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2 PRESENTATION OUTLINE 1.Introduction 2.The National Development Strategy 4. Key Strategic Successes in Implementation 5. CB and Scaling up: Challenges and Lessons 6. Building Partnerships 7. Financing Requirements 8. Conclusions and Way Forward

3 INTRODUCTION The 2005 World Summit mandated the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) to undertake an annual ministerial-level substantive review (AMR) of progress in the implementation of the internationally agreed development goals (IADGs), including the MDGs. In this context Tanzania volunteered to prepare a national report in order to share its experience with others

4 OBJECTIVES The Objectives: International community to understand Tanzanias policies and experience Provide feedback to Tanzania on its performance Share with others our lessons from experience

5 The NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY Key Features and relationship to IADGs: Vision 2025/Vision 2020 Quest for direction following several years of Structural adjustment and stabilization Programmes Five attributes of Vision 2025 Quality of life Peace, security and unity Good governance and rule of law, Educated and learning society Strong and competitive economy

6 The NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY Having dwelled on macroeconomic stabilization for a decade, Tanzania started to address poverty as a major policy concern in 1996 within the framework of the macroeconomic policies which were being implemented. These initiatives started with the formulation of the National Poverty Eradication Strategy (NPES) in 1997 and the subsequent PRSP process in 1999 and 2000 which produced the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) and Zanzibar Poverty Reduction Plan (ZPRP) in order to gain access to the HIPC debt relief resources.

7 The NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY-2 Poverty Reduction Strategies (i) PRSP/ZPRP: First Generation PRS (ii) (MKUKUTA and MKUZA: second generation PRS Initiative taken to incorporate IADGs including MDGs

8 THE NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY-3 Figure 1: Major clusters of poverty reduction outcomes. Growth & reduction of income poverty Good governance & accountability Improved quality of life & social well-being Reduction of Poverty

9 THE NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY-4 4.1.3 Sectoral Policies and LGAs Implementation through Strategic Plans, SWAps, MTEFs and PERs and annual budgets. Decentralisation policy (District development plans, DADPs

10 THE NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY-5 Progress in Implementation: Participation in policy making PRS as a guiding framework Aligning PRS to budget Costing PRS initiated Monitoring system developed evolution from PMS to MMS MKUKUTA Annual implementation report Strategic policy brief to Parliament National surveys Poverty policy week, PHDR and Status Reports Views of the people report

11 Key Strategic Successes and challenges-1 Goal 1: Eradication of poverty and hunger Average growth of 7% in recent years is still below 8- 10% envisaged 35.9% still live below the poverty line (modest decline in poverty but more recent data is expected soon). Challenges Translating growth to poverty reduction Growth in agricultural GDP is lower than average-risk of rural poverty persisting Malnutrition persists Hunger could worsen with food crisis Getting recent data

12 Key Strategic Successes and challenges-2 Goal 2: Achieving UPE Achievements UPE basically achieved after removing fees for primary education in 2001 Gender parity achieved PEDP contributed to success. Challenges quality and performance More teachers and facilities needed to cope with UPE (quality?) Creativity and innovativeness good for competitive labour market Adult illiteracy still high and adult education still lagging behind.

13 Key Strategic Successes and challenges-3 Goal 3:Gender equality Achievements: ratio of girls to boys in schools has improved The share of women in public service increased Amended and is implementing the Constitutions provision for a minimum of 30 percent of women members of parliament in the National Assembly. Target has been achieved Good progress in terms of high level positions at Cabinet and Permanent Secretary level Good progress has been made in gender budgeting Challenges Share of girls drops at higher levels of education (though the situation is improving)

14 Key Strategic Successes and challenges-4 Goal 4: Reducing child mortality Achievements: Under-five mortality declined from 112 per 1000 in 2000 to 68 in 2006 Infant mortality rate declined from 95 to 68 Vaccination increased from 78.2% to 82.5% Challenges: Diseases are still a major factor Malnutrition is a factor

