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How to Give Talks Will G. Hopkins Physiology and Physical Education University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand © 2001.

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Presentation on theme: "How to Give Talks Will G. Hopkins Physiology and Physical Education University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand © 2001."— Presentation transcript:

1 How to Give Talks Will G. Hopkins Physiology and Physical Education University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand © 2001

2 Overview Giving a good talk is an essential skill for researchers and instructors. Giving a good talk is an essential skill for researchers and instructors. You want feedback on your data or ideas, so put them across well. You want feedback on your data or ideas, so put them across well. Conferences are fun - if you give your talk well. Conferences are fun - if you give your talk well. Its all a game. Learn the rules and youll enjoy it more. Its all a game. Learn the rules and youll enjoy it more.

3 Topics in This Presentation The Talk Itself The Talk Itself The Discussion The Discussion The Slides The Slides For the Audience For the Audience For the Chairperson For the Chairperson

4 The Talk Itself - General Paint a big picture first, then zoom in on your little pixel. Paint a big picture first, then zoom in on your little pixel. Impress by informing, not performing. Impress by informing, not performing. You know more about the topic than most of the audience. Get down to their level. You know more about the topic than most of the audience. Get down to their level. Avoid jargon, be colloquial, but be precise. Avoid jargon, be colloquial, but be precise. A short relevant joke is great. Anything else is tedious. A short relevant joke is great. Anything else is tedious. Never apologize. Never apologize.

5 [Down Under joke]

6 The Talk Itself - Preparation Rehearse! Rehearse! Present it to colleagues early enough to make major changes, if necessary. Present it to colleagues early enough to make major changes, if necessary. Run through it again at the conference well before your session. Run through it again at the conference well before your session. Check out the controls for the lights, projector, pointer, and microphone before your session. Check out the controls for the lights, projector, pointer, and microphone before your session.

7 The Talk Itself - Delivery (1) Relax… Who will care in 100 years time? Relax… Who will care in 100 years time? Dont read out the title if the chair has. Dont read out the title if the chair has. Avoid trivial opening remarks. Get on with it. Avoid trivial opening remarks. Get on with it. Dont read the talk verbatim! Ad lib it from notes of the main points. Dont read the talk verbatim! Ad lib it from notes of the main points.

8 The Talk Itself - Delivery (2) Speak slowly, loudly, clearly. Speak slowly, loudly, clearly. Keep your mouth near the microphone. Keep your mouth near the microphone. Keep facing the audience. Keep facing the audience. Make eye contact with as many people as possible. Make eye contact with as many people as possible. Avoid verbal or postural mannerisms that distract or annoy. Avoid verbal or postural mannerisms that distract or annoy.

9 The Talk Itself - Delivery (3) Avoid long quotes on a slide, and dont read them out verbatim. Avoid long quotes on a slide, and dont read them out verbatim. Point to detail on a slide as you explain it. Point to detail on a slide as you explain it. Explain the axes of a graph. Explain the axes of a graph. Dont go over time. Dont go over time. Dont finish with any questions? Dont finish with any questions? Finish with thank you. Then flick up a black slide, especially with PowerPoint. Finish with thank you. Then flick up a black slide, especially with PowerPoint.

10 The Talk Itself - Using Hardware (1) Control the light pointer. Control the light pointer. Use both hands to limit shaking.Use both hands to limit shaking. Or brace your hand against the lectern.Or brace your hand against the lectern. Dont use the blackboard or whiteboard during the talk. Dont use the blackboard or whiteboard during the talk. For long intervals between slides, put the lights on, and turn off the projector or have a black slide. For long intervals between slides, put the lights on, and turn off the projector or have a black slide.

11 The Talk Itself - Using Hardware (2) Two projectors are for experts. Two projectors are for experts. Run different media in series, not in parallel. Run different media in series, not in parallel. Make sure a video is ready to go with the touch of ONE button. Make sure a video is ready to go with the touch of ONE button.

12 Question Time Make the most of it - you usually get helpful suggestions. Make the most of it - you usually get helpful suggestions. Prepare answers for some questions. Use a stooge to ask them. Prepare answers for some questions. Use a stooge to ask them. Have extra slides ready. Have extra slides ready. Be thankful and polite - employers and reviewers may be in the audience. Be thankful and polite - employers and reviewers may be in the audience.

13 The Slides - General Use 35 mm or PowerPoint at conferences. Use 35 mm or PowerPoint at conferences. Take a backup copy of PowerPoint slides. Take a backup copy of PowerPoint slides. Use OHP transparencies only for local seminars and last-minute ideas or data. Use OHP transparencies only for local seminars and last-minute ideas or data. Think simple. Think simple. Use BIG standard fonts. Use BIG standard fonts. Run a spelling check. Run a spelling check. Avoid irrelevant slides of athletes. Avoid irrelevant slides of athletes.

