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Countermarked Coins From Around The World

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Presentation on theme: "Countermarked Coins From Around The World"— Presentation transcript:

1 Countermarked Coins From Around The World

2 Introduction The marking of coins after minting: Common practice for as long as coinage has existed Define Countermark Reasons for adding marks and stamps Look at the design, form and meaning

3 Definition Counterstamp/Countermark: A mark added to a coin Subsequent to minting With a purpose Usually incuse into the design Bears some kind of recognizable design, text, initials, or picture.

4 Reasons to add a Counterstamp
Assayer’s mark-Validate weight, metal content and purity Satisfy a shortage- use someone else’s coins Political or Economic Takeover Establish Independent State Status- Indicate ownership

5 PART 1- Ancient Greece and Roman Empire

6 Archaic Greek - 6th BC to 479 BC- Aegina
Aegina- Island Nation south of Athens, Greece

7 Archaic Greek - 6th BC to 479 BC- Aegina
Aegina- “Greek Turtle” Silver- 550 BC

8 Archaic Greek - 6th BC to 479 BC
Aegina- Greek Turtle circa 500 BC

9 Archaic Greek - 6th BC to 479 BC

10 Archaic Greek - 6th BC to 479 BC

11 Archaic Greek - 6th BC to 479 BC
Aegina- Greek Turtle with counterstamp

12 Archaic Greek - 6th BC to 479 BC
.. Aegina- Greek Turtle with arrow counterstamp

13 Archaic- Coin from Lydia - Darius III 450 -330 BC
Kneeling King with bow- No countermark

14 Archaic- Kingdom of Lydia 450 BC

15 Archaic- Siglos of Lydia 450 BC

16 Archaic- Siglos of Lydia- 450 BC

17 Archaic- Siglos of Lydia 450 BC

18 Archaic Period Siglos- Lydia- 450 BC

19 Classical Greek- -Pamphylia

20 Classical Period- Pamphylia (Turkey)- City of Perge

21 Greek Classical Period Gold Stater- Side
. Side c BC, Stater Athena/ standing left, rev Pamphylian legend, naked Apollo standing left- 2 counterstamps- four legged animal

22 Classical Period Silver Tetradrachm-Pamphylia- no counterstamp BC Athena/Nike

23 Classical Period Silver Tetradrachm- Pamphylia 333BC Obv-Athena facing right, Nike Advancing- Rev Seleukid Counterstamp (anchor)

24 Classical Period Silver Tetradrachm- Pamphylia – Anchor C/M

25 Classical Period Silver Tetradrachm- Pamphylia (Side) Anchor C/M

26 Classical Period Silver Tetradrachm- Pamphylia Counterstamp- Bow in Bowcase

27 Classical Period Silver Tetradrachm- C/M- Bow in Bowcase

28 Classical Period Silver Tetradrachm- Pamphylia (Side) C/M- Lyre

29 Classical Period Silver Tetradrachm- Pamphylia Countermark-Bee & Bowcase

30 PAMPHYLIA Side. 3rd - 2nd century B.C.:
Classical Period . PAMPHYLIA Side. 3rd - 2nd century B.C.: AR drachm (3.76 g). Bee countermark.

31 Classical Period KINGS of MACEDON. Alexander III ‘the Great’ BC. Tetradrachm . (195/4 BC). Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin/ Zeus enthroned left. TRAL and bowcase in circular incuse

32 Classical Period- Alexander the Great- Tetradrachm (190 BC)
The TRAL countermark was applied in Tralles, Lydia. Other bow and bowcase countermarks on to Pergamon, Ephesos, Sardes, Tralles, Laodikeia, and Apameia. Linked to the introduction of the cistophoric coinage circa 180 BC. Permitted the circulation of Attic weight coins in the years following political reform.

33 Classical Period MACEDONIAN KINGS Alexander the Great B.C.: AR tetradrachm (28 mm, g). Aspendus mint. Head of Heracles/ Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle and sceptre. Countermark: head of Helios facing front

34 Tetradrachm- 320 BC Basileos
Hellenistic Period . Tetradrachm- 320 BC Basileos

35 Hellenistic Period (336 BC-30 BC)
. 305 BC Paphos Mint-Basileos Ptolemy I and II AR Tetradrachm Multiple Bankers Marks Date: BC Obverse: Diademed bust righteverse: Eagle standing left mm

36 Hellenistic Period After 250 BC. AR Didrachm (8.16g). Turreted head of Nymph Sinope left; countermark: radiate head of Helios facing, ΣΙΝΟΠΕΩΝ Rev Poseidon sitting on throne left, holding dolphin and trident; countermark: laureate head of horned Poseidon left.

