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F38 – UAS Standards Gap Analysis

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1 F38 – UAS Standards Gap Analysis
Gap Analysis Lead Author: F38 Member Laurence Newcome

2 Supplement - Gap Analysis in Detail
Recalling Subcommittee Structure: F38.01 Airworthiness Standards F38.02 Operations Standards F38.03 Pilot & Maintenance Qualifications The Gap Analysis Will provide guidance for standards bodies and user groups engaged in developing or adopting standards governing unmanned aircraft system design, manufacture, test, training, operation, and maintenance preclude duplicating existing standards already applicable to unmanned aviation identify gaps in standards coverage unique to needs of unmanned aviation Roadmap Key: ASTM F38 standards in progress - in orange ASTM approved standards – in yellow Outstanding needs – in red Member participation from around the world is what makes ASTM a truly international standards development organization. ASTM opens its doors to all interested individuals and organizations from around the globe that want to participate in the Society's consensus process for standards development. This process ensures that all interested parties have an equal vote in determining a standard's content. ASTM's enduring philosophy of consensus without borders helps make ASTM responsive and relevant to the needs of the global marketplace. As a result, more than 40 percent of ASTM's standards are sold outside the United States.

3 The ASTM F38 Standards Roadmap: WBS Example Format
Crew Qualifications Airframe Maintainers Crew Materials Structures Landing Gear Launch Devices Maintenance Environmental General Reciprocating Turbine Generators Fuels Electric Pilot Non-Pilot Schools Human Factors - Batteries - Solar - Radioisotope - Certificates - Ratings ASTM WK5423 Certificates and Ratings Issued for UAV Pilots and Operators UAS Operations Airframe Power Plant Ground Materials Structures Landing Gear Launch Devices Maintenance Environmental General Reciprocating Turbine Generators Fuels Electric Taxi Takeoff Landings - Batteries - Solar - Radioisotope - GSE ASTM Airworthiness Level 2 Airframe Power Plant Avionics Materials Structures Landing Gear Launch Devices Maintenance Environmental General Reciprocating Turbine Generators Fuels Electric Comm/NAV Data Links Safety /SA Level 3 Level 4 - Batteries - Solar - Radioisotope - De-Anti-Icing - Transponders - See & Avoid Level 5 ASTM F Standard Specification for Design & Performance UAS Airborne Sense and Avoid System Reference to Dewey decimal standards. Independent of existing standards. You have level one, representing the three subs of F38. Avionics is one of six categories under AW …so on. Level 5 is the actual standard product The standard will always be the last level; there may be some more general standards above it, though.

4 The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap: Level 1 - Airworthiness
Airframe Power Plant Avionics Materials Structures Landing Gear Launch Devices Maintenance Environmental General Reciprocating Turbine Generators Fuels Electric Comm/NAV Data Links Safety /SA Level 3 Level 4 - Batteries - Solar - Radioisotope - De-Anti-Icing - Transponders - See & Avoid Level 5 ASTM F Standard Specification for Design & Performance UAS Airborne Sense and Avoid System Reference to Dewey decimal standards. Independent of existing standards. You have level one, representing the three subs of F38. Avionics is one of six categories under AW …so on. Level 5 is the actual standard product The standard will always be the last level; there may be some more general standards above it, though.

5 The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 – AIRFRAME (under Level 1 Airworthiness)
Materials…………………………..MIL HDBK 5 (metals), 17 (composites) Structures…………………………MIL-HDBK 1530; MIL-STD 403A Landing Gear…………………….JIS W2502; FAA TSO-C62d; MIL-T-504; SAE ARP1493A Wheels/Brakes/Skid Control ARP1595A, ARP1907A, ARP813B, SAE ARP1311B, Gears/Struts/ Couplings ARP1598AAIR1494A, AIR4566, SAE AIR5487, AS1188 Tires Launch Devices…………………. ASTM F2585 Standard Specification for the Design and Performance of a Pneumatic UAS Launch System Recovery Devices………………. WK15881 Specification for Design and Performance of UAS Recovery Systems Environmental……………………(see next chart) RTCA DO-160C, External MIL HDBK 237 Internal (Onboard) General…………………………….14 CFR 21, 23, 25, 27, 29; ASTM F Standard Practices for Unmanned Aircraft System Airworthiness, ASTM F2501 Recommended Practices for Unmanned Aircraft System Airworthiness First, recognize the list is not all-inclusive. The intent was to find the leading resources, those most significant. Other references can be detailed at an individual task level. These are the industry recognized guidance materials that are used in manned and unmanned ways of doing business from design to flight. A first example of plugging the gap, is the catapult system. The first step is to get these aircraft flying, and there was no safe and standardized means by which to do it. Our membership has worked with all the manufactures in this niche market for pneumatic and hydraulic and bungee catapults (Robinics out of Finland, for example, is one of the lead companies). We go directly to industry, and our input is international in scope. Arresting gear is another one of the niche areas identified that needs to be addressee. Hunter and Shadow for example have portable arresting gear – very small market; use by a hundred or so models. Important to get. What they use on aircraft carriers are very complicated and steam-driven systems. We want a simplified, wide-market application to expedite growth and proliferate safe operation in recoveries. “If you can carry an aircraft carrier arresting gear around with you in a truck, then yes, we’re done!” General: there are two very different markets. You have the RC/mini industry that has their very finite aw issues. It draws the line between recreation or sport UAV and professional.

