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© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. F38 – UAS Standards Gap Analysis Gap Analysis Lead Author: F38 Member Laurence Newcome
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. Supplement - Gap Analysis in Detail Recalling Subcommittee Structure: F38.01 Airworthiness Standards F38.02 Operations Standards F38.03 Pilot & Maintenance Qualifications The Gap Analysis Will provide guidance for standards bodies and user groups engaged in developing or adopting standards governing unmanned aircraft system design, manufacture, test, training, operation, and maintenance preclude duplicating existing standards already applicable to unmanned aviation identify gaps in standards coverage unique to needs of unmanned aviation Roadmap Key: ASTM F38 standards in progress - in orange ASTM approved standards – in yellow Outstanding needs – in red
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. Crew Qualifications Airframe MaintainersCrew Materials Structures Landing Gear Launch Devices Maintenance Environmental General Reciprocating Turbine Generators Launch Devices Fuels General Electric Pilot Non-Pilot Schools Human Factors - Batteries - Solar - Radioisotope - Certificates - Ratings ASTM WK5423 Certificates and Ratings Issued for UAV Pilots and Operators The ASTM F38 Standards Roadmap: WBS Example Format UAS Operations Airframe Power PlantGround Materials Structures Landing Gear Launch Devices Maintenance Environmental General Reciprocating Turbine Generators Launch Devices Fuels General Electric Taxi Takeoff Landings - Batteries - Solar - Radioisotope - GSE ASTM Airworthiness Level 2 AirframePower PlantAvionics Materials Structures Landing Gear Launch Devices Maintenance Environmental General Reciprocating Turbine Generators Launch Devices Fuels General Electric Comm/NAV Data Links General Safety /SA Level 3 Level 4 - Batteries - Solar - Radioisotope - De-Anti-Icing - Transponders - See & Avoid Level 5 ASTM F Standard Specification for Design & Performance UAS Airborne Sense and Avoid System
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. Airworthiness Level 2 AirframePower PlantAvionics Materials Structures Landing Gear Launch Devices Maintenance Environmental General Reciprocating Turbine Generators Launch Devices Fuels General Electric Comm/NAV Data Links General Safety /SA Level 3 Level 4 - Batteries - Solar - Radioisotope - De-Anti-Icing - Transponders - See & Avoid Level 5 ASTM F Standard Specification for Design & Performance UAS Airborne Sense and Avoid System The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap: Level 1 - Airworthiness
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. Materials…………………………..MIL HDBK 5 (metals), 17 (composites) Structures…………………………MIL-HDBK 1530; MIL-STD 403A Landing Gear…………………….JIS W2502; FAA TSO-C62d; MIL-T-504; SAE ARP1493A Wheels/Brakes/Skid Control ARP1595A, ARP1907A, ARP813B, SAE ARP1311B, Gears/Struts/ Couplings ARP1598AAIR1494A, AIR4566, SAE AIR5487, AS1188 Tires Launch Devices…………………. ASTM F2585 Standard Specification for the Design and Performance of a Pneumatic UAS Launch System Recovery Devices………………. WK15881 Specification for Design and Performance of UAS Recovery Systems Environmental……………………(see next chart) RTCA DO-160C, External MIL HDBK 237 Internal (Onboard) General…………………………….14 CFR 21, 23, 25, 27, 29; ASTM F Standard Practices for Unmanned Aircraft System Airworthiness, ASTM F2501 Recommended Practices for Unmanned Aircraft System Airworthiness The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 – AIRFRAME (under Level 1 Airworthiness)
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. GeneralSAE ARP147E (terminology), ARP780B (symbols) External Altitude (TPH)MIL-STD 202, 810; RTCA DO-160; NEBS GR-63-CORE De-icing/Anti-icing(see Avionics/Safety; SAE AC-9C work) Rain, ice, lightning, etc.SAE AIR1168/4, ARP 5577; MIL-STD 810; RTCA DO-160 Salt, fog, dust, etc.MIL-STD 820; ASTM B117 Practice for Operating Salt Spray (Fog) Apparatus FungusASTM D120 Specification for Rubber Insulating Gloves, D470 Method for Crosslinked Insulations and Jackets for Wire and Cable, D518 Method for Rubber Deterioration- Surface Cracking; MIL-STD 810; RTCA DO-160 EMI, HERO, etc.MIL-STD 461D, 646; SAE ARP1972, ARP5583, ARP5889 Solar weatherJEDEC JESD-89 Internal (Onboard) TemperatureSAE AIR64B, AIR89D, AIR1277B, AS8040A PressureSAE AIR1168/7 HumiditySAE AIR1609A, ARP987A Shock/Vibration/AccelMIL-STD 167, 202, 331 (catapult/arrested landing), 810 AcousticSAE AIR1826 The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap: Level 3/4/5/6 - Environmental
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. Reciprocating Engines14 CFR 33, 34, 36; SAE AS25109, AS1B, ASTM WK9561 Design and Manufacture of Compression Ignition Engines for Unmanned Aircraft System Propellers 14 CFR 35; SAE ARP355, AS107, AIR1872 Turbines14 CFR 35, 34, 36; SAE ARP748A, AIR1872, ASTM WK9560 Practice for Design and Manufacture of Turbine Engines for Unmanned Aircraft System Electric BatteriesIEC Std 952-1; MIL-B-8565; IEC 21/466/CD Solar (Photovoltaic)IEC 61427:1999 RadioisotopeSAE AIR1213 Generators/StartersSAE AS13 FuelsASTM D910 Specification for Aviation Gasolines, D1655 Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels Systems/InstrumentsSAE AIR1408, AS407, AS431, AR1326 TanksSAE AIR4069A, AS5502A, AMSS8802B General(SAE E-25 works); MIL-STD-8879c The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 - Powerplants
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. Comm/NavRTCA DO-187, DO-208, DO-278 Computers(SAE AS-2 works) Safety/Sit. AwareMIL-STD 882 Sense & AvoidASTM F Standard Specification for Design and Performance of an Airborne Sense-and-Avoid System, RTCA DO-268 Anti-icing/DeicingSAE AS5498, AIR 4367 TranspondersFAA TSO LinksSecurity-none; NATO STANAG 4586; RTCA DO-254; SAE ARP4791 SoftwareRTCA DO-178B General(SAE AS-1 works); ARINC 429 (analog) and 629 (digital) The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 - Avionics