37 Hellenistic Period Bythinia-228BC Three Countermarks: Altar, Lyre, Goddess

38 Hellenistic Period   Lycia Termessus Minor AE22 / Bee Counterstamp Date: 1st century BC Obverse: Laureate head of Zeus right, sceptre behind Reverse: Legend above and beneath winged thunderbolt, Bee countermark Size: 22.8 mm weight: 3.9 grams

39 Tiberius-(Twelve Caesars) Countermarks
Roman Tiberius-(Twelve Caesars) Countermarks

40 Roman Counterstamped Coins
Counterstamped Roman Coins are of great historical value. Help trace the movement of Roman Legions across Europe Shed Light on political uprisings and successions Edwin Howgego- British Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins

41 Roman Æ Sestertius (24.75 gm). Struck 8-10 AD..XLI for countermark.
Æ As (10.63gm). Struck AD. TIB in incuse oval.

42 Roman AUGUSTUS. A Pair of Augustan denarii, both with Vespasian counterstamps. Countermarked at Ephesos, circa AD. both with bold counterstamps. Both Howgego 839

43 Roman CILICIA, Tarsus. Hadrian. 117-138 AD. AR Tetradrachm
Countermarked under Caracalla, AD. laureate head of Caracalla right, AMK:Prwth Megisth Kallisth (First, Greatest, Most Beautiful), epithets granted to the city of Tarsus upon Caracalla's arrival there in 215 AD.

44 Roman Coin Expert- Christopher Howgego
Project director, Roman Provincial Coinage in the Antonine Period University Lecturer in Numismatics, Reader in Greek and Roman Numismatics., Faculty of Classics Senior Assistant Keeper, The Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, UK. 1994: ''Coin circulation and the integration of the Roman economy'', 1995: ''The circulation of silver coins, models of the Roman economy” 1995: Ancient History from Coins, Routledge, London, 176.

45 Chris Howgego Book

46 Roman- X Legion "X" for LEGIO X GEMINA on Nero Dupondius, Pannonia Superior, possible applied later during Vespasianus

47 Roman- XII Legion Two well-worn coins with XII Legion Fulminata Countermark (Turkey) For List of Roman Legions:

48 Roman- 42 Nummi Denominational Counterstamp
"XLII" on Galba As, such countermarks are known to have been used by the Ostrogoths and Vandals to mark Dupondi as 42 Nummi (XLII). They prove coins being in circulation some 400 years or more after their initial issue.

49 Roman- Thrace THRACE Imbros. Augustus 27 B.C. - A.D. 14.: AE 14. Bare head right. COUNTERMARK (Howgego 431)

50 Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins (online museum)

51 PART 2- Spain, Mexico and the New World
Starting in 1500’s Coins used for trade Banker’s marks Chopmarks Assayer’s marks Spanish Cobs Pillar Dollars BustDollars Mexico Eagle Dollars U.S Trade Dollar

52 Chinese chopmarked foreign silver coins to:
Assayer’s marks     Chinese chopmarked foreign silver coins to: Identify the payers who handed out the coin as payment Guarantee the fineness of the coins by the merchant or local bank who chopped Assay the coin for its silver fineness and authenticate it by deep chopping

53 Assayer’s marks- Cob Coinage 1580-1732
1730 Cob- Mexico 8 Reales- With Countermarks from Island of Madura, Sultnate of Soumanap

54 Assayer’s marks- Cob Coinage 1530-1732
1653 Cob- Mexico 8 Reales

55 Assayer’s marks- Cob Coinage 1530-1732
Spanish Colonial Mexico, 4 Reales Cob. Cast from

56 Assayer’s marks Spanish 8-reales Cob

57 Mexico- Pillar Dollar 8 Reales (1732-1789)
1733 Pillar Dollar- Without Countermarks

58 Assayer’s marks- Pillar Dollar (1732-1789)
1736 Pillar Dollar- Mexico- Oriental Chopmarks

59 Assayer’s marks-Pillar Dollar- (1732-1789)
1744 Pillar Dollar- Mexico- Oriental Chopmarks

60 Assayer’s marks- Pillar Dollar (eight Reales- 1732-1789)

61 Countermarks - Pillar Dollar (eight Reales- 1732-1789)
Mexico Reales Pillar Dollar Jamaican George III Countermark-both sides

