4“People are the real wealth of nations.” “The contrast between what great things human beings can achieve and what limited lives most women and men end up living is truly remarkable.”- Amartya Sen“People are the real wealth of nations.”“The objective of development is to create an enabling environment for people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives.”- Mahbub ul Haq
52010: Human development"Human development is the expansion of people’s freedoms to live long, healthy and creative lives; to advance other goals they have reason to value; and to engage actively in shaping development equitably and sustainably on a shared planet. People are both the beneficiaries and drivers of human development, as individuals and in groups.
7Measuring Human Development The origins: GDP vs HDI The HDI is “an index just as vulgar as GDP but it stands for better things” (Amartya Sen)HDI aggregates health education and incomeGDP/HDI:commodity-centred vs human-centredIndicators need to be: relevant, internationally comparable, available for many countriesNeglected dimensions: gender, equity, sustainability...
8Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI)
11HD Indices Sources HDI IHDI Life expectancy: UNDESA World Population ProspectsYears of Schooling: UNESCO Institute for Statistics and Barro and Lee (2010) [NBER working paper 15902]GNI PPP per capita: World Bank’s World Development IndicatorsIHDIYears of Schooling: household survey data in international databases (EUSILC, UNICEF-MICS, USAID-DHS, WHO-WHS)Household income or consumption: household survey data in international databases (Luxemburg Income Study, EUSILC, UNICEF-MICS, USAID-DHS, World Bank’s International Income Distribution Database, United Nations University’s Income Inequality Database)
12HD Indices Sources GII MPI: household surveys Maternal Mortality: UNICEF’s The State of World’s ChildrenAdolescent Fertility: UNDESA World Population ProspectsEducational Attainments: UNESCO Institute for Statistics and Barro and Lee (2010) [NBER working paper 15902]Labour Market Participation: ILO LABORISTA databaseMPI: household surveysDemographic and Health Survey – USAIDThe Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey – UNICEFThe World Health Survey - WHO
14Global ReportsHDR 90 - Concept and Measurement HDR 91 - Financing HDR 92 - Global Dimensions HDR 93 - People’s Participation HDR 94 - Human Security HDR 95 - Gender HDR 96 - Economic Growth HDR 97 - Eradicate Poverty HDR 98 - Consumption HDR 99 - Globalization HDR 00 - Human Rights HDR 01 - New technologies HDR 02 - Democracy HDR 03 - MDGs HDR 04 - Cultural Liberty HDR 05 - Aid, trade and security HDR 06 - Water HDR 07/08 - Climate Change HDR 09 - Migration HDR 10 - Pathways to HD HDR 11 - Sustaining equitable progress
15HDR Impact: News and academic citations HDR continues to outperform its closest competitor (the World Bank’s annual World Development Report) by almost 2:1The HDI is a key contributor to that success.In academic citations, the HDR recently overtook the WDR.In 2010, HDR’s academic citations = 4,090, compared to the WDR’s 2,790Widespread endorsement from policy and academic circles“One of the world’s most significant documents.” Gregg Easterbrook, The New Republic“Substantially enriches our understanding of the development landscape.” Dani Rodrik, Harvard
16Regional, National and Sub-national Reports: More than just Reports Since 1992, more than 600 National and Sub-national HDRs, as well as 30 Regional Reports, have been produced in more then 130 countries.Inspired by the global HDRTool to tailor development strategies to local realitiesSeeing people as the nation’s wealth, end and means of advancing the development agendaProvide new research and disaggregated dataOffer innovation in concept, measurement, and policyFocus on equity, efficiency, empowerment, and sustainability in policies and the HDR process itself
17Relevance: more than 1,000 news reports, articles and interviews NHDR influenceInclusive: youth involvement in each stage of the HDR preparation processThorough analysis: focus on 5 million youth out of education and employmentRelevance: more than 1,000 news reports, articles and interviewsInfluence: youth policy and youth NGOs coalitionTurkey HDR2008:“Youth in Turkey”
18The importance of an inclusive process 216 events to gauge opinions and gather voices, proposals and commitments4,369 people throughout the different territories: community members, local leaders, civil servants, government representatives, academics, businessmen and women, workers, country workers and farmers, displaced people, the disabled, those reinserted into society, women and the elderly, young people, homosexuals, indigenous people and people of African descent.:Colombia – Valle del Cauca sub-national HDR 2008 “On the path to an inclusive and peaceful Valle del Cauca”This is to given an idea of the typology and variety of events organised in this context:- Advisory Committee: academics, regional government, civil society, media and business foundations, regional experts, international organisations- Agreements with regional stakeholders lending technical and financial;- 61 feedback meetings with regional experts involving 120 people- 77 consultation meetings within the department’s 42 municipalities on two key questions: “how exactly do we define exclusion and what forms does it assume?” and “what can we do for a more inclusive society? 77 Reports, which expressed the participants’ feelings and suggestions cited in each chapter of the NHDRs to the voice of the people. 845- Agreements with town and city council candidates during the run-up to the elections (July-October 2007) signed by the council candidates for 33 out of the 42 municipalities during public events boasting the presence of 1,138 people.