Presentation on theme: "BARRIERS TO GENERICS IN CENTRAL&EASTERN EUROPE SPRING GOMBE HEALTH ACTION INTERNATIONAL-EUROPE."— Presentation transcript:
BARRIERS TO GENERICS IN CENTRAL&EASTERN EUROPE SPRING GOMBE HEALTH ACTION INTERNATIONAL-EUROPE
THE CEE COUNTRIES CENTRAL EUROPE –Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia THE BALTICS –Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania RUSSIA, UKRAINE AND THE NIS –Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan (the CIS-7) + Belarus SOUTHEAST EUROPE –Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, FYR Macedonia, FedYR (Serbia/Montenegro)
THE CEE COUNTRIES EU ACCESSION COUNTRIES & RUSSIA MEDIUM INCOME CIS-7 COUNTRIES, BALTIC COUNTRIES, THE UKRAINE LOW INCOME
THE EU ACCESSION COUNTRIES BULGARIA CZECH REPUBLIC HUNGARY POLAND ROMANIA SLOVAKIA SLOVENIA ESTONIA LATVIA LITHUANIA
GENERICS: EXTERNAL ISSUES ACCESS Interpretation of Multilateral trade and IP agreements: WTO - TRIPS WIPO – Patent Treaties The associated pressures: EU ACCESSION BILATERAL AGREEMENTS WITH USA
GENERICS: INTERNAL ISSUES QUALITY STANDARD –chemical equivalence & bioequivalence –WHO prequalification ACCEPTANCE –Professional and public awareness, education PRICE INFRASTRUCTURE
GENERICS: OUTSTANDING ISSUES December TRIPS Council Meeting –Resolve par. 6 of Doha, We recognise that WTO Members with insufficient or no manufacturing capacities … could face difficulties in making effective use of compulsory licensing…
GENERICS: OUTSTANDING ISSUES EU, USA want to exclude CEE countries from resolution of Doha issues
GENERICS: INTERNAL ISSUES QUALITY STANDARD –chemical equivalence & bioequivalence –WHO prequalification INFRASTRUCTURE PRICE ACCEPTANCE –Professional and public awareness, education
GENERICS: QUALITY LOCAL PRODUCTION vs IMPORT Theoretically no difference –medicines produced in Hungary vs medicines produced in India Need good regulatory processes Local production needs economies of scale & large-scale investment –need to determine if this is the best use of limited healthcare resources
Infrastructure: Rational Drug Use Right medicine for the right condition for a specific patient based on evidence –evidence comes from literature, not from folklore, empirical experience Post-marketing surveillance – not enough to fight for early registration of products. Need good patient-inclusive monitoring systems for side-effects, including feedback with good information INFRASTRUCTURE: RATIONAL DRUG USE
INFRASTRUCTURE: PROCUREMENT & DELIVERY Medications (incl. ARVs) should be part of a well-run system (not parallel) Procurement should be rationalised –NOT donations, private systems, unreliable sources Delivery should be through a sustainable, context-appropriate system –specialised centres? –health clinics? –general practitioners?
Infrastructure: Training & Professionalism Healthcare workers need training –technical: how to treat –attitudes: acceptance & integration Healthcare workers need to be compensated properly for the work they do –incentive –prevent brain drain –prevent corruption INFRASTRUCTURE: TRAINING AND PROFESSIONALISM
GENERICS: PRICE: IMPORT TARIFFS Monetary Tariffs –essential drugs should be exempt from import taxes Restrictions –essential drugs should be exempt from import restrictions
GENERICS: PRICE: SALES TAX AND MARGINS Sales Tax –some governments charge VAT on medicines –make no distinction between essential medicines and others –can add up to 20% more to the cost Margins –pharmacies should charge a flat fee, not margins
GENERICS: PRICE: REGULATORY FEES Registration –Regulatory agencies should be able to charge a fair price for their services –Annual registration fees are unnecessary and simply increase prices Quality –no need to repeat quality tests already performed by recognised agencies Professionals –unnecessary registration fees should be avoided –entry to professions should be based on competence
INFRASTRUCTURE: MEDICINE EXPENDITURE Expenditure per person in US $ source: The European Health Report, WHO
GENERICS: EXTERNAL ISSUES ACCESS Interpretation of Multilateral Trade and IP agreements: –WTO TRIPS –WIPO Patent Treaties The associated pressures: –EU ACCESSION –BILATERAL AGREEMENTS WITH USA
MULTILATERAL TREATIES - THE EU Data exclusivity - TRIPS 39.3 Data exclusivity vs. Bolar exception
DATA EXCLUSIVITY Data Exclusivity guarantees market protection for branded pharmaceuticals by preventing health authorities, during a given period (6 or 10 years), from accepting applications for generic medicines.
DATA EXCLUSIVITY The effective period of market protection is the given period of data exclusivity plus the period to register and market the generic medicine (i.e. a further 2-3 years).
DATA EXCLUSIVITY Ten-year periods of data exclusivity are in operation in eight EU countries: [Belgium, France, Italy, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden and UK]. Ten-year period of data exclusivity is granted for all approvals under the Centralised Procedure.
MULTILATERAL TREATIES - THE EU The European Commission proposes to Extend overall periods of exclusivity to up to 11 years, potentially preventing the marketing of generics until well after the expiry of the patent; Eliminate the right to prevent the data exclusivity from running beyond the patent Further increase extension provision by allowing already patent protected second indications to be used as a justification for adding one year to the first indication, the 10+1 (11-year)
MULTILATERAL TREATIES - THE EU Further increase extension provision by allowing already patent protected second indications to be used as a justification for adding one year to the first indication, the 10+1 (11- year) Use the Bolar exception as a balance for data exclusivity
MULTILATERAL TREATIES - THE EU Registration of generics allowed as long as testing is done outside EU member states – will push generic industry right out
BILATERAL TREATIES - THE USA Change in International Development Policy The New USAID –Expenditure on WTO Agreements –SEGIR Indefinite Quantity Contracts –The experts used Pressure for strong data exclusivity provisions The use of threat – Special 301 – Sanction can be based on TRIPS+ provisions
PROPRIETARY INDUSTRY Corruption of US and EU Policy spreads rapidly Disproportionate Influence Ever-expanding involvement in development policy –Examples SEGIR Consortia USA –UK Diplomatic Corps
OTHER ISSUES - THE EU Other exclusivities (formulation, uses, etc...) Strategic changes and uncertainties of reference products Patent evergreening and non uniform extensions Lengthy and complex authorisation system for generics Absence of a true pan-EU Registration system for generics
OTHER ISSUES: INDUSTRY Continued use of delaying tactics Litigation Reformulation New isomeric forms Change in manufacturing process Anticompetitive practices own generics cosy voluntary licensing
BEHIND IT ALL CIVIL SOCIETY weak, unable to demand that government adequately regulate industry, and respond to societal needs Very technical issues - unaware of problems disperse, unfamiliar with lobbying that wont work here
ACTIVISTS ROLES Fight for Access WITHIN an operational system –fight to address both immediate and system problems Unite with consumer groups/ networks –especially those with a health focus Practice enlightened self-interest
SPECIFICS Lobby for more funding in health care equity based insurance schemes effective and independent regulation of professions / pharmaceuticals for use of generics and against counterfeits (differentiate between the two) health-positive interpretation of patent laws (including TRIPS) appropriate development assistance