62 Assayer’s marks- Pillar Dollar (eight Reales- 1732-1789)
Piece of eight with Curacao countermark- Large 3 in serrate incuse punch – Applied circa

63 Assayer’s marks- Bust Mexico Eight Reales (1772-1821)
1776 Charles III 8-Reales- No Countermark

64 Assayer’s Marks- Bust Mexico 8 Reales
Reales-Mexico. Counterstamped-Java – 8R- Sumatra

65 Assayer’s marks- Bust Mexico Eight Reales (1772-1821)
1791 Charles IIII 8-Reales- With Villa Gran (Mexico??) Countermark

66 Assayer’s marks- Bust Mexico Eight Reales (1772-1821)
1894 Charles IV 8-Reales with “16-Bitt” countermark both sides and serrated punch- From Dominica (Santo Domingo)-1813 issue

67 Assayer’s marks- Bust 8-Reales (1772-1821)
Reales from Mexico with George III Countermark (England)

68 Assayer’s marks- Bust 8-Reales (1772-1821)
Reales from Lima with Minas Gerais (Brazil) Countermark- both sides

69 Assayer’s marks- Bust 8-Reales (1772-1821)
Reales with Chopmarks

70 Chopmarks- Mexican Eagle Dollars (1824-1897)
1895 Mexico Eagle Dollar- Without Chopmarks Cap and rays

71 Chopmarks- Mexican Eagle Dollars (1824-1897)
1868 Mexico Eagle Dollar- Chinese Chopmarks

72 Assayer’s marks- Mexican Eagle Dollars
1885 Mexico- Eagle Dollar

73 Various Chopmarks

74 U.S. Trade Dollar 1880 Trade Dollar- No Chopmarks

75 U.S. Trade Dollar 1880 Trade Dollar- Chopmarks (China)

76 Chopmarks- U.S. Trade Dollar- 1873-1885
1874 Trade Dollar- Deeply Chopmarked

77 Chopmarks- US Trade Dollar

78 Chopmarks- US Trade Dollar

79 Assayer’s marks- Half Eagle
Rare 1880 U.S. Half eagle with Counterstamp

80 Assayer’s marks 1766 Portuguese “Golden Joe” King John V of Portugal Counterstamped by Ephraim Brasher

81 A Brasher Doubloon- 1787 A Counterstamped coin
Ephraim Brasher was authorized to issue coins- this is an original design- Brasher is designer and assayer

82 Brasher Doubloons- 1787 Yale, National Numismatic Collection, and Garrett Specimens Countermark placement varies

83 Assayer’s marks 8 Escudo 1797 Gold

84 Assayer’s marks-William Hollingshead
Brazilian 6400 Reis dated 1751 minted at Rio De Janeiro. Counterstamped on the reverse "WH“ for William Hollingshead

85 Part 3- Other Countermarks
Monarchial Political Shortages Independent State Ownership

86 Monarchial Succession- Brazil
The coat of Arms of Joao- Prince Regent on Earlier Maria “The Widow” 20 Reales Coin

87 Monarchial Succesion Reis- Brazil- The Coat of Arms of Joao- Seen as Counterstamp on 1796 Coin (Prior Slide)

88 Political 1761- North Wales “Fox” Half Penny with inscription “LIBERTY”

89 Political Mexico Reales with Morelos Counterstamp and Cut-out

90 Shortages- Britain- George III
“The head of a fool in the neck of an ass” “Two heads not worth a crown” Mexico 8 Reales 1795 with British Counterstamp

91 Shortages and Trade- Guatemala over Peru
1888 Peru One Sol- Guatemala Counterstamp

92 Independent State- Republica de Piratina (Brazil)
Brazil Gold 20,000 Reis, 1726, Countermarked 1835

93 Independent State: Anguilla

94 Independent States-State of Hejaz (Lawrence of Arabia)
T. E. Lawrence, (Lawrence of Arabia), assisted Husain ibn Ali, the Amir of Mecca, lead a revolt against the Ottoman Turks during WW I Para Coin with Counterstamp of Hejaz ( )

95 Ownership Renaissance times- Eagle of Gonzaga on Æ Sestertius PLOTINA, wife of Trajan. Augusta, AD. Struck 112 AD. The Gonzagas were the rulers of Mantua, a city with an important ancient Roman connection

96 Countermarked Coins A Broad ,interesting theme for collecting and studying


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