formation of technical committees with gender specialistsFormation of technical committees with gender specialists Occupation & industry classification including jobs generally done by women (basket weaving, fruit/vegetable preserving)Occupation & industry classification including jobs generally done by women (basket weaving, fruit/vegetable preserving)

10 Actions Undertaken in engendering census of 2001 Questionnaire & manual with specific emphasis on gender sensitivityQuestionnaire & manual with specific emphasis on gender sensitivity Inclusion of visuals in training (Special care taken to show the womens involvement in various aspects of life and ownership of assets in these visuals)Inclusion of visuals in training (Special care taken to show the womens involvement in various aspects of life and ownership of assets in these visuals) Women supervisors & interviewers encouragedWomen supervisors & interviewers encouraged Training of census personnel (gender issues and assets ownership thoroughly covered)Training of census personnel (gender issues and assets ownership thoroughly covered) Gender specific approach in data collectionGender specific approach in data collection Gender specific tabulation of resultsGender specific tabulation of results

11 Some Summary Results According to the 2001 census, the country had 4.25 million households with million persons. The number of males was million and that of females was million.According to the 2001 census, the country had 4.25 million households with million persons. The number of males was million and that of females was million. Predominantly the households are headed by men. According to the census results only 14.9 percent of the households reported that they were headed by a female. It was just marginally over from 13.2 percent of the previous census.Predominantly the households are headed by men. According to the census results only 14.9 percent of the households reported that they were headed by a female. It was just marginally over from 13.2 percent of the previous census. Only about 17 percent of households reported that one or more female member(s) had ownership either on land, or on house or on livestock Only about 17 percent of households reported that one or more female member(s) had ownership either on land, or on house or on livestock

12 Some Summary Results 5.3 percent of the households reported the female members having ownership in land only, 0.8 percent on house only and 5.4 percent on livestock only.5.3 percent of the households reported the female members having ownership in land only, 0.8 percent on house only and 5.4 percent on livestock only. Overall, only 0.8 percent of the households had all three types of assets house, land and livestock in womens names.Overall, only 0.8 percent of the households had all three types of assets house, land and livestock in womens names. About 22 percent of the female headed household had land or house in the name of a female member of the household where as the corresponding figure for the male headed household was only 10 percent.About 22 percent of the female headed household had land or house in the name of a female member of the household where as the corresponding figure for the male headed household was only 10 percent.

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