Presentation on theme: "F38 – UAS Standards Gap Analysis"— Presentation transcript:
1F38 – UAS Standards Gap Analysis Gap Analysis Lead Author: F38 Member Laurence Newcome
2Supplement - Gap Analysis in Detail Recalling Subcommittee Structure:F38.01 Airworthiness StandardsF38.02 Operations StandardsF38.03 Pilot & Maintenance QualificationsThe Gap Analysis Willprovide guidance for standards bodies and user groups engaged in developing or adopting standards governing unmanned aircraft system design, manufacture, test, training, operation, and maintenancepreclude duplicating existing standards already applicable to unmanned aviationidentify gaps in standards coverage unique to needs of unmanned aviationRoadmap Key: ASTM F38 standards in progress - in orangeASTM approved standards – in yellowOutstanding needs – in redMember participation from around the world is what makes ASTM a truly international standards development organization. ASTM opens its doors to all interested individuals and organizations from around the globe that want to participate in the Society's consensus process for standards development. This process ensures that all interested parties have an equal vote in determining a standard's content. ASTM's enduring philosophy of consensus without borders helps make ASTM responsive and relevant to the needs of the global marketplace. As a result, more than 40 percent of ASTM's standards are sold outside the United States.
3The ASTM F38 Standards Roadmap: WBS Example Format Crew QualificationsAirframeMaintainersCrewMaterialsStructuresLanding GearLaunch DevicesMaintenanceEnvironmentalGeneralReciprocatingTurbineGeneratorsFuelsElectricPilotNon-PilotSchoolsHuman Factors- Batteries- Solar- Radioisotope- Certificates- RatingsASTM WK5423 Certificates and Ratings Issued for UAV Pilots and OperatorsUAS OperationsAirframePower PlantGroundMaterialsStructuresLanding GearLaunch DevicesMaintenanceEnvironmentalGeneralReciprocatingTurbineGeneratorsFuelsElectricTaxiTakeoffLandings- Batteries- Solar- Radioisotope- GSEASTMAirworthinessLevel 2AirframePower PlantAvionicsMaterialsStructuresLanding GearLaunch DevicesMaintenanceEnvironmentalGeneralReciprocatingTurbineGeneratorsFuelsElectricComm/NAVData LinksSafety /SALevel 3Level 4- Batteries- Solar- Radioisotope- De-Anti-Icing- Transponders- See & AvoidLevel 5ASTM F Standard Specification for Design & Performance UAS Airborne Sense and Avoid SystemReference to Dewey decimal standards. Independent of existing standards.You have level one, representing the three subs of F38.Avionics is one of six categories under AW…so on.Level 5 is the actual standard productThe standard will always be the last level; there may be some more general standards above it, though.
4The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap: Level 1 - Airworthiness AirframePower PlantAvionicsMaterialsStructuresLanding GearLaunch DevicesMaintenanceEnvironmentalGeneralReciprocatingTurbineGeneratorsFuelsElectricComm/NAVData LinksSafety /SALevel 3Level 4- Batteries- Solar- Radioisotope- De-Anti-Icing- Transponders- See & AvoidLevel 5ASTM F Standard Specification for Design & Performance UAS Airborne Sense and Avoid SystemReference to Dewey decimal standards. Independent of existing standards.You have level one, representing the three subs of F38.Avionics is one of six categories under AW…so on.Level 5 is the actual standard productThe standard will always be the last level; there may be some more general standards above it, though.
