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Middle Ages Ch 13-14.

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Presentation on theme: "Middle Ages Ch 13-14."— Presentation transcript:

1 Middle Ages Ch 13-14

2 Break up of Western Roman Empire
Section 1 Break up of Western Roman Empire For hundreds of years, Europe is in shambles. Barbarian groups invade and take over Europe Franks, Visigoths, Ostrogoths Bring new customs and political patterns Age of Transition 400s to 1500 CE called the Middle Ages End of the Classical Period Beginning of the Modern World


4 The Franks Leave the most lasting impact in European History
Loosely organized Germanic tribes Clovis = King of one of the Frankish tribes, 481 CE Starts line of Merovingian leaders Able military leader Conquered and absorbed other Frankish tribes Controlled all of northern Gaul Christian, received support from the church Also began to seize and rule southwestern Gaul France When he died, kingdom split between his sons Kings that came afterwards were weak.

5 The Franks Pepin II – Ruled from 687 to 714 CE
“Mayor of the Palace” becomes real ruler over each kingdom, chief of royal household Pepin II – Ruled from 687 to 714 CE Him and successors united all Frankish Kingdoms. Charles “the Hammer” Martel, CE Defeated Spanish Moors Halted Muslim advance in western Europe But Muslim raids cont’d Son Pepin III (the Short) Co-rules after Charles death with brother Carolman

6 The Franks Pepin the Short overthrows last Merovingian ruler
Claims Frankish throne for himself 751 CE - Anointed king of the Franks Starts Carolingian rule of Frankish leaders Receives Pope’s confirmation Strengthens legitimacy of dynasty Pope’s blessing comes from God. Continues throughout history Obligation to the Church? Pope asks for help with Lombards Pepin defeats them, wins territory around Rome Donation of Pepin = Creates Papal States

7 Charlemagne’s Empire Charlemagne took over throne with Pepin the Shorts death Ruled from 768 – 814 CE Worked to build a “new Rome” Devout Christian Spreads Christian teachings Brought civilization, order and learning to Europe Spent much of his life at war Tried to conquer all of Muslim Spain (Moors) Failed, but forced them back across the Pyrenees Gained small strip of territory – “Spanish March” Creates a buffer zone between Muslims and Christians

8 Charlemagne’s Empire Pope Leo declared him “Emperor of the Romans”
Christmas Day, 800CE Title indicates his importance to western Europe United much of western Europe first time in 400 years Coronation shows close ties between Franks and Christian church Was conscious of his position Aimed to live up to image of a Roman emperor Skilled as a warrior Devotion to Christianity

9 Charlemagne’s Empire Government Empire divided into Regions
Governed by a Count – on Emperors behalf Used “oaths of fidelity” To ensure the Counts and other Carolingians officials ruled effectively Appointed officials who help run his empire Called “missi dominici “ or “the Lords messengers” Travel empire to hear complaints and investigate official misconduct Determine the effectiveness of laws Direct representatives of Charlemagne Power to make decisions

10 Charlemagne’s Empire Education He was not formally educated
But placed great value on education Started school at palace for his children & young nobles Studied grammar, rhetoric, logic, math, music, astronomy Based on Roman model Brought scholars together to produce a readable bible Ordered bishops to create libraries Could read, but not write. Encouraged/Forced people to convert to Christianity

11 Decline of the Frankish Empire
Empire did not survive Charlemagne’s death in 814 Louis the Pious, Charlemagne’s son rules after death Well educated, religious, but weak and short sided Died in 840 CE Empire divided between Louis’s sons Lothair (Middle), Charles the Bald (Western), and Louis the German (Eastern) Treaty became known as the Treaty of Verdun-843 CE Fought amongst themselves, empire collasped.

12 Decline of the Frankish Empire
By mid 800’s it began to divide and collapse Charlemagne's successors fought amongst themselves By 870 the middle kingdom divided between eastern and western kingdom Invasions of different people hindered the empire Muslims from Africa invaded the Mediterranean coast Slavs from the east raided central Europe Nomadic Magyars settled in what is now Hungary Terrorized Europe for about 50 years Vikings from Scandinavia No longer a large scale government By 900’s most of Europe was governed by small, local, independent leaders, or local lords. This is known as Feudalism

13 Rise of the Franks With Papal support Charlemagne inherited Frankish throne The Papal States were created. Pépin III was crowned; Carolingian rule began. Charles Martel defeated the Spanish Moors Pépin II and his successors united the Frankish kingdoms. Franks seized and ruled southwestern Gaul (now France) Clovis became ruler of Frankish tribes

14 Fill in the blank 1. The medieval period of European development is also known as the ___ _. 2. Pépin III’s coronation established the __, a new line of Frankish rulers. 3. A gift of land to the pope called the Donation of Pépin created the _ __. 4. Charlemagne’s “new Rome” centered on what is now _ __ and Germany. 5. Charlemagne appointed the _ _ , or “lord’s messengers” to help him govern the empire

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