14 [Sport vs science joke]

15 The Slides - Content Title: include collaborators and funders. Title: include collaborators and funders. Next slides: e.g. background, research question, methods, results, summary. Next slides: e.g. background, research question, methods, results, summary. Dont waste a slide on the above list. Dont waste a slide on the above list. A relevant joke slide is OK. A relevant joke slide is OK. How many slides? Count on about 1-2 minutes per slide. How many slides? Count on about 1-2 minutes per slide. Use duplicate slides rather than back track to a previous slide. Use duplicate slides rather than back track to a previous slide.

16 The Slides - Tables and Figures Never copy them 1:1 from a paper. Enlarge or redraw. Never copy them 1:1 from a paper. Enlarge or redraw. Include a title. Include a title. Use a bare minimum of digits. Use a bare minimum of digits. Include SDs, not SEMs. Include SDs, not SEMs. Use * and * * rather than P values. Use * and * * rather than P values. Better still: show likely range of true values. Better still: show likely range of true values. Avoid test statistics (t, F, ). Avoid test statistics (t, F, ).

17 sprintendurance females age (y)22 ± 426 ± 5 height (cm)172 ± 8171 ± 8 height (cm)172 ± ± 8 weight (kg)66 ± 763 ± 6 males age (y)19 ± 425 ± 4 height (cm)180 ± 9177 ± 9 height (cm)180 ± ± 9 weight (kg)73 ± 867 ± 8 N = Data are mean ± SD. Characteristics of athletes in sprint and endurance sports

18 OOOBBB MMMMMMM SSSSS PPPPPP exercise time (min) M - map reading test - map reading test P - Peripheral vision test - Peripheral vision test S - Stroop color-word test - Stroop color-word test B - blood lactate assay - blood lactate assay O S S - oxygen uptake assay - oxygen uptake assay Protocol for study of cognitive function in orienteers S

19 The Slides - Graphs Use graphs in preference to tables. Use graphs in preference to tables. Use the right kind of graph for the data. Use the right kind of graph for the data. Label individual lines or bars rather than use a key. Label individual lines or bars rather than use a key. Use a bare minimum of ticks and numbers on axes. Use a bare minimum of ticks and numbers on axes. Use LARGE symbols on plotted points. Vary symbol shape for the colorblind. Use LARGE symbols on plotted points. Vary symbol shape for the colorblind. This: Not this:

20 Effect of drug or placebo on maximum oxygen uptake during 16 weeks of training Data are means and SDs. drug placebo * * base-line drug or placebo time (weeks) maximumoxygenuptake (ml.min -1.kg -1 )

21 Reaction time of novice and elite athletes in three phases of training reaction time (ms) 80 build-up taper pre-season * novice elite build-up Data are means and SDs.

22 For the Audience Get there on time. Get there on time. Dont snigger at foolish speakers. Dont snigger at foolish speakers. Dont annoy your neighbour. Dont annoy your neighbour. Make your questions pithy, and dont show off TOO much. Make your questions pithy, and dont show off TOO much. Ask a simple question: the answer will help other people understand. Ask a simple question: the answer will help other people understand.

23 For the Chairperson - At the Start Check out the hardware beforehand. Check out the hardware beforehand. Meet the speakers and arrange a signal to let them know when time is up. Meet the speakers and arrange a signal to let them know when time is up. Introduce yourself and the session. Introduce yourself and the session. Name the speaker and read the title. Name the speaker and read the title. Eulogize the big shots. Eulogize the big shots. Say when questions can be asked. Say when questions can be asked. Fix any problems during the talk. Fix any problems during the talk.

24

25 For the Chairperson - At the End Warn speakers when time is nearly up. Warn speakers when time is nearly up. Lead the applause. Lead the applause. Invite questions if time permits, or ask people to meet the speaker afterwards. Invite questions if time permits, or ask people to meet the speaker afterwards. Have a question ready in case no-one asks any. Have a question ready in case no-one asks any. Finish the session with thanks to the speakers, then lead more applause. Finish the session with thanks to the speakers, then lead more applause.

26 In Conclusion... Be obsessional! Give it your best shot. Be obsessional! Give it your best shot. Be creative - break the rules sometimes. Be creative - break the rules sometimes. Will it help get the message across? Will it help get the message across? Yes:Do it.Yes:Do it. No:Drop it.No:Drop it.


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