5The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 – AIRFRAME (under Level 1 Airworthiness) Materials…………………………..MIL HDBK 5 (metals), 17 (composites)Structures…………………………MIL-HDBK 1530; MIL-STD 403ALanding Gear…………………….JIS W2502; FAA TSO-C62d; MIL-T-504; SAE ARP1493A Wheels/Brakes/Skid Control ARP1595A, ARP1907A, ARP813B, SAE ARP1311B, Gears/Struts/ Couplings ARP1598AAIR1494A, AIR4566, SAE AIR5487, AS1188 TiresLaunch Devices…………………. ASTM F2585 Standard Specification for the Design and Performance of a Pneumatic UAS Launch SystemRecovery Devices………………. WK15881 Specification for Design and Performance of UAS Recovery SystemsEnvironmental……………………(see next chart) RTCA DO-160C,External MIL HDBK 237Internal (Onboard)General…………………………….14 CFR 21, 23, 25, 27, 29; ASTM F StandardPractices for Unmanned Aircraft System Airworthiness, ASTM F2501 Recommended Practices for Unmanned Aircraft System AirworthinessFirst, recognize the list is not all-inclusive. The intent was to find the leading resources, those most significant. Other references can be detailed at an individual task level.These are the industry recognized guidance materials that are used in manned and unmanned ways of doing business from design to flight.A first example of plugging the gap, is the catapult system. The first step is to get these aircraft flying, and there was no safe and standardized means by which to do it. Our membership has worked with all the manufactures in this niche market for pneumatic and hydraulic and bungee catapults (Robinics out of Finland, for example, is one of the lead companies). We go directly to industry, and our input is international in scope.Arresting gear is another one of the niche areas identified that needs to be addressee. Hunter and Shadow for example have portable arresting gear – very small market; use by a hundred or so models. Important to get. What they use on aircraft carriers are very complicated and steam-driven systems. We want a simplified, wide-market application to expedite growth and proliferate safe operation in recoveries. “If you can carry an aircraft carrier arresting gear around with you in a truck, then yes, we’re done!”General: there are two very different markets. You have the RC/mini industry that has their very finite aw issues. It draws the line between recreation or sport UAV and professional.
6The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap: Level 3/4/5/6 - Environmental General SAE ARP147E (terminology), ARP780B (symbols)ExternalAltitude (TPH) MIL-STD 202, 810; RTCA DO-160; NEBS GR-63-COREDe-icing/Anti-icing (see Avionics/Safety; SAE AC-9C work)Rain, ice, lightning, etc. SAE AIR1168/4, ARP 5577; MIL-STD 810; RTCA DO-160Salt, fog, dust, etc. MIL-STD 820; ASTM B117 Practice for Operating Salt Spray (Fog) ApparatusFungus ASTM D120 Specification for Rubber Insulating Gloves, D470 Method for Crosslinked Insulations and Jackets for Wire and Cable, D518 Method for Rubber Deterioration- Surface Cracking; MIL-STD 810; RTCA DO-160EMI, HERO, etc. MIL-STD 461D, 646; SAE ARP1972, ARP5583, ARP5889Solar weather JEDEC JESD-89Internal (Onboard)Temperature SAE AIR64B, AIR89D, AIR1277B, AS8040APressure SAE AIR1168/7Humidity SAE AIR1609A, ARP987AShock/Vibration/Accel MIL-STD 167, 202, 331 (catapult/arrested landing), 810Acoustic SAE AIR1826Take Environmental and walk it down to levels and six – one time boring down to more detail to show just how complicated this is. This represents the depth of detail in F2501.A great perspective is looking at solar weather for UAVs. Issues like the aurora can disrupt communications; airliners fly below it. But we looked at it as a consideration for HALE aircraft.TPH (Temperature Pressure and Humidity).
7The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 - Powerplants Reciprocating Engines 14 CFR 33, 34, 36; SAE AS25109, AS1B, ASTM WK9561 Design and Manufacture of Compression Ignition Engines for Unmanned Aircraft SystemPropellers CFR 35; SAE ARP355, AS107, AIR1872Turbines 14 CFR 35, 34, 36; SAE ARP748A, AIR1872, ASTM WK9560 Practice for Design and Manufacture of Turbine Engines for Unmanned Aircraft SystemElectricBatteries IEC Std 952-1; MIL-B-8565; IEC 21/466/CDSolar (Photovoltaic) IEC 61427:1999Radioisotope SAE AIR1213Generators/Starters SAE AS13Fuels ASTM D910 Specification for Aviation Gasolines, D1655 Specification for Aviation Turbine FuelsSystems/Instruments SAE AIR1408, AS407, AS431, AR1326Tanks SAE AIR4069A, AS5502A, AMSS8802BGeneral (SAE E-25 works); MIL-STD-8879cAgain, drilling down, where Reciprocating Engines is level 3 and propellers are level 4.Like with engines, the work product preceded the mapping. But the point here is that a niche need is identified, where UAV-specific criteria need to be identified. GOOD POINT: where a higher level standard exists on a topic, F38 will never duplicate or create conflicting information. They will move from that into more specifics as may be needed to suit UAVs.SAE E25 are a very strong committee on standards for aviation engines; we are always reviewing their portfolio for reference.Arresting gear – very large; volleyball nets used for lack of standard.
