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Peer Review and Publication in APS Journals Submission and ContentD. Benos Peer Review & Manuscript ProductionM. Reich Ethics D. Benos & M. Reich.

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Presentation on theme: "Peer Review and Publication in APS Journals Submission and ContentD. Benos Peer Review & Manuscript ProductionM. Reich Ethics D. Benos & M. Reich."— Presentation transcript:

1 Peer Review and Publication in APS Journals Submission and ContentD. Benos Peer Review & Manuscript ProductionM. Reich Ethics D. Benos & M. Reich

2 The Publications of the American Physiological Society

3 How to Write and Publish a Scientific Article for the APS Family of Journals the overall process the overall process elements of a journal article elements of a journal article the review process the review process the production process: (Margaret Reich) the production process: (Margaret Reich)

4 Process of Research COMPLETION OF RESEARCH PREPARATION OF MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION OF MANUSCRIPT ASSIGNMENT AND REVIEW DECISION REVISIONRESUBMISSIONRE-REVIEW ACCEPTANCEREJECTION PUBLICATION REJECTION

5 Getting a Paper Published 1. Competition for space in journals is intense. 2. Cost of publication is high, e.g., AJP cost per page is $360. e.g., AJP cost per page is $ Rejection rates vary among journals. - AJP = 50% - AJP = 50% - JBC = 65% - JBC = 65% - NEJM, Science, Nature = 90% - NEJM, Science, Nature = 90%

6 Journal Pages Published , , , , ,268

7 Major Reasons for a Paper Being Rejected 1.Inappropriate for the particular journal journal 2. Merely confirmatory 3. Describes poorly designed or constructed studies constructed studies 4. Poorly written

8 Tips 1. Know the journal, its editor, and why you submitted your paper there. submitted your paper there. 2. Pay close attention to spelling, grammar, and punctuation. and punctuation. 3. Make sure references are comprehensive and accurate. and accurate. 4. Avoid careless mistakes. 5. Read and conform to Instructions for Authors

9 Scientific Writing Should Be: Reader-BasedPurposefulAccurateClearConcisePreciseSimple and Contain: no invented words no laboratory jargon few, if any, abbreviations

10 SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION: Publishing a Paper 1.Readiness - what is the question (hypothesis) - did the experiments test it - were there secondary hypotheses - experimental design strengths & weaknesses - controls – appropriate and sufficient 2.Tables and Figures Finalized - clarify and solidify conclusions 3.Authorship Issues (Contributorship) - guidelines:design of investigation conduct of experiments interpreting results and developing conclusions writing, reviewing, and revising the paper providing intellectual environment

11 4.Ethics of Scientific Publication - animals – IACUC - humans – IRB - other 5.Choosing the Correct Journal (Instructions for Authors) 6.Relate Conclusions to the Existing Body of Knowledge 7.Logic SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION: Publishing a Paper (continued)

12 Essential Elements of a Journal Article 1. What is the rationale of a project? 2. What is the historical context of the work? 3. What audience are you targeting? - What journal (quality and prestige)? - What journal (quality and prestige)? 4. How do your findings relate to the existing body of knowledge? existing body of knowledge? 5. Conform to Instructions for Authors.

13 Use of Color In 2001, 1558 color figures were published; 903 were free to members at a subsidy of $225,750. In 2002, 2018 color figures were published; 1260 were free to members at a subsidy of $315,000.

14 Color Figures Use color only if scientifically warranted.

15 Examples of color images that are not scientifically necessary: that are not scientifically necessary:

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19 Examples of scientifically necessary color images Color photographs/photomicrographs:

20 MRI scans:

21 Instructions Found on APS Website

22 This document will take you through all the major steps of preparing your manuscript for submission to the American Physiological Society Journals, from how best to format and organize the paper itself, to how to create digital images suitable for print and web publication, to advice on how to present supplemental data files such as video clips and long tables. These instructions pertain to all of the American Journal of Physiology sections, as well as the Journal of Applied Physiology, the Journal of Neurophysiology, and Physiological Genomics. Advances in Physiology Education, News in Physiological Sciences (invited only), and Physiological Reviews (invited only) have specific instructions that you should review if you are submitting to them.Advances in Physiology EducationNews in Physiological Sciences Physiological Reviews Main Contents General Information Formatting and Composition Manuscript Sections Types of Articles Figures Tables Mathematical Equations and Modeling Data Supplements