6 The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap: Level 3/4/5/6 - Environmental
General SAE ARP147E (terminology), ARP780B (symbols) External Altitude (TPH) MIL-STD 202, 810; RTCA DO-160; NEBS GR-63-CORE De-icing/Anti-icing (see Avionics/Safety; SAE AC-9C work) Rain, ice, lightning, etc. SAE AIR1168/4, ARP 5577; MIL-STD 810; RTCA DO-160 Salt, fog, dust, etc. MIL-STD 820; ASTM B117 Practice for Operating Salt Spray (Fog) Apparatus Fungus ASTM D120 Specification for Rubber Insulating Gloves, D470 Method for Crosslinked Insulations and Jackets for Wire and Cable, D518 Method for Rubber Deterioration- Surface Cracking; MIL-STD 810; RTCA DO-160 EMI, HERO, etc. MIL-STD 461D, 646; SAE ARP1972, ARP5583, ARP5889 Solar weather JEDEC JESD-89 Internal (Onboard) Temperature SAE AIR64B, AIR89D, AIR1277B, AS8040A Pressure SAE AIR1168/7 Humidity SAE AIR1609A, ARP987A Shock/Vibration/Accel MIL-STD 167, 202, 331 (catapult/arrested landing), 810 Acoustic SAE AIR1826 Take Environmental and walk it down to levels and six – one time boring down to more detail to show just how complicated this is. This represents the depth of detail in F2501. A great perspective is looking at solar weather for UAVs. Issues like the aurora can disrupt communications; airliners fly below it. But we looked at it as a consideration for HALE aircraft. TPH (Temperature Pressure and Humidity).

7 The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 - Powerplants
Reciprocating Engines 14 CFR 33, 34, 36; SAE AS25109, AS1B, ASTM WK9561 Design and Manufacture of Compression Ignition Engines for Unmanned Aircraft System Propellers CFR 35; SAE ARP355, AS107, AIR1872 Turbines 14 CFR 35, 34, 36; SAE ARP748A, AIR1872, ASTM WK9560 Practice for Design and Manufacture of Turbine Engines for Unmanned Aircraft System Electric Batteries IEC Std 952-1; MIL-B-8565; IEC 21/466/CD Solar (Photovoltaic) IEC 61427:1999 Radioisotope SAE AIR1213 Generators/Starters SAE AS13 Fuels ASTM D910 Specification for Aviation Gasolines, D1655 Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels Systems/Instruments SAE AIR1408, AS407, AS431, AR1326 Tanks SAE AIR4069A, AS5502A, AMSS8802B General (SAE E-25 works); MIL-STD-8879c Again, drilling down, where Reciprocating Engines is level 3 and propellers are level 4. Like with engines, the work product preceded the mapping. But the point here is that a niche need is identified, where UAV-specific criteria need to be identified. GOOD POINT: where a higher level standard exists on a topic, F38 will never duplicate or create conflicting information. They will move from that into more specifics as may be needed to suit UAVs. SAE E25 are a very strong committee on standards for aviation engines; we are always reviewing their portfolio for reference. Arresting gear – very large; volleyball nets used for lack of standard.