8The ASTM F38.01 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 - Avionics Comm/Nav RTCA DO-187, DO-208, DO-278Computers (SAE AS-2 works)Safety/Sit. Aware MIL-STD 882Sense & Avoid ASTM F Standard Specification for Design and Performance of an Airborne Sense-and-Avoid System, RTCA DO-268Anti-icing/Deicing SAE AS5498, AIR 4367Transponders FAA TSOLinks Security-none; NATO STANAG 4586; RTCA DO-254; SAE ARP4791Software RTCA DO-178BGeneral (SAE AS-1 works); ARINC 429 (analog) and 629 (digital)The major lacking point, anywhere, is an actual common avoidance algorithm for the see and avoid industry. Since a collision in 1986 in LAX, there has been no US-based collision. It spurred industry to model and improve safety. But then liability interrupted. If a collision occurred with a given company’s algorithm, then they would be liable. So the FAA assumed ownership of the common avoidance algorithm; they have the liability for it. With that coverage, the companies came out and used the same common baseline. There will likely have to be another FAA S&A algorithm. That will be the next step, and the result of national airspace modeling (which D0D has started)RTCA DO 268 actually contains the TCASLinks – Data link security has no standards (at least in the unclassified world) of ensuring that you and only you can talk to your plane over a datalink. Making it hacker-proof. The WK is not addressing the security issue. It does look at the requirements covering the design and performance of UAV data link systems. This specification includes requirements to provide radio frequency (RF) links capable of transmitting data for command and control of the air vehicle, payload data and other data between the air vehicle and control station.Found no standard for the reliability of datalink secrutigy. NSA may have some, but we don’t.
9The ASTM F38.02 Standards Roadmap: Level 1 - Operations UAS OperationsGeneralFlightGroundTerminologySymbologyVFRIFRPayloadsTaxiTakeoffLandingsGetting away from the hardware-oriented standards now, and moving more into operations. These area regarding how you talk about and operate your UAV.What is unique to this industry, is ground and taxi. For example, UAVs like globalhawk had to emergency land on a runway that was not the intended runway. It calls the tower and says “I’ll be there in 5 minutes.” Now, what do you do with the lump of aircraft sitting on your runway. Perhaps some kind of switching and directions in the form of placards, etc. How do you smart operate. See and avoid will have to grow to also include ground equipment avoidance, tying it into throttle and brakes as well as maneuvering.
10The ASTM F38.02 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 - General Terminology ASTM F Terminology for Unmanned Air Vehicle Systems, AIAA RSymbology SAE ARP4155, ARP5289Standardizing symbols used on placards and charts, etc
11The ASTM F38.02 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 - Flight VFR CFR 91, ASTM WK3135 Guide for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Authorization, WK10504 Practice for Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Visual Range Flight OperationsIFR CFR 91, 95, ASTM WK3135 Guide for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight AuthorizationPayloads Universal Interface; IEEE-1394b; SAE AS5609 SAE AS8039Data Recorders SAE AS8039ReturnableSensors SAE AIR4911, AS1212 (SWAP), AIR1277 (SWAP)Relay/ Broadcast Eqmt SAE J1113/28, J551/4, ARP5583 (HIRF)Deliverable 14 CFR 91Weapons Positive Control, Weapon Safing: SAE AIR5532Cargo SAE AS1325, AS5385, ARP1409, AS25959Aerial Refueling SAE ARP1665, AS1284Business Aviation Practices WK13989 Mini-UAS, Visual Range OperatorsASTM efforts is focusing on what the UASs need for flight, more specifically.Needed items being pushed by DoD. Universal interface refers to a multipurpose type of adapters, rack sizes, connectors, flanges for swapping out and installing different payloads.Weapons: General Atomics has the lead there. RTCA is not chartered or covering this area. The military, AF in particular, has a complex process called seek eagle, which is to certify the carriage and release of any kind of weapon off each kind of station on winged aircraft. So an ordinance has to be certified to come off each kind of pilon, with each kind of plane, with each kind of guidance system. On manned aircraft there is a human in the loop to arm or safe the weapon. That human intervention needs to be automated.Bombs are deliverable payloads. Nothing exists for positive controls for weapons safing. The military has a real risk of trying to ; one unitifes standard for wepons payloads and safing for unmanned aircraft.
