Presentation on theme: "Unpaid Family Workers in Pakistan Presented in the Global Forum on Gender Statistics held from 26 th to 28 th January 2009 in Accra, Ghana."— Presentation transcript:
Unpaid Family Workers in Pakistan Presented in the Global Forum on Gender Statistics held from 26 th to 28 th January 2009 in Accra, Ghana
1 Introduction Rising global concerns with the deteriorating quality of female employment have lead to the inclusion of the proportion of unpaid female as family workers in the employed, as one of the targets of the Millennium Development Goals. Unemployment rate in Pakistan reported in the Labour Force Survey released by Federal Bureau of Statistics (FBS) touched to 8.3 percent in 2001-02. Unemployment declined to 7.7 percent in 2003-04 and subsequently to 6.2 percent by 2005-06.
2 There was a rise in the proportion of unpaid family workers in total employment. It increased from 20.8 percent in 2001-02 to nearly 27 percent in 2005-06. Overall employment increased at the rate of 3.44 percent per annum during 2001-02 and 2005-06, unpaid family workers grew more than twice the rate at 8.91 percent per annum.
3 Unpaid Family Workers by Industry Divisions A substantial majority of unpaid family workers were employed in the agricultural sector in the years 2001-2 and 2005-06. In 2001-02, 77.2 percent of the unpaid family workers were employed in the agriculture sector, which increased to nearly 91 percent in 2005-06. Between 2001-02 and 2005-06, an additional 3.86 million jobs were generated for unpaid family workers in agriculture. Next highest percentage of unpaid family workers has been found in the whole sale/retail trade and manufacturing sectors in both the years.
Table-1: Unpaid Family Workers by Industry 4 (Results of Labour Force Survey) Type of Industry LFS 2001-02LFS 2005-06Additional Employment Perce nt In Million Percen t In Million PercentIn Million Agriculture Forestry, Hunting and fishing 77.206.3780.9610.233.8688.03 Manufacturing6.710.555.680.720.163.73 Whole sales and Retail Trade and Restaurants and Hotels 10.690.889.401.190.316.97 Community, Social and Personal Services 3.630.302.590.330.030.65
Unpaid Family Workers by Rural/Urban 5 The proportion of unpaid family helpers in the rural areas increased from 85.4 percent in 2001-02 to 87.2 percent in 2005-06. In absolute terms, a total of 3.97 million jobs were generated for unpaid family workers in rural areas between 2001-02 and 2005-06. Table-2 LFS 2001-02LFS 2005-06Additional Employment PercentIn MillionPercentIn MillionPercentIn Million Urban 14.601.2012.821.620.419.46 Rural 85.407.0587.1811.023.9790.54 Total 100.008.25100.0012.644.38100.00
Unpaid Family Workers by Formal, Informal 6 and Agricultural Sector Data on unpaid family workers by sector of employment shows that the share of unpaid family workers in the non-agricultural formal sector declined drastically rom 3.2 percent in 2001-02 to just 0.8 percent by 2005-06. There was an increase of 0.7 million workers in the informal sector during the period under review. Table-3 LFS 2001-02LFS 2005-06Additional Employment PercentIn MillionPercentIn MillionPercentIn Million Agriculture 77.206.3780.9610.233.8688.03 Formal 3.210.270.780.10-0.17-3.81 Informal 19.591.6218.272.310.6915.78 Total 100.008.25100.0012.644.38100.00
7 Unpaid Family Workers by Age The unpaid family workers by age group shows that youth make up the highest proportion of unpaid family workers (47.0%). Following youth, adults comprise the highest proportion of unpaid family workers, with their share rising marginally from 39.2 percent to 40.5 percent during the same period. The share of children increased significantly from 13.8 percent to 16.6 percent. The youth (15-24 year) participation in unpaid family women workers declined from 47 to 43 percent.
