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Expert Group Meeting on Strategies for Creating Urban Youth Employment: Solutions for Urban Youth in Africa Gora Mboup Global Urban Observatory (GUO) UN-HABITAT.

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Presentation on theme: "Expert Group Meeting on Strategies for Creating Urban Youth Employment: Solutions for Urban Youth in Africa Gora Mboup Global Urban Observatory (GUO) UN-HABITAT."— Presentation transcript:

1 Expert Group Meeting on Strategies for Creating Urban Youth Employment: Solutions for Urban Youth in Africa Gora Mboup Global Urban Observatory (GUO) UN-HABITAT June 2004 Measurement/indicators of youth employment

2 TOPICS HABITAT Agenda and MDG Employment and Unemployment indicators Slum indicators Intra-city differentials: Gender, slum and education Family responsibilities and employment Youth homelessness: case of Addis Abba, UIS 2003 Youth indicators : comprehensive approach

3 The UN-HABITAT Agenda, paragraph 118 emphasizes the need to promote and strengthen productive enterprises, including micro-enterprises and other employment and training opportunities for youth at the international, regional and national levels and MDG8 Develop a global partnership for development The UN-HABITAT Agenda, paragraph 118 emphasizes the need to promote and strengthen productive enterprises, including micro-enterprises and other employment and training opportunities for youth at the international, regional and national levels and MDG8 Develop a global partnership for development Target 16: In co-operation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for Youth

4 Employment Indicators indicator 17: informal employment (HA) indicator 19: unemployment (HA) Indicator 45 Unemployment rate of year-olds by gender (MDG)

5 Unemployed people Not employed during a specified reference Available for work Have taken concrete steps to seek employment. In situations where the conventional means of seeking work are of limited relevance, a relaxed definition of unemployment can be applied, based on only the first two criteria (without work and currently available for work).

6 The youth unemployment rate and non-employment rate The youth unemployment rate gives the percentage of persons aged 15 to 24 years who are actively seeking, but unable to find employment. The youth non-employment rate is a measure of the youth who are neither in education nor in employment as a proportion of the total youth population. The non-employment rate takes into consideration those discouraged youth who have dropped out of the labour market – and sometimes out of society in general.

7 Youth age group Youth age group varies across country from 15 up 35 years old International youth age group: years old

8 Data collection and source Country data are available from Labour Force Surveys, Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), Living Standard Measurement Surveys (LSMS), censuses, administrative records, and official national estimates.

9 MIDDLE AND WESTERN AFRICA ANGOLA BENIN BURKINA FASO CAMEROON CAR CHAD COTE DIVOIRE Countries GHANA GUINEA MALI NIGERIA SENEGAL TOGO EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA ETHIOPIA ERYTHEREA KENYA LESOTHO MADAGASCAR MALAWI MOZAMBIQUE NAMIBIA RDC RWANDA SOUTH AFRICA TANZANIA UGANDA ZAMBIA ZIMBABWE INDONESIA INDIA PHILIPPINES JORDAN PAKISTAN UZBEKISTAN KAZAKHSTAN ASIA LATIN AMERICA BRAZIL COLOMBIA PERU PARAGUAY NICARAGUA GUATEMALA MEXICO

10 Limitation of publication on youth employment Lack of intra-city differentials figures Figures of youth unemployment on urban slums encounters a critical problem. Existing data are rarely disaggregated according to intra-urban location Data sets such as Labour Force, LSMS, DHS disaggregate by urban and rural, but go no further. Few efforts have been made to reanalyze data sets where the geographic origins of the data can clearly be identified as slum and non-slum.

11 2002: EGM on slum definition 2003: Review slum definition and country slum estimates 2003; Publication of Slums of the World: The face of urban poverty in the new millennium UN-HABITAT Efforts to disaggregate city data

12 lack one or more of the below conditions: Access to improved water Access to improved water Access to improved sanitation Access to improved sanitation Access to secure tenure Access to secure tenure Durability of housing Durability of housing Sufficient living area Sufficient living area Slum Household Indicators

13 Youth employment: Country estimates

14 Youth non-employement * Percentage of youth neither in school nor in employment

15 Young women non-employement * Percentage of young women neither in school nor in employment

16 Young men non-employement * Percentage of young men neither in school nor in employment

17 Gender differentials Young women non-employment rates (neither in school nor in employment) are higher than young men non-employment rates. However, employment data do not adequately reflect the situation of women in the labour market, especially in African countries where women are engaged in subsistence work and, more often than men, work in the informal sector.

18 Young women neither in school nor in employment * Percentage of young women neither in school nor in employment

19 Young men neither in school nor in employment by type of residence * Percentage of young women neither in school nor in employment

20 Gender differentials While the proportion of women who are not working is higher in the slum than in the non-slum, the proportion of their counterparts men who are not working is lower in the slum

21 Possible explanations Men living in the slum need to be involved in early activity economic, they are less educated than their counterparts men living in non-slum who also have less urgent need to be involved in economic activity. This can explain the high fertility in poor communities as it has been stated in several studies. In these communities the value of children in term of labour rationalize high fertility rates.