12The ASTM F38.02 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 - Ground Taxi SAE ARP693, AIR1589, AIR4096 (FOD), ARP5898Takeoff SAE AIR852, AS8044, AIR4096. ARP4104Landing SAE ARP1070, AIR1739, ARP181, ARP4102, AIR4243, ARP69Airports UA Accommodation at Alternates-none; 14 CFR 139; SAE ARP5910, AIR1845, AIR5387, ARP4084, AIR1335AGE SAE AIR1247, AIR1375, AIR4286, AS4852, AS5488Again, the global hawk shows up on your runway unannounced. How to shut the engine down, where the tow bar is, etc.Aerospace Ground EquipmentIf found, call this number, please return to. As far of auto takeoff and landing procedures; they are being designed, but there is no standards.
13The ASTM F38.03 Standards Roadmap: Level 1 - Qualifications Crew QualificationsCrewMaintainersSpecialPilotsOperatorsSchoolsHuman FactorsA&P MechanicsGeneralCommercialF38.03.Ties into FAA part 61 which establishes qualifications for people who fly and maintain aircraft. This is important.
14The ASTM F38.03 Standards Roadmap: Level 2 – Crew, Maintainer, Special Pilots 14 CFR Part 61, 67; F2635 Standard Classification for Unmanned Aircraft Pilot CertificationNon-Pilot Aircrew 14 CFR 63, 65, 67Schools 14 CFR 141, 142; SAE ARP5453Human Factors SAE ARP4033, ARP4107 (HF Glossary), (SAE G-10 works)MaintainerA&P Mechanics JI8152 (in work)Schools 14 CFR 147; JI8152 (in work)Human Factors (SAE G-13 works)General 14 CFR 43; F Standard Practice for Maintenance and Development of Maintenance Manuals for Light UASWhat qualifications can be added or relaxed under part 61 and 67 as we go towards unmanned aircraft (or the pilot sitting in the van).What would be the standards for operating and aviation school….SpecialCommercial Operators 14 CFR 119, 121, 133, 137
15The ASTM F38 Standards Roadmap: General CASA UA25 Australian regulation for certification and operation of unmanned aircraft; MIL-HDBK 516; ASTM F Recommended Practices for Unmanned Aircraft System AirworthinessThere are other countries like Australia, that have come up with rules for operating unmanned aircraft. There are some references in existence. F2501 goes across all of those operations: Operation, Certification, Airworthiness.HDBK 516 is the DoD AW Certification process.
16The ASTM F38 Standards Roadmap: Findings – 5 Categories Standards exists and explicitly written for UAASTM F2411 Standard Specification for Design and Performance of an Airborne Sense-and-Avoid System, ASTM F2501 Recommended Practices for Unmanned Aircraft System Airworthiness, ASTM F2505 Practice for Application of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Federal Aviation Regulations Part 21 Requirements to Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)Standard exists and directly applicable to UA (“as is”)ASTM D910 Specification for Aviation GasolinesStandard exists and applicable to UA (aviation qualified), but focused elsewhereSAE AIR4911, video interface for entertainment vice reconnaissance systems “The purpose of this document is to establish the requirements for sensor/video interconnect subsystems. These requirements have been driven predominantly, but not exclusively, by aerospace-type military platforms and commercial aircraft. These requirements are intended to be used as the criteria to establish a sensor/video interconnection standard that will foster the development of common hardware to simplify the total interconnectivity of future avionics platforms.”Standard exists on topic, but indirectly applicable to UA (“thread”)IEC 61427:1999, photovoltaic (solar) cellsNo suitable standard existsUA (none) vice aircraft carrier (MIL-STD 331) catapultsExtracting lessons learned through the outline. You can put them into these five buckets. The key areas being those that exist specifically for UAS, those that exist but need to be made relevant.A “thread” is when there is a standard on the topic, but not written for aviation.In the SAE AIR4911 – this is written for entertainment purposes, but is looking for aplication in UAVs.
17The ASTM F38 Standards Roadmap: Conclusions & Action Many UAS relevant topics covered in existing standards.Documentation gap for airworthiness now covered in F2501, incorporating over 300 standards.F38 recognizes these existing standards, and focuses on addressing identified gaps now and in the future.Subcommittees and lead writers assigned to address the identified ‘gaps’ in UAS standards.Best Practices draft standards be structured along same lines as briefing and expanded/updated to identify such gaps in standards.New F38 members sought with expertise directly applicable to these gaps.
18ASTM International Committee F38 on Unmanned Aircraft Systems Daniel A. SchultzASTM InternationalDirector, Committee Services100 Barr Harbor DriveW. Conshohocken, PAUSA