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1 Organizzazione Internazionale per le Migrazioni Identification of victims of trafficking and other vulnerable groups within mixed migratory flows arriving.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Organizzazione Internazionale per le Migrazioni Identification of victims of trafficking and other vulnerable groups within mixed migratory flows arriving."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Organizzazione Internazionale per le Migrazioni Identification of victims of trafficking and other vulnerable groups within mixed migratory flows arriving via sea: The Lampedusa case

2 2 Organizzazione Internazionale per le Migrazioni A small island of 22km 2 in the Mediterranean

3 3 Organizzazione Internazionale per le Migrazioni During the past 7 years the southern Italian coasts have witnessed the arrival by sea of around irregular migrants with most landings on the small island of Lampedusa Since 2006 – within the Praesidium project - IOM, UNHCR, the Italian Red Cross and Save the Children established a stable presence on the island to enhance the capacity of the Italian Government to manage the arrivals of such migrants and guarantee the protection of most vulnerable groups Major migratory flows come from Africa and Asia. The most important departure points are Libya, Tunisia and Egypt

4 4 Organizzazione Internazionale per le Migrazioni Some data 2013 (31° May 2013) Lampedusa Total Italy Lampedusa5.034 Total Italy Lampedusa Total Italy Lampedusa458 Total Italy

5 5 Organizzazione Internazionale per le Migrazioni A holistic multiagency approach Look at mixed migratory flows as a complex phenomenonLook at mixed migratory flows as a complex phenomenon Provide tailored assistance to different categories of migrants – different people/different needsProvide tailored assistance to different categories of migrants – different people/different needs Ensure information sharing and referral mechanisms for further investigation and protectionEnsure information sharing and referral mechanisms for further investigation and protection

6 6 Organizzazione Internazionale per le Migrazioni Mixed migratory flows arriving by sea Asylum seekers – Dublin unit cases Economic/voluntary migrants Victims of trafficking and violence Unaccompanied minors Migrants with disabilities Elders Others (family reunification)

7 7 Organizzazione Internazionale per le Migrazioni Mixed migratory flows arriving by sea 2 As an example... Somalis, Eritreans, Malians asylum seekers (with the goal of reaching the Nordics or UK)- Dublin cases Nord African migrants coming for economic, personal, other reasons Young Nigerian girls trafficked for sexual exploitation Egyptian unaccompanied minors subject to labour exploitation (unaccompanied minors cant be expelled in Italy) Pakistani and Indians deceated, trafficked and used for the care of cattle in many regions of Southern of Italy Most smuggled migrants end up being exploited by Italian firms or employers – collection of fruit and vegetables Migrants of different nationalities that have just being denied a Visa for family reunification or other kind of Visa by EU Consulates Irregular migrants that have already connections with criminal organizations (drug, etc...). Some of them re-entry

8 8 Organizzazione Internazionale per le Migrazioni Trafficking indicators for sexual exploitation at border points More than 1350 Nigerian women arrived in 2011 Nationality (Nigeria – Edo State) always rural areas Age 18/22 years Basic level of education Most of them declared to be orphan Most of them declared of not having paid for the travel and to have been taken in Italy by a good samaritan Parts of travel made with different accompaniers (the victim is often sold) and with forged documents Duration and conditions of stay in Libya Having already suffered from previous violence Physical evidence (scars, abortions) General immaturity Oath

9 9 Organizzazione Internazionale per le Migrazioni Difficulties in ensuring protection Lack of time for trust building Reluctancy to cooperate and talk to a «foreigner» Trust in co - nationals Fear for themselves or for possible retaliations to their family in the country of origin Sense of betrayal Gratitude for the traffickers Non comprehension of the entity of the debth (how long does it take for me to gain Euro?) Non correct understanding of the level of exploitation Migrants are invited by traffickers to abuse the asylum procedure to stay regularly in the country for a determined period In some cases acquisition of more freedom (madams let the migrants keep some gainings)

10 10 Organizzazione Internazionale per le Migrazioni Victims of trafficking – protection schemes and referral mechanisms upon landing What we can do: Information sessions dedicated to women (risk: the trafficker might be in the group) – with cultural mediators Distribution of information leaflet with hot line number Individual counselling, trust bulding and case assesment Referral to police and judicial authority in Lampedusa and Sicily – where applicable Referral to medical/psyco support when requested or needed Request to the competent authorities to trasfer the victim in a protected enviroment Request the police and the judicial authority to release the residence permits ex art 18 – Italian Immigration Act (two path approach);

11 11 Organizzazione Internazionale per le Migrazioni Other mechanisms envisaged for vulnerable migrants upon arrival Access to asylum procedures and transfer to ad hoc reception centers for status determination (legal counselling) Special assistance for unaccompanied minors (correct age determination, assistance in collecting documentation, transfer in special structures) Migrants that cooperate with police in the identification of traffickers (case assesment, transfer to specialised structures that provide them with legal assistance, orientation and release of temporary residence permit) Dublin cases and family reunification (specific legal counselling) Assistance to migrants that can not be expelled i.e pregnant women, persons with particular deseases or vulnerabilities (individual counselling and referral)

12 12 Organizzazione Internazionale per le Migrazioni Enhancement of investigative measures at landing points Enhancement of multiagency approach Secondment of cultural mediators with specific experience Need to investigate more on the trafficking crime (not only smuggling) Promotion of protection schemes that envisage the immediate transfer in shelters of the victims and the release of temporary permits to stay Group counselling sessions on trafficking risks and irregular stay Dissemination of information booklet and hotline numbers for further assistance Ensuring ad hoc funding for such activities

13 13 Organizzazione Internazionale per le Migrazioni Thank you Simona Moscarelli Migration Law expert IOM Rome


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