22 Young women not working but in school * Percentage of young women not working but in school

23 Young men not working but in school by type of residence * Percentage of young men not working but in school

24 Young women working in the informal sector * Percentage of young women working in the informal sector

25 Young men working working in the informal sector * Percentage of young men working in the informal sector

26 Percentage of youth working in the informal sector living in slum area * Percentage of youth working in the informal sector living in slum area

27 Informal sector as expression of slum conditions Youth employment in informal sector is the expression of slums conditions in African cities. In most African countries, the majority of young people working in the informal sector are slum in-habitants. Per example in Benin they are 75 % and more than 90 % in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, CAR, Chad, etc.

28 Youth in non-slum are attending school while youth in slum are strugling in informal sectors While youth living in non-slum areas are still attending school, youth in non-slum are either working in informal sector or looking for job

29 Employement and education In most countries youth who are working in the informal sectors are low educated or with no education at all. In fact educated people with complete secondary education or higher prefer formal job or are still attending school

30 Reasons for stopping to attend school * Percentage of young women working in the informal sector

31 Reasons for stopping to attend school * Percentage of young women working in the informal sector

32 Reasons for stopping to attend school * Percentage of young women working in the informal sector

33 Reasons for stopping to attend school * Percentage of young women working in the informal sector

34 Reasons for stopping to attend school * Percentage of young women working in the informal sector

35 School retention delays the transition of young people into the labour market and potentially into the ranks of the unemployed higher levels of education generally not only reduce the risk of unemployment, they also increase the chance of obtaining a full time job with permanent contract. Thats why reducing early exits from education is an important challenge in many countries.

36 Promote school retention An important element of governments promotional efforts may be to convince more young people to complete school. Despite the efforts of countries to improve the employability of youth through the education system, many still leave school with very limited skills. DHS data show that exclusion from education, training and employment is often systemic: early school leavers and other at-risk young people are often drawn disproportionately from slum communities.

37 Remedial education is particularly important for illeterate young people Remedial education is also important, particularly for illiterate young unemployed people and those with poor competencies in the prevailing national or regional language. Attracting premature school leavers back into education and training is a vital element of remedial education.

38 Percentage of women living in slum area who have family responsibilities * Percentage women living in slum area who have family responsibilities

39 Percentage of women living in non-slum area who have family responsibilities * Percentage of women living in non-slum area who have family responsibilities

40 Percentage of men living in slum area who have family responsibilities * Percentage men living in slum area who have family responsibilities

41 Percentage of men living in non-slum area who have family responsibilities * Percentage men living in slum area who have family responsibilities

42 Youth family responsibilities Youth residing in slum areas are more likely to have a child, or be married or to head an household than their counterparts living in non-slum areas. As family responsibilities increase, needs of job evolve. However due to the lack of performance of African economies and their low level of education these young people could find only jobs in the informal sector. With a low salary and insecure job, these young people will remain raising their family in slum communities. This is the poverty trap

43 Percentage of women who are working by family responsibilities * Percentage of youth working in the informal sector living in slum area

44 Percentage of men who are working by family responsibilities * Percentage of youth working in the informal sector living in slum area

45 Family responsibilities create the needs of job among youth Youth who have family responsibilities are more likely to hold a job than their counterparts. However there is considerable number of youth with family responsibilities who are still looking for a job or are unskilled workers.

46 What are the needs of youth? Potential needs : 52 % Training

47 Major obstacle to the reduction of youth unemployment: the economy of African countries The major obstacle to the reduction of youth and general unemployment is the economy of African countries. It is mainly based on agriculture in rural areas and there are very few formal employment activities in the urban centres. Education is deemed very important and there are a number of education initiatives to increase the skills of the work force, but the economy is not necessarily able to absorb a more skilled work force.

48 Homelessness: Addis Abba Urban Inequities Survey 2003 Key findings

49 Homeless people by age group, Addis Ababa Urban Inequities Survey, 2003 Âge Pourcentage 47

50 Homeless people level of education, Addis Ababa Urban Inequities Survey, 2003 Pourcentage 57 47

51 Homeless people level of education, Addis Ababa Urban Inequities Survey, 2003 Pourcentage

52 EDUCATION EMPLOYMENT Literacy rates Level of education Non-employment rates Type of employment Youth indicators Maternal and child health Antenatal and delivery cares Child immunization Child morbidity Maternal and child nutrition LIVING CONDITIONS HOUSEHOLD HEADED BY YOUTH Access to water Access to sanitation Access to housing Access to information Access to energy HIV/AIDS knowledge prevalence orphanhood HEALTH STATUS INFORMATION/ COMMUNICATION Access media Access to key info DECISION MAKING Use of resources Use of health services SOCIAL CAPITAL Networking Micro-finances

53 Youth indicators Youth indicators (education, employment, living conditions, health, etc.) aim at increasing knowledge on urban inequities and assisting the formation of youth pro-poor policies on the ground. While the global aggregates are needed to shape the global development priorities, youth indicators will provide instrumental guidance on improving the lives of the youth

54 THANK YOU !!!


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