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24 1.Importance of research question. 1.Originality of work. 1.Delineation of strengths and weaknesses of methodology / experimental / statistical approach / interpretation of results. 1.Writing style and figure/table presentation. 5. Ethical concerns (animal/human) Checklist for Reviews

25 1. Responsibility to Authors - obligated to treat author and manuscript with respect - provide honest assessment of the value of the research - maintain confidentiality about the manuscripts - resist the temptation to use the review as an opportunity to suggest that the reviewers own published work be referenced 2.Responsibility to Journals - reviewers responsibilities to journals fall into several categories: quality, timing of reviews, and avoidance of conflicts of interest Reviewer Responsibilities Modified from The Council of Science Editors

26 Ethical Issues in the Conduct of Scientific Research and Publishing

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28 Summary of APS Ethical Policies/Procedures Statement 1.Original Work 2.All authors made a scientific contribution 3.All authors have read manuscript, and are responsible for content 4.Change of Authorship 5.Conflict of Interest 6.Procedure

29 Ethical Responsibilities of a Scientist HonestyObjectivityFairness

30 Ethical Conduct of Research - Experimental Techniques - Data Analysis - Conflicts of Interest - Sharing of Research Materials

31 Authorship Responsibilities The manuscript is not currently under consideration elsewhere and the research reported will not be submitted for publication elsewhere until a final decision has been made as to its acceptability by the journal;The manuscript is not currently under consideration elsewhere and the research reported will not be submitted for publication elsewhere until a final decision has been made as to its acceptability by the journal; The manuscript is truthful, original work without fabrication, fraud, or plagiarism;The manuscript is truthful, original work without fabrication, fraud, or plagiarism; I have made an important scientific contribution to the study and am thoroughly familiar with the primary data; andI have made an important scientific contribution to the study and am thoroughly familiar with the primary data; and I have read the complete manuscript and take responsibility for the content and completeness of the manuscript and understand that if the paper, or part of the paper, is found to be faulty or fraudulent, I share responsibility.I have read the complete manuscript and take responsibility for the content and completeness of the manuscript and understand that if the paper, or part of the paper, is found to be faulty or fraudulent, I share responsibility.

32 Conflict of Interest Disclosure All funding sources supporting the work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of mine are acknowledged. Except as disclosed on a separate attachment, I certify that I have no commercial association (e.g., consultancies, stock, ownership, equity interests, patent-licensing arrangements) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article (letter attached).All funding sources supporting the work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of mine are acknowledged. Except as disclosed on a separate attachment, I certify that I have no commercial association (e.g., consultancies, stock, ownership, equity interests, patent-licensing arrangements) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article (letter attached).

33 Common Ethical Issues The Seven Deadly Sins 1.Duplicate Data (Data Fragmentation) (Data Fragmentation) 2.Data Manipulation 3.Duplicate Manuscripts 4.Plagiarism 5.Author Conflicts 6.Animal Use Concerns 7.Human Use Concerns

34 Prior Publication Any printed material describing the findings, methods, or results of a submitted/in press manuscript in excess of 400 words.Any printed material describing the findings, methods, or results of a submitted/in press manuscript in excess of 400 words. Any published tables or illustrations.Any published tables or illustrations. Videotapes of professional meetings distributed to the public/press describing data included in a manuscript submitted for publication/in press.Videotapes of professional meetings distributed to the public/press describing data included in a manuscript submitted for publication/in press. Electronic manuscript of posters available to the public and or general scientific community via the internet.Electronic manuscript of posters available to the public and or general scientific community via the internet.

35 Duplicate Publication - Refers to the re-publication of material that has been previously copyrighted that has been previously copyrighted

36 Redundant Publication - Refers to the publication of copyrighted material with additional new or material with additional new or unpublished data unpublished data

37 INTEGRITY OF A SCIENTIST 1.Intellectual honesty 2.Accurate assignment of credit 3.Fairness in peer review 4.Collegiality in scientific interactions 5.Transparency in conflicts of interest 6.Protection of human subjects in the conduct of research 7.Humane care and treatment of animals 8.Adherence to mutual responsibility within and between research teams

38 Manuscript Peer Review and Production Margaret Reich APS Director of Publications


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