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. The ASTM F38.02 Standards Roadmap: Level 1 - Operations UAS Operations GeneralFlightGround Terminology Symbology VFR IFR Payloads Taxi Takeoff Landings
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. TerminologyASTM F Terminology for Unmanned Air Vehicle Systems, AIAA R SymbologySAE ARP4155, ARP5289 The ASTM F38.02 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 - General
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. VFR14 CFR 91, ASTM WK3135 Guide for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Authorization, WK10504 Practice for Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Visual Range Flight Operations IFR14 CFR 91, 95, ASTM WK3135 Guide for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Authorization PayloadsUniversal Interface; IEEE-1394b; SAE AS5609 SAE AS8039 Data RecordersSAE AS8039 Returnable SensorsSAE AIR4911, AS1212 (SWAP), AIR1277 (SWAP) Relay/ Broadcast EqmtSAE J1113/28, J551/4, ARP5583 (HIRF) Deliverable14 CFR 91 WeaponsPositive Control, Weapon Safing: SAE AIR5532 CargoSAE AS1325, AS5385, ARP1409, AS25959 Aerial Refueling SAE ARP1665, AS1284 Business Aviation PracticesWK13989 Mini-UAS, Visual Range Operators The ASTM F38.02 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 - Flight
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. TaxiSAE ARP693, AIR1589, AIR4096 (FOD), ARP5898 TakeoffSAE AIR852, AS8044, AIR4096. ARP4104 LandingSAE ARP1070, AIR1739, ARP181, ARP4102, AIR4243, ARP69 AirportsUA Accommodation at Alternates-none; 14 CFR 139; SAE ARP5910, AIR1845, AIR5387, ARP4084, AIR1335 AGESAE AIR1247, AIR1375, AIR4286, AS4852, AS5488 The ASTM F38.02 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 - Ground
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. The ASTM F38.03 Standards Roadmap: Level 1 - Qualifications Crew Qualifications CrewMaintainersSpecial Pilots Operators Schools Human Factors A&P Mechanics Schools Human Factors General Commercial
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. Pilots14 CFR Part 61, 67; F2635 Standard Classification for Unmanned Aircraft Pilot Certification Non-Pilot Aircrew14 CFR 63, 65, 67 Schools14 CFR 141, 142; SAE ARP5453 Human FactorsSAE ARP4033, ARP4107 (HF Glossary), (SAE G-10 works) The ASTM F38.03 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 – Crew, Maintainer, Special A&P Mechanics JI8152 (in work) Schools14 CFR 147; JI8152 (in work) Human Factors(SAE G-13 works) General14 CFR 43; F Standard Practice for Maintenance and Development of Maintenance Manuals for Light UAS Commercial Operators14 CFR 119, 121, 133, 137 Crew Special Maintainer
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. CASA UA25Australian regulation for certification and operation of unmanned aircraft; MIL-HDBK 516; ASTM F2501 Recommended Practices for Unmanned Aircraft System Airworthiness The ASTM F38 Standards Roadmap: General
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. Standards exists and explicitly written for UA ASTM F2411 Standard Specification for Design and Performance of an Airborne Sense-and- Avoid System, ASTM F2501 Recommended Practices for Unmanned Aircraft System Airworthiness, ASTM F2505 Practice for Application of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Aviation Regulations Part 21 Requirements to Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Standard exists and directly applicable to UA (as is) ASTM D910 Specification for Aviation Gasolines Standard exists and applicable to UA (aviation qualified), but focused elsewhere SAE AIR4911, video interface for entertainment vice reconnaissance systems The purpose of this document is to establish the requirements for sensor/video interconnect subsystems. These requirements have been driven predominantly, but not exclusively, by aerospace-type military platforms and commercial aircraft. These requirements are intended to be used as the criteria to establish a sensor/video interconnection standard that will foster the development of common hardware to simplify the total interconnectivity of future avionics platforms. Standard exists on topic, but indirectly applicable to UA (thread) IEC 61427:1999, photovoltaic (solar) cells No suitable standard exists UA (none) vice aircraft carrier (MIL-STD 331) catapults The ASTM F38 Standards Roadmap: Findings – 5 Categories
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. Many UAS relevant topics covered in existing standards. Documentation gap for airworthiness now covered in F2501, incorporating over 300 standards. F38 recognizes these existing standards, and focuses on addressing identified gaps now and in the future. Subcommittees and lead writers assigned to address the identified gaps in UAS standards. Best Practices draft standards be structured along same lines as briefing and expanded/updated to identify such gaps in standards. New F38 members sought with expertise directly applicable to these gaps. The ASTM F38 Standards Roadmap: Conclusions & Action
© ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. ASTM International Committee F38 on Unmanned Aircraft Systems Daniel A. Schultz ASTM International Director, Committee Services Barr Harbor Drive W. Conshohocken, PA USA
AUVSI Unmanned Systems NA 2007 / Washington, DC © ASTM International. All Rights Reserved. Accessing the Airspace Using ASTM International Standards AUVSI.
We all have to start somewhere.. …is to be the foremost developer and provider of consensus standards, related technical information, and services having.
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