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1 Heraldry-Coats of Arms in Coinage By Xavier Pique.

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1 1 Heraldry-Coats of Arms in Coinage By Xavier Pique

2 2 What is Heraldry- Background Where and when did Heraldry arise? Blazoning- Design The Coat of Arms Coats of arms in coinage 1200-Present Introduction

3 3 Heraldry- A system for controlling the markings applied to armory and shields Provide easy, unique identification Useful in battle Assigned to Noble (King, Duke, Count)

4 4 From the ninth to the early eleventh centuries (AD ), Western Europe suffered invasions Magyars from the east, Muslims from the south, and Vikings from the north Unrest ultimately spurred greater unity in England, Germany and Europe Lots of Warfare- Crusades (Starting 1095)

5 5 Heraldry arose, almost spontaneously throughout Europe In a short space of time between Coinciding with the development of more sophisticated armor

6 6 Landowners hired Knights to defend territory or make war in exchange for estates Heraldic markings adopted when the face became invisible behind closed helmets Many Titled landowner types existed: Kingdom, County, Barony, Principality, Duchy, Bishopric, Imperial Free City, Papal State, Territory, Commonwealth, Crown Colony, Palatinate, Landgrave, Margrave Each entity had a coat of Arms- Many issued Coinage

7 7

8 8 Hedingham Castle- England Built 1140 AD 12 CENTURY SETTING No Electricity No Running Water Black Plague (1340) No Firearms (1420) No Printed Books (1436) Battles Waged on foot or on horse Swords Bow and Arrow Spears

9 9 ORIGINS OF HERALDRY- THE BAYEUX TAPESTRY 1066 Chronicles the Norman conquest of England by William the Conqueror in No Formal Coat of Arms

10 10 Origins of Heraldry The Enamel Plaque of Geoffroy Plantagenêt Compte d'Anjou and du Maine ( ) and father of Henry II, king of England Markings on Shield Not Formal Coat of Arms

11 11 Tomar, Portugal –Convento de Cristo Tomb of Knight Templar circa 1160

12 12 Codex Manesse Late 13 th Century- Knights in Joust

13 13 The Full Coat of Arms- Elements Charge

14 14 Blazoning- Designing and Describing a Shield Per Fess Or and Sable, a Lion Rampant Gules

15 15 History in Coat of Arms- Spain Castile Leon Aragon Navarre Granada Bourbon Supporters Pillars& Motto Royal Crown

16 16 Partitions and Colors of Shield

17 17 Heralds- Officials in charge of controlling Coats of Arms- Royal College of Arms- England- Est by King Richard III

18 18 The Earliest Coin displaying Coat of Arms France- Louis IX The Saint Gold (Ecu DOr) 1260s- Rare Source: Barrie Cook, Numis. Curator, British Museum

19 19 Sicily- Federico II Son of Peter III Coat of Arms of House of Aragon (Peter III The Great)- Ruled Sicily ( ) Earliest Coins displaying Coats of Arms:

20 20 T-17 Austria, Frederick the Handsome, , AR Pfennig Arms of Austria

21 21 Schönvorst-Sichem 1391 Turnose groschen Argent, Nine Roundels Gules Arms of Reinier van Schoonvorst II - Belgium

22 22 King Juan II of Castile, AD, Dobla de la Banda, Seville Mint

23 23 Aachen (Germany) Turnose-groschen 1411

24 24 Jean sans Peur (John the Fearless- Duke of Burgundy) ( )

25 25 Bingen 1437 Goldgulden Bingen am Rhein- Tower and City Arms

26 26 Bacharach 1443 Groschen The arms of the Palatinate (Province of HRE)

27 27 GERMANY, Palatinate, Philipp, , dated Goldgulden The arms of the Palatinate, Mayence (Mainz), Trier and Cologne in a border Mainz Cologne Trier

28 28 Saxony Homgroschen Shield and Full Arms of Saxony

29 29 Prince electors of the Holy Roman Empire- 13 th Century Archbishop of Cologne, Archbishop of Mainz, Archbishop of Trier, Count Palatine, Duke of Saxony, Margrave of Brandenburg and King of Bohemia)

30 30 Duchy of Brabant 1476 (Belgium) Double Briquet

31 31 Prince Bishopric of Liege ( Belgium) 1478 Double Patard- Fleur de Lis with Bend

32 32 Brabant 1488 Double Patard Belgium.

33 33 Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy ( )

34 34 Guldiner- Sigismund Archduke of Austria/Tyrol (Shields of his domains) 1486

35 35 Holy Roman Empire (minted at Dordrecht, Holland Gold Real (Grand Real d'Or) 1487

36 36 Pomerania, Garz (Poland on the Baltic Sea) Schilling 1489 Argent, a griffin rampant or

37 37 Wesel, Germany (Julich-Cleve-Berg) 1490 Groschen Coats of Arms- Duchy of Cleves; 1600 Map detail- Julich

38 38 SPAIN Castille & Leon Ferdinand & Isabella Sponsors of Christopher Columbus

39 39 Henry Vlll Groat ( ) England Order of the Garter

40 40 ALTDEUTSCHLAND Augsburg Germany. Batzen Town arms- Swiss Pine Cone and column Pillar

41 41 Edward VI of England ( ) House of Tudor Fine Silver- Shilling

42 42 Phillip II Cob 4 Reales Granada Mint

43 France 1/4 Ecu Henry IV 28 mm silver

44 44 James 1 (House of Stuart England ) Shilling, third coinage 1603

45 Salsburg, Austria Silver 1/6 Thaler – Archbishop Max Gandolph von Kuenburg, Ecclesiastical state of the Holy Roman Empire. St Rupert/Arms

46 46 William and Mary England ( )

47 47 Spain PhilipV 8 Escudos Gold

48 48 Spain Charles III Pillar 8 Reales

49 49 Switzerland-Bern, 1796, AR 1/2 Thaler

50 Danish West Indies (now US Virgin Islands ) X Skilling Denmark Coat of Arms

51 51 Aargau, Switzerland /2 rappen

52 52 United States Double Eagle – Resembles coat of arms

53 53 Chile 1872 One peso

54 54 Australia Threepence (1908 Coat of Arms)

55 55 German Notgeld (Emergency Money) -Lugde 2 Marks Notgeldgng761_f.jpg

56 56 Coat of Arms- Croatia/ 2 Kune 1941 Checquy argent and gules

57 57 Denmark Krone error coin

58 Dollars St. Lucia

59 59 Recap- Coats of Arms Developed for Identification of Knights in 12 th Century Evolved into Identification and Symbol of Nobility Adopted by Nations, States and Cities Still in use- powerful symbols full of meaning Over 8,000 Coins with Coats or Arms issued Most Common Symbol Aldermaston, Berkshire England

60 60 THE END Bisham Abbey, Berkshire, England

61 61 REFERENCES Heraldic Coats of Arms on Coins of the World, 1700–1998:Charler R. Hosch

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