Presentation on theme: "8 th OECD International Trade Statistics Expert Meeting 17-19 September 2007 Changes in the 1993 SNA Rev. 1 Goods for processing Merchanting Charles Aspden,"— Presentation transcript:
8 th OECD International Trade Statistics Expert Meeting September 2007 Changes in the 1993 SNA Rev. 1 Goods for processing Merchanting Charles Aspden, OECD
Goods sent abroad for processing In the 1993 SNA the principle of recording transactions on a change of ownership basis is breached in some cases, but not others. When goods are sent from a unit in country A to a unit in country B for processing and returned to the same unit in A then a change of ownership is imputed, unless the unit in B is an unincorporated subsidiary of A or a direct investment enterprise of A.
Goods sent domestically for processing In general, there is no imputation of a change of ownership when goods are sent for processing to another unit in the same economy, but if the two units belong to the same enterprise then a change of ownership is imputed. Hence, the domestic and international conventions are the exact opposites of each other.
Goods for processing AEG members felt that it was best to have a consistent application of the change of ownership principle. Majority of countries expressed agreement on UNSD website.
Merchanting Merchanting is defined as the purchase of goods by a resident (of the compiling economy) from a non-resident combined with the subsequent resale of the goods to another non-resident without the goods being present in the compiling economy. In such cases a change of ownership is not recognised in the 1993 SNA and BPM5.
Merchanting But there are inconsistencies, e.g. if a merchant in country A (in the compiling economy) sells goods to another merchant in A without the goods entering country A then an import of goods is recorded. AEG agreed on strict application of change of ownership principle. Majority of countries agree.
Merchanting – an example A merchant in Singapore purchases goods from Thailand (producer) for 80 and resells them to the United States (consumer) for 100. The goods are shipped directly from Thailand to the United States. Singapore reports the gross figures and the net of 20 under exports of goods as merchanting. Thailand and the United States report exports of 80 and imports of 100 respectively.
Current recording Proposed recording Credit Debit Credit Debit Singapore Services (merchanting) 20 Goods (merchanting) -80 (exports) 100 (exports) 20 (net) Thailand Goods 80 United States Goods 100 Global balance Services (merchanting) 20 Goods Goods
Merchanting The output of merchanting is recorded in exactly the same way as domestic wholesaling or retailing. – If goods are acquired in one period and sold in another, they are recorded as changes in inventories of the merchant. – While the figures recorded in the BoP include holding gains and losses, the output of the merchant does not.