2 Break up of Western Roman Empire Section 1Break up of Western Roman EmpireFor hundreds of years, Europe is in shambles.Barbarian groups invade and take over EuropeFranks, Visigoths, OstrogothsBring new customs and political patternsAge of Transition400s to 1500 CE called the Middle AgesEnd of the Classical PeriodBeginning of the Modern World
4 The Franks Leave the most lasting impact in European History Loosely organized Germanic tribesClovis = King of one of the Frankish tribes, 481 CEStarts line of Merovingian leadersAble military leaderConquered and absorbed other Frankish tribesControlled all of northern GaulChristian, received support from the churchAlso began to seize and rule southwestern GaulFranceWhen he died, kingdom split between his sonsKings that came afterwards were weak.
5 The Franks Pepin II – Ruled from 687 to 714 CE “Mayor of the Palace” becomes real ruler over each kingdom, chief of royal householdPepin II – Ruled from 687 to 714 CEHim and successors united all Frankish Kingdoms.Charles “the Hammer” Martel, CEDefeated Spanish MoorsHalted Muslim advance in western EuropeBut Muslim raids cont’dSon Pepin III (the Short)Co-rules after Charles death with brother Carolman
6 The Franks Pepin the Short overthrows last Merovingian ruler Claims Frankish throne for himself751 CE - Anointed king of the FranksStarts Carolingian rule of Frankish leadersReceives Pope’s confirmationStrengthens legitimacy of dynastyPope’s blessing comes from God.Continues throughout historyObligation to the Church?Pope asks for help with LombardsPepin defeats them, wins territory around RomeDonation of Pepin = Creates Papal States
7 Charlemagne’s EmpireCharlemagne took over throne with Pepin the Shorts deathRuled from 768 – 814 CEWorked to build a “new Rome”Devout ChristianSpreads Christian teachingsBrought civilization, order and learning to EuropeSpent much of his life at warTried to conquer all of Muslim Spain (Moors)Failed, but forced them back across the PyreneesGained small strip of territory – “Spanish March”Creates a buffer zone between Muslims and Christians
8 Charlemagne’s Empire Pope Leo declared him “Emperor of the Romans” Christmas Day, 800CETitle indicates his importance to western EuropeUnited much of western Europefirst time in 400 yearsCoronation shows close ties between Franks and Christian churchWas conscious of his positionAimed to live up to image of a Roman emperorSkilled as a warriorDevotion to Christianity
9 Charlemagne’s Empire Government Empire divided into Regions Governed by a Count – on Emperors behalfUsed “oaths of fidelity”To ensure the Counts and other Carolingians officials ruled effectivelyAppointed officials who help run his empireCalled “missi dominici “ or “the Lords messengers”Travel empire to hear complaints and investigate official misconductDetermine the effectiveness of lawsDirect representatives of CharlemagnePower to make decisions
10 Charlemagne’s Empire Education He was not formally educated But placed great value on educationStarted school at palace for his children & young noblesStudied grammar, rhetoric, logic, math, music, astronomyBased on Roman modelBrought scholars together to produce a readable bibleOrdered bishops to create librariesCould read, but not write.Encouraged/Forced people to convert to Christianity
11 Decline of the Frankish Empire Empire did not survive Charlemagne’s death in 814Louis the Pious, Charlemagne’s son rules after deathWell educated, religious, but weak and short sidedDied in 840 CEEmpire divided between Louis’s sonsLothair (Middle),Charles the Bald (Western), andLouis the German (Eastern)Treaty became known as the Treaty of Verdun-843 CEFought amongst themselves, empire collasped.
12 Decline of the Frankish Empire By mid 800’s it began to divide and collapseCharlemagne's successors fought amongst themselvesBy 870 the middle kingdom divided between eastern and western kingdomInvasions of different people hindered the empireMuslims from Africa invaded the Mediterranean coastSlavs from the east raided central EuropeNomadic Magyars settled in what is now HungaryTerrorized Europe for about 50 yearsVikings from ScandinaviaNo longer a large scale governmentBy 900’s most of Europe was governed by small, local, independent leaders, or local lords.This is known as Feudalism
13 Rise of the FranksWith Papal support Charlemagne inherited Frankish throneThe Papal States were created.Pépin III was crowned; Carolingian rule began.Charles Martel defeated the Spanish MoorsPépin II and his successors united the Frankish kingdoms.Franks seized and ruled southwestern Gaul (now France)Clovis became ruler of Frankish tribes
14 Fill in the blank1. The medieval period of European development is also known as the ___ _.2. Pépin III’s coronation established the __, a new line of Frankish rulers.3. A gift of land to the pope called the Donation of Pépin created the _ __.4. Charlemagne’s “new Rome” centered on what is now _ __ and Germany.5. Charlemagne appointed the _ _ , or “lord’s messengers” to help him govern the empire