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Reconstruction & the New South Key Questions. How do nations recover from war? Form state governments Reconcile people that fought on opposing sides Rebuilding.

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Presentation on theme: "Reconstruction & the New South Key Questions. How do nations recover from war? Form state governments Reconcile people that fought on opposing sides Rebuilding."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reconstruction & the New South Key Questions

2 How do nations recover from war? Form state governments Reconcile people that fought on opposing sides Rebuilding infrastructure & replenishing food supplies What were the effects of the Civil War on the South? Cities, plantations, & transportation systems were destroyed. Economy was in shambles. Southerners were upset that the confederate cause had been lost.

3 Key Questions Why did President Lincoln favor a lenient policy toward the South? Where have we seen evidence of this before? Lincoln wanted to reconcile Southerners with the Union rather than punish them for treason. His goal was always to preserve the Union & therefore he wanted to bring the seceded states back quickly. To make the South’s return as easy as possible He came up with the 10% plan; States could be re-admitted if 10% of voters took an oath. Evidence is seen in Lincoln’s speeches throughout the war including the Gettysburg Address & his 2 nd Inaugural Address.

4 Key Questions How did Abraham Lincoln’s Assassination impact the post-Civil War United States? Lincoln was unable to carry out his lenient Reconstruction plan due to his death. He was also not able to provide his wisdom & leadership in reconstructing the nation. Lincoln’s assassination increased the Radical Republicans resolve to punish & exact revenge on the South. What key issues caused disagreements about how Reconstruction should take place? Under what conditions Southern states could organize state governments Oaths of loyalty Amnesty for high-ranking Confederates Protection of the rights of freedman

5 Key Questions What did the Radical Republicans want from Reconstruction? What were their goals? For the South to be punished To prevent Confederate leaders from returning to power To gain power for the Republican Party in the South To help African Americans achieve political equality via suffrage (the right to vote) How did the views of President Lincoln & President Johnson on Reconstruction differ from the views of the Radical Republicans? Both Presidents favored a lenient approach to Southerners, while the Radicals wanted to punish the South severely & wanted to grant freedman civil rights including the right to vote.

6 Key Questions Compare & contrast Presidential & Congressional Reconstruction? Presidential Executive branch should lead Reconstruction Return the South to the Union quickly States to rejoin the Union if they withdrew secession Swear allegiance to the Union Annul Confederate war debts Ratify the 13 th Amendment Congressional Punish slaveholders Congress should lead Reconstruction Freedman needed land, the vote, & legal protection Passage of the 14 th & 15 th Amendments & Reconstruction Act (military rule of the South)

7 KEY Questions What were the purposes of the Freedman’s Bureau? What services did they provide? To help newly freed African-Americans obtain food, find work, & get an education. How did Black Codes help bring about the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1866? They convinced Congress that the freedman needed federal laws to protect them. What were the main benefits that the 14 th Amendment offered African- Americans? It made them citizens, promised them due process of law, & tried to discourage states from denying them suffrage.

8 Key Questions What effect did the election of 1866 have on Republicans’ ability to carry out their plan for Reconstruction? The election gave them a majority large enough to pass laws & override vetos. What was the primary focus of Reconstruction legislation (i.e. Freedman’s Bureau, Civil Rights Act, 14 th Amendment, 15 th Amendment, etc.)? Granting & providing legal protection of African Americans’ civil rights.

9 Key Questions How & why did the Radical Republicans reduce the presidential power of Andrew Johnson? The Radical Republicans overrode Johnson’s vetos They did not agree with his policies regarding Reconstruction of the South

10 Key Questions How did the politics of Reconstruction affect African Americans? Corruption Influx of Northerners Prominence of African-American churches Rise of African-American politicians Rise of the Ku Klux Klan

11 Key Questions Why did the Radicals want to impeach President Johnson? They believed he was obstructing Reconstruction Efforts What were the main postwar problems Reconstruction governments in the South had to solve? Repairing physical damage meeting social needs such as education raising money

12 Key Questions What were some similarities in the goals of the Scalawags & Carpetbaggers? Of Carpetbaggers & African-Americans? Some shared the goal of making a profit Some shared the goal of improving African-American lives How did free African-Americans try to improve their lives or exercise their freedom? They searched for missing family members Sought an education Formed churches & volunteer groups Built their political power through elected office & the right to vote

13 Key Questions What caused land reform proposals to fail? Republicans in Congress thought it was wrong to take private property Land set aside was unsuitable for farming Former slaves lacked farming supplies What factors contributed to the South’s stagnated economy? Confederate debt Sagging demand for & falling prices of cotton The ongoing impact of Civil War devastation

14 Key Questions How did the Civil War weaken the South’s economy? It destroyed the South’s infrastructure including bridges & roads Devastated the population Devalued property Increased personal & government debts Limited land available for freedman Thaddeus Stevens believed that giving land to the freedman was more important than giving them the right to vote. Do you agree or disagree? Agree – because freed persons needed their own land to gain economic independence Disagree – because the right to vote gave freedman the power to change society’s laws

15 Key Questions Which accomplishment of African Americans during Reconstruction is most significant? Churches controlled by African Americans; ministers emerged as leaders Schools were formed that increased African American literacy Increased political involvement led to the power to attain equal rights What three groups made up the Republican Party in the South? Former slaves, white southerners called Scalawags, & Carpetbaggers who traveled to the South after the Civil War

16 Key Questions How did white landowners in the South reassert their economic power in the decade following the Civil War? They paid freedman low wages & trapped them in the sharecropping & tenant farming cycle of poverty

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