15 Key Strategic Successes and challenges-5 Goal 5: Improving maternal health Achievements: No significant change Challenges: Impact of HIV/AIDS though prevalence rates are declining Poor health and malnutrition

16 Key Strategic Successes and challenges-6 Goal 6: Combating HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases Achievements Declining prevalence rate Wider use of ARVs Awareness increased with the national campaign Challenges Reliability of data in question Burden on the health system Burden the economy (esp. household level) Caring for orphans

17 Key Strategic Successes and challenges-7 Goal 7:Environmental Sustainability Achievements Environmental concerns have also been mainstreamed in the MKUKUTA/MKUZA, and sectoral policies have been reviewed to incorporate environmental concerns and the management of biodiversity in particular. The URT government has ratified and is implementing international environmental conservations treaties. The URT government is committed to promoting community participation in environmental management activities Regional environmental programmes implemented International Environmental Treaties ratified and are being implemented

18 Key Strategic Successes and challenges-7a Access to safe water increased from 68% in 2000 to 78% in 2006/07 in urban areas and 49% to 55.7% in rural areas. Sanitation improved (access from 91.6 in 2002 to 98.5% in 2005. Improved human settlements but not yet adequate to cope with the high rate of urbanization.

19 Key Strategic Successes and challenges-8 Challenges Rate of deforestation still high Slums and sanitation are still a problem given the high rate of urbanization Use of biomass based fuel still persisting as alternative sources of energy are slow to take over.

20 Key Strategic Successes and challenges-9 Goal 8: Develop Global Partnership for Development Achievements Developing TAS and JAST IMG as good practice instrument for mutual accountability Debt relief through HIPC and improved debt management Challenges High level of aid dependence persists Creation of decent jobs lagging

21 Building national Capacity and Scaling up Successes-1 Key challenges are identifies as follows: (i) Under funding is the main challenge of all sectors of the Tanzania economy; (ii) progress has been made in poverty reduction but progress in this area needs to be stepped up to combat both the large proportion of the rural poor as well as meet the rising challenges of urban poverty. (iii) Achievements in education needs to be better linked to the changing demands of the labour market; (iv) gender inequality continues to be a major challenge at higher levels of education and in terms of economic empowerment while maternal health care remains an area of great concern; (v) child and maternal mortality are still high posing a major to the health system as a whole compounded by HIV and AIDS

22 Building national Capacity and Scaling up Successes-2 Challenges (vi) HIV and AIDS pandemic has been declared as catastrophe in Tanzania. Although the rate of new infections has declined the main challenge is to continue to raise the level of knowledge on the pandemic and translating that knowledge into behavioural change. The challenge of stigma and discrimination also deserves special attention. (vii) the environmental sustainability challenges have increased in almost all dimensions due to low general level of education and inadequate attention to developing alternative sources of energy for use especially in rural areas. Challenges (viii Environmental challenges persist (ix) Social protection for the poor and vulnerable groups - still narrow.

23 Building national Capacity and Scaling up Successes-3 Poverty Processes: consultation is important for subsequent positive impact of policy, growth is a necessary (but not sufficient) condition for poverty reduction in medium and long term and that it is important to development a comprehensive monitoring system. These lessons was taken on board more explicitly in the second generation of poverty reduction strategies. Need to mobilize more effectively against poverty and inequality especially by broadening growth and social protection

24 Building national Capacity and Scaling up Successes-4 Governance and accountability: an underlying condition for growth and reduction of poverty, The URT government is committed and hence promoted good governance, democracy and rule of law; anti-corruption strategy and action plan measures at both the central and local government levels. Reinforcing M&E

25 Building national Capacity and Scaling up Successes-4 Managing aid relationships: Six lessons: (i) the establishment of an independent mechanism has facilitated strengthening of ownership; (ii) acquiring greater policy space is a process which involves many actors and it takes time; (iii) there is need to balance appropriately the firmness on implementing agreed actions and flexibility to be inclusive in terms of bringing more players on board.