- Citizen commitment charter signed by 1,255 people, who individually agreed to vote only for candidates for public office who are committed to human development.- Seminars, consultations, workshops, forums, talks and debates (13 December 2005: 138 participants; 22 March 2006: 18 participants; 28 June 2006: 6 participants; 5 and 6 October 2006: 40 participants; Universidad Javeriana, 24 October 2006: 148 participants; Cali, 30 November 2006: 26 participants; Cali, May 2007: 78 participants; 28 June 2007: 96 participants; 24 August 2007: 43 participants; Cali, 27 November 2007: 31 participants; 21 February 2008: 12 participants; 8 June 2006: 39 participants; 25 August 2006: 15 participants; 28 August 2006: 31 participants; 9 September 2006: 53 participants; September 2006: 75 participants; 12 October 2006: 35 participants; 24 October 2006: 23 participants; 9 November 2006: 47 participants; 10 November 2006: 41 participants; 4 January 2007: 9 participants; 12 February 2007: 10 participants; 16 February 2007: 12 participants; Buga, 1 February 2008: 69 participants; 24 June 2008: 150 participants; 24 members on average, at presentations held during 2006: 7 and 11 July, 27 November; 2007: 13 and 27 March; 2008: 22 January, 24 and 30 July; 5 September 2006: 22 participants; Yumbo, 16 September 2006: c. 150 participants; 25 November 2006: 23 participants; 21 February 2007: 6 participants; 24 February 2007: 2 participants; 26 February 2007: 11 participants; 2 March 2007: 5 participants; 2 March 2007: 315 participants; 7 March 2007: 33 participants; 8 March 2007: 6 participants; 14 March 2007: 11 participants; 30 March 2007: 22 participants; 4 May 2007: 7 participants; 25 May 2007: 41 participants; 28 May 2007: 20 participants; 31 May 2007: 14 participants; 5 June 2007: 13 participants; 12 September 2007: 25 participants; 31 August 2007: 22 participants; 30 October 2007: 12 participants; 5 December 2007: 16 participants; 21 January 2008: 2 participants; 24 January 2008: 26 participants; 23 January 2008: 15 participants; 14 and 20 February 2008: 64 participants; 2 February 2008: 17 participants; 29 February 2008: 29 participants; 23 April 2008: 5 participants; 14 March 2008: 20 participants; 9 May 2008: 25 participants; 19 May: 21 participants)216 events, which proved ideal settings for gauging opinions and directly and indirectly gathering the voices, opinions, proposals and commitments of 4,369 people throughout the different territories encompassing people from the community, local leaders, civil servants and government representatives, academics, businessmen and women, workers, country workers and peasants, displaced people, the disabled, those reinserted into society, women and the elderly, young people, homosexuals, indigenous people and people of African descent,
19Measurement Innovation Disaggregation (e.g. Roma MDGs)Comparing subjective and objective data (e.g. human security perceptions in Latvia)Qualitative analysis of quantitative data (e.g. Cambodia - the financial returns to education are higher for women)Measuring deprivations in the country-context (e.g. social inclusion indices in BiH)New indices covering more dimensions (e.g. Dominican Republic on individual and collective empowerment)
21Data AvailabilityWHO-World Bank “World Report on Disability” – best source of internationally comparable data, but:Considerable efforts made to improve disability data. But need more robust, comparable, and complete data collection especially in developing countries.Data on disability are scarce (only for 60 countries the disability prevalence rate was estimated) and outdated (data from the 1970s – Congo - and 1980s). Better with the national health surveys: data from 1996 to 2008.Only years of health lost due to disability (YLD) is computed for almost all member states. WHO modeling exercise based on a not completely settled and criticized methodology.
22More can be done at National Level Bosnia and Herzegovina HDR 2007People with disabilities, as confirmed by the experience of many countries, are more vulnerable to poverty and social exclusion. The analysis made by for Bosnia and Herzegovina, based on the 2001 LSMS results, showed that having a disability or special needs increases the likelihood of becoming poor by 18%.
23More can be done at National Level All problems relating to the social exclusion of people with physical disability in Croatia stem from insufficient and inadequate representation in the political process. However, there is a substantial segment of this population that does not feel excluded from society, because of the support afforded to them by their family and friends. Family that acts as the main support for the disabled person also requires support from the community, and from the state. Regardless of the amount of support given to the disabled, their quality of life will not improve without self-acceptance. This is why it is necessary to empower disabled people, to challenge the culture of complacency, thus enabling their full integration into all spheres of social relationsCroatiaHDR 2006
24More can be done at National Level … the co-ordination of common human development problems and issues, which are related to the realisation of the rights of citizens who have limited abilities due to physical, psychological, intellectual or sensory deficits, is one of the most important indicators. It defines the degree of the government’s obligation for the citizens at present, the focus on the fair future, and also of how effective the system of state management is in order to achieve objectives of the stable development of the country in generalKazakhstanHDR 2009
25ResourcesThe HDR website: The HDR Database:Take the Human Development Journey:Join HDR-net:Join the HD space in Teamworks:https://undp.unteamworks.org/node/16796