8 The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 - Avionics
Comm/Nav RTCA DO-187, DO-208, DO-278 Computers (SAE AS-2 works) Safety/Sit. Aware MIL-STD 882 Sense & Avoid ASTM F Standard Specification for Design and Performance of an Airborne Sense-and-Avoid System, RTCA DO-268 Anti-icing/Deicing SAE AS5498, AIR 4367 Transponders FAA TSO Links Security-none; NATO STANAG 4586; RTCA DO-254; SAE ARP4791 Software RTCA DO-178B General (SAE AS-1 works); ARINC 429 (analog) and 629 (digital) The major lacking point, anywhere, is an actual common avoidance algorithm for the see and avoid industry. Since a collision in 1986 in LAX, there has been no US-based collision. It spurred industry to model and improve safety. But then liability interrupted. If a collision occurred with a given company’s algorithm, then they would be liable. So the FAA assumed ownership of the common avoidance algorithm; they have the liability for it. With that coverage, the companies came out and used the same common baseline. There will likely have to be another FAA S&A algorithm. That will be the next step, and the result of national airspace modeling (which D0D has started) RTCA DO 268 actually contains the TCAS Links – Data link security has no standards (at least in the unclassified world) of ensuring that you and only you can talk to your plane over a datalink. Making it hacker-proof. The WK is not addressing the security issue. It does look at the requirements covering the design and performance of UAV data link systems. This specification includes requirements to provide radio frequency (RF) links capable of transmitting data for command and control of the air vehicle, payload data and other data between the air vehicle and control station. Found no standard for the reliability of datalink secrutigy. NSA may have some, but we don’t.

9 The ASTM F38.02 Standards Roadmap: Level 1 - Operations
UAS Operations General Flight Ground Terminology Symbology VFR IFR Payloads Taxi Takeoff Landings Getting away from the hardware-oriented standards now, and moving more into operations. These area regarding how you talk about and operate your UAV. What is unique to this industry, is ground and taxi. For example, UAVs like globalhawk had to emergency land on a runway that was not the intended runway. It calls the tower and says “I’ll be there in 5 minutes.” Now, what do you do with the lump of aircraft sitting on your runway. Perhaps some kind of switching and directions in the form of placards, etc. How do you smart operate. See and avoid will have to grow to also include ground equipment avoidance, tying it into throttle and brakes as well as maneuvering.

10 The ASTM F38.02 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 - General
Terminology ASTM F Terminology for Unmanned Air Vehicle Systems, AIAA R Symbology SAE ARP4155, ARP5289 Standardizing symbols used on placards and charts, etc

11 The ASTM F38.02 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 - Flight
VFR CFR 91, ASTM WK3135 Guide for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Authorization, WK10504 Practice for Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Visual Range Flight Operations IFR CFR 91, 95, ASTM WK3135 Guide for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Authorization Payloads Universal Interface; IEEE-1394b; SAE AS5609 SAE AS8039 Data Recorders SAE AS8039 Returnable Sensors SAE AIR4911, AS1212 (SWAP), AIR1277 (SWAP) Relay/ Broadcast Eqmt SAE J1113/28, J551/4, ARP5583 (HIRF) Deliverable 14 CFR 91 Weapons Positive Control, Weapon Safing: SAE AIR5532 Cargo SAE AS1325, AS5385, ARP1409, AS25959 Aerial Refueling SAE ARP1665, AS1284 Business Aviation Practices WK13989 Mini-UAS, Visual Range Operators ASTM efforts is focusing on what the UASs need for flight, more specifically. Needed items being pushed by DoD. Universal interface refers to a multipurpose type of adapters, rack sizes, connectors, flanges for swapping out and installing different payloads. Weapons: General Atomics has the lead there. RTCA is not chartered or covering this area. The military, AF in particular, has a complex process called seek eagle, which is to certify the carriage and release of any kind of weapon off each kind of station on winged aircraft. So an ordinance has to be certified to come off each kind of pilon, with each kind of plane, with each kind of guidance system. On manned aircraft there is a human in the loop to arm or safe the weapon. That human intervention needs to be automated. Bombs are deliverable payloads. Nothing exists for positive controls for weapons safing. The military has a real risk of trying to ; one unitifes standard for wepons payloads and safing for unmanned aircraft.