26 Building national Capacity and Scaling up Successes-5 (iv) managing for results can be implemented if an effective monitoring and evaluation system is in place; (v) there is a limit to which one country can successfully manage a whole donor community suggesting that collective action on the part of aid recipient countries can play an important role in making progress in negotiations over critical points of action; (vi) an exit strategy from high levels of dependence should be considered from an early stage even if a country may need higher levels of aid in order to build the domestic capacity for managing with less aid in a future date. Lessons learned

27 Building national Capacity and Scaling up Successes-6 Improving the business climate for growth and employment creation broadly. Strategic positioning in global trade

28 Building partnerships DPs to continue financial and technical support, share experiences and facilitate capacity building Continue to improve the quality of aid and aid effectiveness: ensure effective functioning of DCF) Open up markets (remove subsidies on agricultural products and tariffs on import tariffs of agricultural products (esp. EU and Japan) and stop food export bans) More Aid for Trade- Support capacity to export by addressing supply constraints and enhancing quality to enable Tanzania reap the benefits of more open trade. Coordinate macroeconomic policies to support pro-poor growth Act collectively on climate change Strengthen partnership started under the Innovation Fair (governments, private sector and civil society) for meet IADGs. Government to improve coordination in implementation of policies, improve M&E systems and improve domestic resource mobilization Non-sate sectors and communities: improve participation, adaptation and adoption of policies at implementation level.

29 Financial requirements Resource mobilization Scale up aid to meet international aid commitments Improve the quality and effectiveness of aid To allow flexibility to spend on essential economic and social infrastructure to meet IADGs Improve predictability Scale up domestic resource mobilization Ensure full integration of public resources (aid and budget) Resource costing Improve costing and prioritization Improve estimates of resource requirements

30 Conclusion and Way Forward Tanzania has lessons to share with other countries Tanzania has made deliberate efforts to ensure that IADGs are mainstreamed in the national development strategy. Lessons from the first generation of PRS have shown that there is need to add growth and governance dimensions to more effectively address poverty concerns Tanzania is aware that growth is necessary for poverty reduction but is not automatic (it has to be broadly shared and inequality addressed) Positive lessons from TAS, IMG, and JAST Partnership with civil society and private sector has progressed but more needs to realize complementarity and enhance accountability.

31 Conclusion and Way Forward-2 Universal primary education has been achieved and good progress has been made in other levels of education through special programmes, community initiatives, private sector participation and action on fees to enhance access( removal at primary school level, remission at secondary school fees and loans at tertiary education level. The challenge is in improving quality and alignment to the labour market needs. Education quality and structure (creativity and innovativeness enhanced) SWAps in health sector have helped to address sector-wide issue, user fees have been a positive experience. Have learned the need to strengthen the health system as a whole and supportive sectors such as sanitation, nutrition and public education. Good progress has been made in articulating national development strategies and sectoral policies but the challenge of making sure they percolate to district and community levels and ensuring two-way feedbacks and flow of information remains.

32 Conclusion and Way Forward-3 Addressing the food crisis: need to enhance capacity for supply response Domestic resource mobilization (broaden the revenue base and complete financial sector reform to ensure broader access to financial services) Productivity increase through S&T and innovations Transformation of the economy and positioning in the regional and global economy

33 Conclusion and Way Forward-4 Areas likely to meet MDGs: universal education; gender equality in primary and secondary education and reduction in child mortality. improving aid relationships as part of the global partnerships. safe water for drinking and sanitation.

34 Conclusion and Way Forward-5 Areas of concern: Tanzania is unlikely to achieve MDGs in the areas of poverty and malnutrition, maternal health, improving life in slums, environment and decent employment especially among the youth unless new initiatives are taken to change the current trends. Hunger and malnutrition challenges are been aggravated by the current food price increases in the world market. However this could be an opportunity for Tanzania, being a largely agricultural economy provided adequate supply response in agriculture can be achieved. Combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and related diseases and efforts to attain environmental sustainability will need to be stepped beyond current trends if the targets are to be achieved by 2015.


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