8 Table-4: Unpaid Family Workers by Age Age group (in years) LFS 2001-02LFS 2005-06Additional Employment PercentIn MillionPercentIn Million PercentIn Million 10-14 13.811.1416.592.100.9621.81 15-24 47.023.8842.925.421.5435.19 25 & above 39.173.2340.505.121.8843.00 Total 100.008.25100.0012.644.38100.00
9 Unpaid Family Workers by Educational Attainment The distribution of unpaid family workers by educational attainment shows that a substantial majority had no formal education This was followed by unpaid family workers who have completed primary level of schooling, with their share declining with each successive level of education. The largest number of additional employment was created for unpaid family workers with no formal education. Table-5 Educational level LFS 2001-02LFS 2005-06Additional Employment PercentIn MillionPercentIn MillionPercentIn Million No Formal Education56.394.65220.127.116.1158.80 Below Primary5.060.427.030.890.4710.74 Primary16.311.3515.381.940.6013.64 Middle10.110.839.381.190.358.02 Matric8.730.727.700.970.255.77 Above Matric3.410.283.280.410.133.03 Total100.008.25100.0012.644.38100.00
10 Unpaid Family Workers by Hours of work, Sex and Region The break-up of unpaid family workers by hours of work reveals that in both 2001-02 and 2005-06, a very high share of them is working for 35 hours and above in a week. The percentage of unpaid family workers working for less than 35 hours, recorded an increase of 4.6 percentage points. In case of unpaid family workers working below 35 hours a week, there was a considerable urban-rural divide due to increase in the share of rural unpaid family workers.
11 A higher proportion of urban unpaid family workers (44.6 percent) were found to be working between 35-48 hours in 2001-02. The highest proportion of female unpaid family workers were working below 35 hours a week. The share of female unpaid family workers working between 35-48 hours increased from 38.6 percent in 2001-02 to 42.4 percent in 2005-06. The proportion engaged in excessive hours of work declined slightly from 10 percent to 8.5 percent during 2002-06.
12 Table-6 Unpaid Family Workers by Hours of work, Sex and Region HoursLFS 2001-02LFS 2005-06 OverallMaleFemaleUrbanRuralOverallMaleFemaleUrbanRural Not Worked 0.330.370.230.290.340.480.340.680.490.48 Less than 35 27.0615.2351.1218.3328.5531.6219.0048.4618.5433.55 35-48 hours 41.6342.9638.6344.6441.0042.2942.2142.3838.8242.80 49 & above 31.0841.4310.0239.7530.1125.6138.458.4842.1523.18 Total100.00100.0
13 Unpaid Family Workers by Gender The unprecedented rise in the share of unpaid family workers among the employed between 2001-02 and 2005-06 is due to increase in the number of females employed as unpaid family workers. It increased by 10 percentage points from 33 percent in 2001-02 to 43 percent by 2005-06. Table-7 LFS 2001-02LFS 2005-06Additional Employment PercentIn MillionPercentIn MillionPercentIn Million Male 67.055.5318.104.22.16838.48 Female 32.952.7242.865.422.7061.52 Total 100.008.25100.0012.644.38100.00
14 Unpaid Family Workers Reported in the Censuses of Pakistan Unpaid family workers in Pakistan were found at 15.0 percent, 17.7 percent in rural areas compared to a little 4.7 percent in urban areas in 1981 Population Census of Pakistan. As per 1998 Population Census share of unpaid family workers declined to 5.9 percent in Pakistan, 7.9 percent in rural areas and 2.8 percent in urban respectively. Table-8 CensusTotalRuralUrban 1981 15 %17.7 %4.7% 1998 5.9 %7.9 %2.8%
References Pakistan Labour Force Survey 2001-02, and 2005-06, Federal Bureau of Statistics, Statistic Division, Government of Pakistan. Census Reports of Pakistan, 1973, 1981 and 1998. Population Census Organization, Government of Pakistan. Unpaid Family Workers: Unravelling the Mystry of Falling Unemployment. Discussion Paper Serier No.17 Centre for Research on Poverty Reduction and Income Distribution, Planning Commission, Government of Pakistan