12 The ASTM F38.02 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 - Ground
Taxi SAE ARP693, AIR1589, AIR4096 (FOD), ARP5898 Takeoff SAE AIR852, AS8044, AIR4096. ARP4104 Landing SAE ARP1070, AIR1739, ARP181, ARP4102, AIR4243, ARP69 Airports UA Accommodation at Alternates-none; 14 CFR 139; SAE ARP5910, AIR1845, AIR5387, ARP4084, AIR1335 AGE SAE AIR1247, AIR1375, AIR4286, AS4852, AS5488 Again, the global hawk shows up on your runway unannounced. How to shut the engine down, where the tow bar is, etc. Aerospace Ground Equipment If found, call this number, please return to. As far of auto takeoff and landing procedures; they are being designed, but there is no standards.

13 The ASTM F38.03 Standards Roadmap: Level 1 - Qualifications
Crew Qualifications Crew Maintainers Special Pilots Operators Schools Human Factors A&P Mechanics General Commercial F38.03. Ties into FAA part 61 which establishes qualifications for people who fly and maintain aircraft. This is important.

14 The ASTM F38.03 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 – Crew, Maintainer, Special
Pilots 14 CFR Part 61, 67; F2635 Standard Classification for Unmanned Aircraft Pilot Certification Non-Pilot Aircrew 14 CFR 63, 65, 67 Schools 14 CFR 141, 142; SAE ARP5453 Human Factors SAE ARP4033, ARP4107 (HF Glossary), (SAE G-10 works) Maintainer A&P Mechanics JI8152 (in work) Schools 14 CFR 147; JI8152 (in work) Human Factors (SAE G-13 works) General 14 CFR 43; F Standard Practice for Maintenance and Development of Maintenance Manuals for Light UAS What qualifications can be added or relaxed under part 61 and 67 as we go towards unmanned aircraft (or the pilot sitting in the van). What would be the standards for operating and aviation school…. Special Commercial Operators 14 CFR 119, 121, 133, 137

15 The ASTM F38 Standards Roadmap: General
CASA UA25 Australian regulation for certification and operation of unmanned aircraft; MIL-HDBK 516; ASTM F Recommended Practices for Unmanned Aircraft System Airworthiness There are other countries like Australia, that have come up with rules for operating unmanned aircraft. There are some references in existence. F2501 goes across all of those operations: Operation, Certification, Airworthiness. HDBK 516 is the DoD AW Certification process.

16 The ASTM F38 Standards Roadmap: Findings – 5 Categories
Standards exists and explicitly written for UA ASTM F2411 Standard Specification for Design and Performance of an Airborne Sense-and-Avoid System, ASTM F2501 Recommended Practices for Unmanned Aircraft System Airworthiness, ASTM F2505 Practice for Application of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Aviation Regulations Part 21 Requirements to Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Standard exists and directly applicable to UA (“as is”) ASTM D910 Specification for Aviation Gasolines Standard exists and applicable to UA (aviation qualified), but focused elsewhere SAE AIR4911, video interface for entertainment vice reconnaissance systems “The purpose of this document is to establish the requirements for sensor/video interconnect subsystems. These requirements have been driven predominantly, but not exclusively, by aerospace-type military platforms and commercial aircraft. These requirements are intended to be used as the criteria to establish a sensor/video interconnection standard that will foster the development of common hardware to simplify the total interconnectivity of future avionics platforms.” Standard exists on topic, but indirectly applicable to UA (“thread”) IEC 61427:1999, photovoltaic (solar) cells No suitable standard exists UA (none) vice aircraft carrier (MIL-STD 331) catapults Extracting lessons learned through the outline. You can put them into these five buckets. The key areas being those that exist specifically for UAS, those that exist but need to be made relevant. A “thread” is when there is a standard on the topic, but not written for aviation. In the SAE AIR4911 – this is written for entertainment purposes, but is looking for aplication in UAVs.

17 The ASTM F38 Standards Roadmap: Conclusions & Action
Many UAS relevant topics covered in existing standards. Documentation gap for airworthiness now covered in F2501, incorporating over 300 standards. F38 recognizes these existing standards, and focuses on addressing identified gaps now and in the future. Subcommittees and lead writers assigned to address the identified ‘gaps’ in UAS standards. Best Practices draft standards be structured along same lines as briefing and expanded/updated to identify such gaps in standards. New F38 members sought with expertise directly applicable to these gaps.

18 ASTM International Committee F38 on Unmanned Aircraft Systems
Daniel A. Schultz ASTM International Director, Committee Services 100 Barr Harbor Drive W. Conshohocken, PA USA


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