# Controlled-Trial Designs See Batterham and Hopkins, Sportscience 9, 33-39, 2005. Choice determined by availability of subjects, reliability of dependent.

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Controlled-Trial Designs See Batterham and Hopkins, Sportscience 9, 33-39, 2005. Choice determined by availability of subjects, reliability of dependent variable, and time to wash out treatment. Time Series Weakest design Any change post treatment could be coincidental. Analyze using within-subject modeling Fit line or curve to each subject's baseline. Extrapolate to the post-test. Paired t of observed post minus predicted post.

Posts-only Controlled Trial Least disturbance of subjects Large sample size, but sample size is smaller than for the usual pre-post designs for variables with sufficiently poor reliability. Analyze via unequal-variances unpaired t. Can get estimate of individual responses as an SD, but not usefully for individuals.

Pre-post Controlled Trial (or fully-controlled trial) Most common design. Analyze difference of changes via unequal-variances unpaired t. Pre-post Crossover Best design if all subjects motivated to know effect of treatment on themselves. Analyze change of changes via paired t. washout

Posts-only Crossover Least number of subjects and tests when reliability high. But can get estimate of individual responses only if include a repeat of one of the treatments for each subject. Analyze via paired t. Important to control for the order effect, if it is substantial and there are unequal numbers in the crossover groups. A spreadsheet is on its way. washout

Decision Tree

Time-series trial n=10-??? NOYES Can you use a control group or a separate control treatment?

Posts-only trial n=2x 150 NOYES Is the measurereliable a over the intervention period?

NOYES Fully-controlled trial n=2x 10-300- Will the intervention wash out in an acceptable time for a crossover?

Simple crossover n=10-75 Fully-controlled crossover n=10-300 NOYES Is the measurereliable b over washout+interventionperiod? NOYES Are you limited by subjects or resources?

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