2IntroductionThe marking of coins after minting:Common practice for as long as coinage has existedDefine CountermarkReasons for adding marks and stampsLook at the design, form and meaning
3DefinitionCounterstamp/Countermark:A mark added to a coinSubsequent to mintingWith a purposeUsually incuse into the designBears some kind of recognizable design, text, initials, or picture.
4Reasons to add a Counterstamp Assayer’s mark-Validate weight, metal content and puritySatisfy a shortage- use someone else’s coinsPolitical or Economic TakeoverEstablish Independent StateStatus- Indicate ownership
30PAMPHYLIA Side. 3rd - 2nd century B.C.: Classical Period.PAMPHYLIA Side. 3rd - 2nd century B.C.:AR drachm (3.76 g). Bee countermark.
31Classical PeriodKINGS of MACEDON. Alexander III ‘the Great’ BC. Tetradrachm . (195/4 BC).Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin/ Zeus enthroned left.TRAL and bowcase in circular incuse
32Classical Period- Alexander the Great- Tetradrachm (190 BC) The TRAL countermark was applied in Tralles, Lydia.Other bow and bowcase countermarks on to Pergamon, Ephesos, Sardes, Tralles, Laodikeia, and Apameia.Linked to the introduction of the cistophoric coinage circa 180 BC.Permitted the circulation of Attic weight coins in the years following political reform.
33Classical PeriodMACEDONIAN KINGS Alexander the Great B.C.: AR tetradrachm (28 mm, g). Aspendus mint. Head of Heracles/ Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle and sceptre. Countermark: head of Helios facing front
34Tetradrachm- 320 BC Basileos Hellenistic Period.Tetradrachm- 320 BC Basileos
35Hellenistic Period (336 BC-30 BC) .305 BC Paphos Mint-Basileos Ptolemy I and II AR Tetradrachm Multiple Bankers Marks Date: BC Obverse: Diademed bust righteverse: Eagle standing left mm
36Hellenistic PeriodAfter 250 BC. AR Didrachm (8.16g). Turreted head of Nymph Sinope left; countermark: radiate head of Helios facing, ΣΙΝΟΠΕΩΝRev Poseidon sitting on throne left, holding dolphin and trident; countermark: laureate head of horned Poseidon left.
37Hellenistic PeriodBythinia-228BC Three Countermarks: Altar, Lyre, Goddess
38Hellenistic Period Lycia Termessus Minor AE22 / Bee Counterstamp Date: 1st century BC Obverse: Laureate head of Zeus right, sceptre behind Reverse: Legend above and beneath winged thunderbolt, Bee countermark Size: 22.8 mm weight: 3.9 grams
40Roman Counterstamped Coins Counterstamped Roman Coins are of great historical value.Help trace the movement of Roman Legions across EuropeShed Light on political uprisings and successionsEdwin Howgego- BritishMuseum of Countermarks on Roman Coins
41Roman Æ Sestertius (24.75 gm). Struck 8-10 AD..XLI for countermark. Æ As (10.63gm). Struck AD. TIB in incuse oval.
42RomanAUGUSTUS. A Pair of Augustan denarii, both with Vespasian counterstamps. Countermarked at Ephesos, circa AD. both with bold counterstamps. Both Howgego 839
43Roman CILICIA, Tarsus. Hadrian. 117-138 AD. AR Tetradrachm Countermarked under Caracalla, AD. laureate head of Caracalla right, AMK:Prwth Megisth Kallisth (First, Greatest, Most Beautiful), epithets granted to the city of Tarsus upon Caracalla's arrival there in 215 AD.
44Roman Coin Expert- Christopher Howgego Project director, Roman Provincial Coinage in the Antonine PeriodUniversity Lecturer in Numismatics, Reader in Greek and Roman Numismatics., Faculty of Classics Senior Assistant Keeper, The Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, UK.1994: ''Coin circulation and the integration of the Roman economy'', 1995: ''The circulation of silver coins, models of the Roman economy” 1995: Ancient History from Coins, Routledge, London, 176.
46Roman- X Legion"X" for LEGIO X GEMINA on Nero Dupondius, Pannonia Superior, possible applied later during Vespasianus
47Roman- XII LegionTwo well-worn coins with XII Legion Fulminata Countermark (Turkey)For List of Roman Legions:
48Roman- 42 Nummi Denominational Counterstamp "XLII" on Galba As, such countermarks are known to have been used by the Ostrogoths and Vandals to mark Dupondias 42 Nummi (XLII). They prove coins being in circulation some 400 years or more after their initial issue.
49Roman- ThraceTHRACE Imbros. Augustus 27 B.C. - A.D. 14.: AE 14. Bare head right. COUNTERMARK (Howgego 431)
50Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins (online museum)
51PART 2- Spain, Mexico and the New World Starting in 1500’sCoins used for tradeBanker’s marksChopmarksAssayer’s marksSpanish CobsPillar DollarsBustDollarsMexico Eagle DollarsU.S Trade Dollar
52 Chinese chopmarked foreign silver coins to: Assayer’s marks Chinese chopmarked foreign silver coins to:Identify the payers who handed out the coin as paymentGuarantee the fineness of the coins by the merchant or local bank who choppedAssay the coin for its silver fineness and authenticate it by deep chopping
53Assayer’s marks- Cob Coinage 1580-1732 1730 Cob- Mexico 8 Reales- With Countermarks from Island of Madura, Sultnate of Soumanap
94Independent States-State of Hejaz (Lawrence of Arabia) T. E. Lawrence, (Lawrence of Arabia), assisted Husain ibn Ali, the Amir of Mecca, lead a revolt against the Ottoman Turks during WW I Para Coin with Counterstamp of Hejaz ( )
95OwnershipRenaissance times- Eagle of Gonzaga on Æ Sestertius PLOTINA, wife of Trajan. Augusta, AD. Struck 112 AD.The Gonzagas were the rulers of Mantua, a city with an important ancient Roman connection
96Countermarked Coins A Broad ,interesting theme for collecting and studying