Presentation on theme: "Time use study by gender in Europe, Spain and Andalucia: gender distribution of paid and unpaid work 2nd Global Forum on Gender Statistics Ghana, 26-28/01/2009."— Presentation transcript:
Time use study by gender in Europe, Spain and Andalucia: gender distribution of paid and unpaid work 2nd Global Forum on Gender Statistics Ghana, 26-28/01/2009 Prof. Paula Rodríguez Modroño University Pablo de Olavide Member of the group of experts for gender mainstreaming in the Andalusian Statistical Plan 2007-2010
RESEARCH ON TUS for the Andalusian Statistical Institute Study on 15 EU countries that carried Eurostat harmonized TUS in 2000-2004 to compare the impact of different public policies and social systems on gender equality & female strategies. Spanish and Andalusian case through microdata (including demographic & socioeconomic variables and all diary activities, also care work). Topics covered: Employment & care economy Health & life cycle Leisure Education Travel & transport Gender gap between rural & urban areas
S TARTING POINTS Time use studies allow us to measure unpaid work (including domestic activities) Different gender behaviors in labor markets due to work & life balance in all countries Threaten social sustainability Public policies have different impacts on female options between paid & unpaid work Study the impact of public welfare sytems on gender equality Female strategies vary by region depending on the level of the Welfare state, the development of the market economy and income levels, and the maintenance of traditional roles. Low fertility rates Lack of autonomy: part-time jobs, low activity rates Import of legal/ illegal labor
SUMMARY OF EU RESULTS: Women and men confront different constraints and social determining factors that limit rationality in their choices; and thus, their freedom and capabilities. Women have a lower amount of free time, what undermines female capabilities, and thus their potential to develop them. As other studies show: GENDER MATTERS more than other differences such as income levels, education, employment rates, etc.
4 EU CLUSTERS: There are time use differences between EU countries due to different MIXED WELFARE ECONOMIES ; and therefore, a different distribution among the State, families and the market of the necessary work to sustain the socioeconomic system. Variables used in this cluster analysis: fertility rates, female activity rates, part-time work, education, female political representation, working time (paid & unpaid), etc. 1. Social democrat countries (Norway & Sweden). 2. Conservative group (Belgium, France & Germany) + Finland & Great Britain. 3. Former Eastern European countries (Hungary, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovenia). 4. Mediterranean countries (Italy & Spain).
BE BelgiumIT ItalySI SloveniaAN Andalusia DE GermanyLV LatviaFI Finland EE EstoniaLT LithuaniaSE Sweden ES SpainHU HungaryUK United Kingdom FR FrancePL PolandNO Norway Source: National Time Use Surveys (Eurostat & IEA). TIME USE IN EUROPE, SPAIN AND ANDALUCIA Working time of women and men aged 20 to 74 years. Unit: hours and minutes per day (Left bar: women; Right bar: men)
TIME USE IN EUROPE, SPAIN AND ANDALUCIA Work total of employed women and men. Unit: hours and minutes per day (Left bar: women; Right bar: men) BE BelgiumIT ItalySI SloveniaAN Andalusia DE GermanyLV LatviaFI Finland EE EstoniaLT LithuaniaSE Sweden ES SpainHU HungaryUK United Kingdom FR FrancePL PolandNO Norway Source: National Time Use Surveys (Eurostat & IEA).
TIME USE IN EUROPE, SPAIN AND ANDALUCIA Source: National Time Use Surveys (Eurostat & IEA). Gainful work/study and care work activities of women aged 20 to 74
TIME USE IN EUROPE, SPAIN AND ANDALUCIA Source: National Time Use Surveys (Eurostat & IEA). Gainful work/study and care work activities of men aged 20 to 74
ANDALUSIAN CASE: AN UNEQUAL AND UNSUSTAINABLE SYSTEM WomenMen Unpaid work Paid work Unpaid work Unpaid work= Domestic activities (household care work) + volunteer work (informal & formal)
ANDALUSIAN CASE: UNPAID WORK Monetary value of unpaid work WomenMen Salary per hour of domestic workers9,019,6 Average social time hours per year1.739,83511 Monetary value of domestic work of an average Andalusian person 15.676 4.906 Average time of those who participate per day Average social time in domestic work per day Women Men
A continuity in traditional roles in time allocation among young women and men. Despite the advances in female human capital, labor market continues segregating workers by their gender, even in the latest incorporation of very educated young population. Young women, even before having reached the age of confronting the biggest problems in work & life balance (30 years old is the female average age of getting married & having the first child), spend less time than men in paid work and much more in non-paid work. These gender roles will affect their life choices, including their access to the labor market and female opportunities to grow professionally and personally. For example, in Andalucia when a man starts living in a couple reduces his domestic working time whereas women have to increase it considerably. CULTURAL CHANGES ARE SLOW: YOUNG PEOPLE IN SPAIN
Participation rate in the following activities of young people under 25 in Spain Source: Spanish Time Use Survey, 2002-03 (IEA).
Average social time allocation by adolescents from 10 to 17 years in Spain
Changes in time use between adolescents (10 to 17) and young people from 18 to 25 inSpain (units: minutes) Source: Spanish Time Use Survey, 2002-03 (IEA).
C ONCLUDING R EMARKS Main factor determining time use of EU citizens is: GENDER. Women work more than men (work total = paid work + unpaid work) As more developed the society is, more equal is time allocation, however this advance is still unequal. Female strategies vary by region depending on the level of the Welfare state, the development of the market economy and income levels, and the maintenance of traditional roles. Childcare and care of elderly or dependents is mainly a female activity, affecting womens decisions to have children and to enter, stay or exit the labor market and the type of work they get (full-time /part-time).
LESSONS FOR TUS STUDIES Need for harmonized international TUS, so to do cross-cutting studies and analyze the impact of different public policies, as we do not have much historical data for longitudinal analysis. Periodical TUS: to capture evolution and cultural changes. Add other socioeconomic variables & indicators to be able to obtain a full view of how socially unsustainable our economic development is in terms of gender equity.
L ESSONS FOR P UBLIC P OLICIES Need to collect data and study all non-paid work (domestic, informal, volunteer) to be able to grasp real socio-economic systems. Need to invest an important effort (collecting information, budgets) in Gender equality and womens empowerment, so that we can really reduce gender inequality. Key role of education to change social norms and traditional culture: Male population Young people