3 Direct method Complete birth history for every woman of reproductive age (15-49 years) Women are asked to report for each live birth the date of birth and, if the child has died, the age at death Can directly estimate child mortality rate for defined time periods before the survey
Measures of mortality in early life Infant mortality rate (IMR) Neonatal mortality rate (NNMR)Neonatal mortality rate (NNMR) Post-neonatal mortality rate (PNNMR)Post-neonatal mortality rate (PNNMR) Under-five mortality rate (U5MR)
Direct method Relies heavily on the quality of information collected Work best in populations where dates and durations are well-known MICS4 Survey Design Workshop
Sources of errors Omission of births and deaths Recall bias: –Misreporting of age at death (age heaping at 12 months is common) –Birth misplacement MICS4 Survey Design Workshop
7 Sources of errors Selection bias –Interview only women alive at the time of survey (also applies to indirect method) Information bias –Incorrectly recall stillbirth vs. live birth or vice versa (also applies to indirect method)
8 Sources of errors Length of instrument –Longer fieldworker training needed –Careful monitoring of data collection needed
Estimates from direct method Table CM.1: Early childhood mortality rates Neonatal, post-neonatal, Infant, child and under-five mortality rates for five year periods preceding the survey, (Total) Neonatal mortality rate  Post- neonatal mortality rate  Infant mortality rate  Child mortality rate  Under five mortality rate  Periods of analysis of 5 years 0-444.5618.5563.1156.89116.41 5-942.1529.7971.9467.88134.94 10-1447.8833.3681.2472.69148.03 15-1951.3137.1588.4692.03172.35 20-2451.5240.7192.2392.63176.32 MICS4 Survey Design Workshop
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